ISSN: 1813-0410

Volume 14, Issue 1

Volume 14, Issue 1, Winter 2018, Page 1-424

The trends of modern scholars in the issue of influence and influence between the message of the disciples and the calamities and the message of forgiveness

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 1-6

This study tries to address the subject of the work of modern scholars and raised a wide debate among them, namely, the issue of influence and influence between the message of the disciples, the calamities and the forgiveness, and tried to detail the views and display them in an orderly manner by dividing them in special directions, and to show the evidence and arguments for each direction. Other new, or other support and bring it to mind

Strategies and tactics of political marketing

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 7-15

The emergence of political marketing has been associated with a combination of strategies and political, economic, technical, institutional and ideological factors which, in combination, have contributed to its progress and attention to at least a qualitative transfer in the field of political studies, which transforms it from theoretical studies to practical and interpretive studies. The political marketing will be a conventional business, and the United States has seen the first beginnings of the strategies and tactics of political marketing, and reached the highest levels of mastery. The concept of political marketing [as knowledge building] is relatively new to political science literature, somewhat immature, controversial and controversial in political circles. Most of the political marketing definitions available for political marketing are largely related to communicative activities [political communication and mass communication] , Which takes place between political entities: [political institutions, parties, or political candidates] on the one hand, and voters on the on the other hand

The Role of political Elites in post – 2003 Iraq

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 16-25

Elite played a major role in public life, in particular those With recipe political. In Iraq, it experienced by many of the political elites, which we are trying in this search finding role negatively and positively in the march of the Iraqi nation since its inception in 1920 at the hands of the first Kings Faisal II through the imperialistic epoch and the end of the property at the hands of the republicans, then the era of dictatorship which characterized the rule of Saddam Hussein, and the subsequent invasion of US, British and overthrew the regime, to produce us new situations did not-visioned never Iraqis, including in the political side, through the nascent democracy which Based on new elites mostly character sectarian and religious and nationalist.
Keywords: Role ,Elite, Politics, Iraq

Alsahyuniat Almasihiat Fi le nan 1975- 1978 Alealaqat

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 26-43

The Zioni Christian relations formed a new stage and phase during the civil war. The Zionists managed to build new and solid relations that were beginning through the commercial processes of selling and buying. These relations developed to a greater and faster pace. Through these relations, the Zionists managed to put their feet On the Lebanese territory under the pretext of protecting the Christian community from ethnic, sectarian and religious persecution in Lebanon. These relations continued through many military and weapons agreements between them. The Christians sent many of their men to combat training To the Zionist entity, and when the arrival of these to their country and provided all the possibilities needed by the Zionists during the Zionist invasion in 1978 through the provision of maps and guide them on the roads to walk them, and became those relations are public and is no longer confidential through visits by some Zionist officials to the tape area The Lebanese border, including Prime Minister Ephraim Katzriz, has strengthened their relations to see the conditions of Christians and what they need from aid

Having conducted a phonetic Investigation focusing on the syllable and toning for the utterances of access and egress in Quran, thefollowing has been pointed out:

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 44-62

1- The Quran uses the utterances of access and egress in the literal sense. It is the pivotal meaning for such utterances in all of their instances. Few of these utterances do not express the literal meaning; however, their meaning could relate back to the literal meaning as in the following words: revenue, abscess, etc.
2- Besides what have been introduced of the various definitions for the syllable, the realization is that the smallest unit of the language could be a word, a part of word which consists of an aphonic phoneme followed by a phonic one which represents the climax of hearing and this climax of hearing in itself is in harmony with the psyche which varies across languages.
3- Considering the syllabic system, the results point out that the language of Quran tends to be of three syllables for the utterances of access and of four syllables for the utterances of egress.
4- The investigation shows that the open syllables are in accordance with the instances of dignifying and satisfying access. As for the closed syllables, they are consistent with instances of vehemence, sarcasm, waring, and affront. Moreover, the syllable could be a tool for taking the precedence the Quranic readings in regard to the context.
5- The study defines the linguistic toning as the dynamic phonetic performance for expressing the various contextual situations. Or, it is the rising and falling alteration, whether intentional or unintentional, that occur in the speaker’s voice to express his or her condition.
6- The study suggests to form a committee of experts in phonetics, reciting, and Quranic readings. And there should be arecitation for Quran according the modern theories of phonetics.Having conducting these two steps, it would be plausible to compare these recitations tothe recitations of renowned reciters in order to identify the areas of congruence and difference between the two recitations. In addition, this investigation could be a criterion to judge how valid the modern phonetic reading since there is no deleterious effect for the Prophet’s teachings urge to diversify the vocal performance when it comes to reciting the Quran.

The reality of terrorism and its repercussions on the Iraqi economy2003- 2016

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 63-71

Terrorism is considered as one of the most dangerous issues in human societies. Its danger is clearly affecting individuals. It impedes the process of progress, construction and development of countries technologically, this is clear in a way when terrorists blew up number of offices, bridges and ways. These acts of terrorism are the destruction of the economy, where the state spends large amounts on the war of terrorism and this waste of material and human resources that could be exploited to develop the economy of the country and maintain economic stability. and in consideration of the variety of forms and practices of terrorism due to the terrorist operations, the financial and administrative corruption of many ministries as in the financial and commercial institutions, as well as the transfer of funds from the country abroad, are increasing. National economy and lead to the decline of its performance so it became necessary for researchers to make their efforts to clarify the seriousness of this phenomenon and eliminate it

The extent of history department instrutors possession for the considerable thinking skill from their students point of view .

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 72-83

The current research aims to know the extent of ownership teaching history Department of contemplative thinking from the students point of view ,the research sample was included basic (76) students and by (22%) of the total research community ,in order to achieve the aims of research the researcher made questionnaire as resolution for gathering information then it was displaed on a set of experts and arbitrastors to ensure their sincerity , the stability of the resolution was confirmed after applying it in to a survey sample of (30) students by Split Half Method ,after the final application of the resolution the resut were analyzed statistically by law of the weighed average and centeic weight , the researcher recommended in cluding the inclusion of the skill above for teacher preparation programs and University professors

Bagha Al Kabeer [862 AD / 248 AH] His biography & Military Role At the Beginning of the first Abbasy Era and The beginning of The Last Abbasy Era [ Historical Study

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 84-108

Bagha Al Kabeer considers one of the prominent Turkish leaders in the Abbasian army in the Third Century AH / Nine Century AD. His role as leader is obvious and active in the political and military events as well as the developments that has been happened to the Arabic Islamic State in the last of the First Abbasian Era beside Caliphs, Ministers and Military leaders. He makes many Military and Administrative services to the Abbasian Caliphate.
Bagha Al Kabeer has unique characteristics with high combat power, this characteristics distinguishes him, compared to the other Turkish leaders. His courage and victories that he has made them in battles, qualifies him to get married one of the ladies from the Caliphate’s court; consequently this marriage enables him to reach high rank in Abbasian court and Army. His sons and Grandsons inherit this distinguish rank from him; they become prominent leaders in the Abbasian army, they follow their Grandfather in offering many Military and Administrative services to the Abbasian Caliphate in its Second Era.


journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 109-127

The research aims at identifying the effects of using Thelen sample in the achievement of 8th year girl students in geography and developing their meta cognition thinking. The research is limited to test 8th year girl students in Duhok city for the academic year (2013-2014). The sample of the research was chosen deliberately from ( Siver and Gulistan) schools and consisted of 61 girl students from equal groups concerning. The first experimental group was chosen and consisted of 27 students studied according to Thelen sample while the second group was chosen and consisted of 34 students studied the same subject according to the traditional followed method. To achieve the goals of the research and to carry out its experiment, the researcher prepared a group of lesson plans for both groups, the experimental and the controlled. And to test its hypothesis, two tools were required; the first was an achievement test prepared by the researcher and consisted of 32 items in which 26 of them were multiple choice objective items with four options. And the other 6 ones were subjective (essay type) items according to Bloom classification for the levels of (remembering, understanding and applying). The researcher achieved the honesty, the psychometrical characteristics and the consistency of the items. The second tool was a test for the skills of meta cognition thinking in which the researcher adjusted it for geography from Bro test (2012) and consisted of 20 items; three items were subjective (essay kind) ones and the rest items were multiple choice objective items with three options. The researcher achieved the honesty and consistency of the items. Then she carried out the experiment in the first semester from (12.10.2013) to (26.12.2013). After that, she applied both tools and collected data and analyzed them statistically using both T-tests; the desperate and the controlled ones. The following points are the results of the experiment:
1- A statistical difference was found between the mediums of the achievement of both groups; the experimental and the controlled ones in geography in advantage of the experimental group.
2- A statistical difference was found between the mediums of the development of both groups; the experimental and the controlled ones in meta cognition thinking in advantage of the experimental group.
3- A statistical difference was found between the mediums of both tests pre and post in the skills of meta cognition thinking for experimental group members in advantage of the post test.
4- A statistical difference was found between the mediums of both tests pre and post in the skills of meta cognition thinking for controlled group members in advantage of the post test.
5- A statistical difference was found between the mediums of the achievement of both groups; the experimental and the controlled ones in geography in advantage of the experimental group.
6- A statistical difference was found between the mediums of the development of both groups; the experimental and the controlled ones in meta cognition thinking in advantage of the experimental group.
7- A statistical difference was found between the mediums of both tests pre and post in the skills of meta cognition thinking for experimental group members in advantage of the post test.
8- A statistical difference was found between the mediums of both tests pre and post in the skills of meta cognition thinking for controlled group members in advantage of the post test.

The technical processors by the Fantastic Realism of the Iraqi theater director

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 128-142

The current study survey the fantastic realism in the technical processors by the Iraqi theater director, to shape the directing vision, claire the properties of this processors, and the extent of their proximity or distancing from the aesthetic framework of the fantastic realism, which can be summarized by the following question: (what the technical processors by fantastic realism in the style of iraqi director?).The study determined by main goal that (recognize the properties of fantastic realism in technical processors of the Iraqi theater director).This study include four chapters. First chapter: methodological Framework, determines the study problem, its importance, its goal, its limits, and its terminology. Secound chapter:Theoretical framework, include tow sections: first section named the concept of realism and fantastic realism, secound section named the technical processors in the fantastic realism. Third chapter include search procedures that apply the procedural approach on the study sample; "the smell of war". Fourth chapter: result and conclusions of the research. The main conclusion are as follow:
• The variety of technical processings ,in style, by the Iraqi theater director leads to break the unit of aesthetic frame in personification scene, that makes it fluctuation between realism, expressionism, symbolism, and fantastic realism.
• The Iraqi theater director processes technically, the seriousness of the textual themes in the scene by the mechanisms of fantastic realism : dramatization, caricature and grotesque.
• fantastic realism mechanisms to processing the scene that : the cynical critical attitude, minimizing the ideological dimension of the scene,Parody,exaggeration and amplification.
Keyword: Fantastic Realism, technical processors, theater, Iraqi director

Study the optical properties of Fluorescein sodium dye doped in polymer Poly Polyvinyl alcohol for different thickness

Khawla J. Tahir; Furqan A.Tawil

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 4-19

Z-scan method has been utilized at (532nm) and uv-visible and fluorescence spectrophotometer have been utilized to study the spectral characteristics in order to compute the nonlinear optical properties in two cases close, open aperture. The refractive index n2 and absorption coefficient β of various thicknesses (4,6,8,10,12) μm for constant concentration (5×10-2 M) have been determined. The empirical results for open- aperture showed that the film models of fluorescein sodium dye have shown the saturation absorption or the two photon absorption, also in closed-aperture showed positive or negative effect. Likewise for thicknesses quantum efficiency have been calculated

Some Results of Soft Expert GE-Metric Spaces

Zeinab Hassan Abood

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 20-27

في هذا البحث, درسنا مفهوم الدالة المترية-GE المتخصصة الناعمة باستخدام المجاميع الحقيقية المتخصصة الناعمة والتي تم تعريفها, ثم اعطينا تعريف الفضاء المتري-GE المتخصص الناعم. كذلك قدمنا بعض المفاهيم كالكرة-GE المتخصصة الناعمة, الاستمرارية-GE المتخصصة الناعمة ودرسنا بعض خصائص هذه المفاهيم.

Association between gene polymorphism of protein tyrosin phosphatase non receptor type 22(PTPN22) and susceptibility for rheumatoid arthritis in an Iraqi population.

Ghadaq Hameed Neamaa; Hashim Raheem Tarish; Salman Azeez Addoos

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 28-35

The gene protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 (PTPN22), a negative regulator of T-cell activation and the polymorphism is a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and is a C → T substitution (rs2476601) at nucleotide position 1858 that leads to a tryptophan (W) for arginine(R) transition at codon 620 and this lead to many autoimmune disease like RA. The rheumatoid arthritis patients were diagnosed by physicians of rheumatology in the Rheumatology Center of Al Sadder Medical Teaching Hospital in Al-Najaf Al-Ashraf city. Genomic DNA was extracted from the whole blood samples of patients and controls and by using commercial kit (FavorPrep™ Blood Genomic DNA Extraction Mini Kit). (PTPN22 C1858T SNP) genotyping was done using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method to all participants in this study (60 RA patients and 36 non-autoimmune control group). The genotype and allele frequencies of these SNP were analyzed by statistical tests. There were no significant differences in alleles and genotypes of PTPN22 SNP between RA cases and control group. Patients with PTPN22 CT genotype are more susceptible to infection with rheumatoid arthritis.

On The Sub-implicative Ideal of a BH-algebra

Suad Abdulaali Neamah; Ayat Abdulaali Neamah

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 36-42

In this paper, we study the notions of sub-implicative ideal of a BH-algebra and we state and prove some theorems which determine the relationships among this ideal with the intersection, union, image of function, inverse function for sub-implicative ideals of BH-algebra and also we give some properties of this ideal and relate it with other types of concepts of a BH-algebra.

Effect of substrate types on the structural and optical properties of nickel (II) tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine thin films

Mohammed Yarub Hania; Addnan H. Al-Aarajiyb; Ahmed M.Abdul-Lettifa

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 43-52

Chemical spray pyrolysis (CSP) technique has been employed to deposit tetrasulfonated nickel phthalocyanine (NiTsPc) thin films on different substrate types. Since substrate type is one of the important parameters in CSP, NiTsPc thin films were deposited on different substrate types in order to investigate their structural and optical properties by using different techniques. The structural properties were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscope (AFM), the optical properties were investigated by ultraviolet visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometer and fluorescence spectrophotometer. From XRD results, it was shown that the highest crystallinity of the thin films was when using polymer as substrate. The observed topographical images from showed that the roughest surface was when using micro glass as substrate. The absorption spectra recorded in the wavelength range 190-1100 nm revealed two absorption bands, namely, the Soret and the Q-band and that the highest absorption intensity was when using glass as substrate. In addition, UV-Vis spectra showed that thin films deposited on different substrate types have direct energy gap. The energy gap for the NiTsPc thin films were calculated from Tauc equation and compared with results obtained from fluorescence measurements. The highest energy gap was observed for NiTsPc thin films deposited on glass substrates with . It was observed that preparation conditions affect the properties of the thin films and that the different substrates have high impact on the structural and optical properties of the deposited NiTsPc thin films. The crystallinity, grain size, roughness and the optical constants were strongly affected by the different substrates.

Comparison of Water Quality Indices (Bani-Hassan River as a Case Study)

Sumayah A. Majeed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 53-65

Water Quality Indices (WQI's) are tools to determine the conditions of water quality and provide overall summaries of water quality and potential trends of water quality on a simple and scientific basis.
The present research compares the results of the Canadian WQI method with two other water quality index methods (Mierels WQI and Weighted Arithmetic Index) for irrigation and drinking purposes. Six locations were being chosen on the Bani-Hassan River. Monthly parameters of raw water analysis during the period January to December 2015 were obtained to determine water quality indices. These parameters were: pH, EC, TDS, Turbidity, Total Hardness (TH), Ca+2, Mg+2, K+, Na+, Cl-, SO4-2, HCO3-and Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR).
The results of applying Canadian WQI and Weighted Arithmetic Index (WAI) for assessing the suitability of Bani-Hassan River for drinking purpose showed that; Canadian WQI method is classified water as (Fair) water quality while WAI method results is ranked it as (unsuitable) water for drinking usage.
In the case of the suitability of water for irrigation use, the results of applying Meireles WQI equations showed that the water quality of Bani-Hassan River is classified as a (Moderate Restriction) in water use, while the classification of the water using the Canadian equations was good for irrigation purpose.
When comparing (WQI) results of Canadian technic with two other technics (Weighted Arithmetic Index and Mieriles WQI) it is easy to say that Canadian method gives higher water quality value than the two other methods, in another word,Canadian Water Quality Index considered more elastic, however, the Weighted Arithmetic Index and Mieriles WQI methods utilized if there is need for restrictive control of water using.
Statistical analysis of the two methods (Canadian WQI and Mierels WQI) for irrigation use showed that there is a significant difference between the two technics results at significance level (0.05).

Magnetic Field Effect on Spark Ignition Engine Performance

Mohammed .H.Abbod; Murtdha. S. Imran

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 66-76

An experimental study was conducted for the influence of magnetic field in spark ignition engine performance. The engine speed was varied from (1400 to 3000) rpm without and with using magnetic field into different intensity which has (7000,9000 and18000) gauss. The magnetic field was installed at the outer surface of inlet fuel pipe in suitable position which was selected by trial and error.
The experimental results include reduction in fuel consumption up to (20.02%), brake specific fuel consumption up to (20.04%) While the brake thermal efficiency raised by about (4.8%). The exhaust gas emissions showed a reduction nearly by (29.7%) of CO, (37.2 %) of NOX and (32.2%) of HC, but increasing CO2 emission by (37.2 %).
Key words : Magnetic Field, Spark Ignition, Performance

Solving Four Cost Multi-Objective Scheduling Problem Simultaneously

Tariq S . Abdul; Razaq; Hafed M . Motair

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 77-88

In this paper, we consider single machine scheduling problem (P) to minimize four cost functions, total completion times, total tardiness, maximum tardiness, and maximum earliness. The minimization besed on two types, in the first one we study some special cases including lexigraphical minimization of problem (P). In the second type we minimize four cost functions simultaneously and propose CTTE algorithm ( total completion time, total tardiness, maximum tardiness and maximum earliness) to find the set of "non-dominated solutions" of problem (P), also improve this algorithm by using intensification procedure (IMCTTE) (Imoroved CTTE). Also we propose MOVNS (Multiobjective variable neighborhood search) algorithm based on the variable neighborhood and Intensification Procedure ideas .We compare the proposed algorithms with NSGA2 algorithm. The performance of the proposed algorithms is evaluated on a large set of test problems and the results are compared. The compu- tational results show that IMCTTE algorithm is more efficient than CTTE algorithm in both, number of "non-dominated solutions" and the controbution of "non-dominated solutions" that belong to reference set. Also we find that MOVNS algorithm give better performance than CTTE and IMCTTE algorithms for all problem instancs, and better than NSGA2 specially for small size problems .

Assessment of Mechanical Properties of HMA modified by EVA

Zaid Abdul Zahra Mahdi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 95-103

Asphalt become plastic material with the high temperature effect, so it describes as thermoplastic material, the polymers was used to enhance asphalt properties in mean of increasing the temperature range over which it resists both rutting and thermal cracking; the polymers like EVA has been widely used to increase both the workability of the asphalt during compaction and its resistance to deformations in service. Hot Melt Glue is type of thermoplastic adhesive containing the EVA copolymer with Terpene-Phenol Resin (TPR) tackifier. The used asphalt was from the crude oil refinery of Al-Nasiriya (southern of Iraq) its classified grade (60-70), is used with deferent percentages of the Hot Melt Glue. Two stages of work plan were adopted: the first was to study the effect of the Glue on asphalt then at the second stage Glue effect on the asphalt mixture. Tests like penetration, softening point and ductility of asphalt, and resistance to flow (stability & flow) by Marshall Method (for mix) were adopted in this research. The results show that the Hot Melt Glue reduces the penetration and specific gravity of the asphalt, on the other hand the softening point increased with increasing of the Glue. There is a little increasing of the susceptibility to high temperature with increasing of the glue (to 2%) then begin to degrease with increase the glue. There is significant decreasing in ductility with the increasing of the glue and after the percent 2.5 the ductility reduced less than requirements of specification (100 cm). The flash point not influenced with increasing of glue till 6%. The Marshall Stability increases while the flow decreases with the increasing the Glue. There is a little reduction in density and air voids with increasing of the glue.

Wheel Track Test to Predict Permanent deformation (Rutting depth) of Hot-Mix Asphalt Pavements and Using Silica Fume to Reduce Effect of Permanent Deformation

Mohammed Aziz Hameed Al-Shaybani

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 104-113

The road network of Iraq in the last two decades have increased in volume of traffic, heavy load and high temperatures. These reasons lead to the need for frequent and continuous maintenance work and the lack of funds allocated for maintenance work may lead to sudden rapid failure of performance of flexible asphalt concrete pavements which is evaluated by many constant factors. One of the major factors is the largest effect on the performance of flexible pavement which is the permanent deformation. The additives have showed acceptable effects on HMA at lower and higher temperatures due to increasing the resistance to permanent deformation (rutting). The main objective is evaluating the effect of additive on the resistance to permanent deformation of the hot mix asphalt (HMA). One type available additive which is Silica Fume with three various percentages was used. The percentages are (1%, 3%, and 5%) for Silica Fume by weight of asphalt binder. The experimental works in this research showed that additive - modified mixtures have rutting resistance, higher, than a control asphalt mixture at (50 Cº) about (30% - 60%) depending on different percentages of additive. It can be concluded that the concentration of Silica Fume (3%) gives the better properties of asphalt mixture to resist permanent deformation. A statistical model has been developed for the prediction of rutting depth in local asphalt paving materials as an influence by the factors of percentage of additive, and the number of passes at (50 Cº).

Heat Transfer Enhancement for Rectangular Channels by Using Triangular-Shaped Ribs at High Reynold Numbers.

Mohammed W. Al-Jibory

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 114-124

In this paper, an experimental system was built to study the effects of triangular ribs inside a rectangular duct on the heat transfer and flow behavior. Boundary conditions were: inlet air temperature,(300o K) and Reynolds numbers (Re=8082, 9698 and 11778). The surrounding constant temperature was (473 o K). The numerical simulations were done by solving the governing equations (Continuity, Reynolds Averaging Navier-stokes, and Energy equation) with (k-ε) model in three dimensions by using the SOLIDWORKS 3D CAD software. The effects of using triangular ribs fitted in rectangular passage channel on fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics were presented in this part. Ribs used with a pitch-rib height of 10, the rectangular channel of (30x60 mm) cross section, 1.5 mm duct thickness and 0.5 m long. The temperature, velocity distribution contours, cooling air temperature distribution at the duct centerline, the inner wall surface temperature of the duct, and thermal performance factor is found in this paper. The temperature distribution for the inner wall surface of the ribbed channel is lower than smooth one by (8.9 %) for case (1) and (Re=11778). The coolant air flow velocity seems to be accelerated and decelerated through the channel in the presence of ribs, so it was shown that the thermal performance factor along the duct is larger than 1, this is due to the fact that the ribs create turbulent conditions and increasing thermal surface area, and thus increasing heat transfer coefficient than the smooth channel. It concluded that, the triangular ribs with angle of 90o,case(1) is the best as compared to the other two cases in this study for cooling the rectangular duct. After modification and analysis have been done, Nusselt Number enhanced by (36%).

Subsurface Water Retention Technology Improves Water Use Efficiency and Water Productivity for Hot Pepper

Ali Hassan Hommadi; Sabah Anwer Almasraf

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 125-135

The subsurface water retention technology (SWRT) is modern method for detention irrigation or rainfall water under surface soil in root zone depth in order to save water in soil profile for long period. In this study water use efficiency and water productivity for hot pepper inside greenhouse were evaluated and compared using in three treatments plots planted with hot pepper using: subsurface water retention technology (T1), organic matter (T2) and tillage (T3). The study work was conducted in the field located in Sadat Al Hindiya, north of Babylon governorate 78 km south of Baghdad. The growing season of hot pepper was starting on September 2016 and ended on May 2017. Irrigation quantities, time of irrigation and soil moisture contents were measured daily and sometimes weekly for all treatments plots. The results indicated that crop yield and water use efficiency for the three experimental plots, T1, T2 and T3 were: 4.151, 3.476 and 3.272 kg/m2 and 5.54, 3.7 and 3.48 kg/m3, respectively with increasing values in yield and water use efficiency in T1 comparing with T2 and T3 by 19.42, 26.87% and 50 and 59 %, respectively. Additionally, the new concept of water productivity of hot pepper for T1, T2 and T3 was: 66836.4, 36812.9, and 33909.2 ID/m3, respectively, with increasing value in T1 comparing with T2 and T3 by 81.6 and 97.1 %, respectively.

The roles of Glutathione and Ascorbic Acid in Na-detoxification in terms of rooting response of Mung bean Cuttings

Khalid Ali Hussein

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 136-142

The roles of glutathione , ascorbic acid, and their interaction in Na-detoxification removing in terms of adventitious root formation (ART) in mung bean cutting has been studied. The effect of different concentrations of the anti-oxidant GSH ranged between (10-3-10-11M) and ASA (100-600 ppm), the optimum concentration of GSH and ASA were (10-5 M and 100 ppm) respectively. The toxic concentration of NaCl was determined by using concentrations ranging from 25-300 mM. The toxic concentration was (50mM).Combination with 1: 1 ratio (V:V) for both antioxidants ASA and GSH that developed the optimal rooting response, (19.75) roots per cutting was obtained by the combination of (100: 10-5) ASA: GSH. Detoxification of sodium chloride stress was occurred completely by supplying combination prior to toxic–NaCl treatment (pretreatment and after toxic NaCl treatment (post treatment) compared to their supply simultaneously with toxic NaCl.

Transmission Performance Evaluation of Wireless Communication System Based on UWB Signals over Optical Fiber

Ali Hayder Abdul Kareem; Ibrahim A. Murdas

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 143-155

The aim of this paper is to assess the transmission performance of the Ultra Wideband (UWB) signals over fiber system that consists of Single Mode Fiber (SMF) and Dispersion Compensation Fiber (DCF). This investigation covers both electrical and optical generation of UWB signal. Simulation results are presented using both Gaussian monocycle and doublet pulse each operating with bit rate 1.25 Gbps and 10 Gb/s with ON-OFF Keying (OOK) modulation technique. The simulation results reveal that extending the coverage area for UWB signals towards 130 km in electrical generation and 230 km in the optical generation is possible for the UWB signals and modulation format adopted in this work.

Synthesis and characterization of (4,7- and-1,5-dione ) 1,3- oxazepine derivatives and poly hydrazones

Saad Salim Jasim

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 156-177

A series of esters (S1- 3)have been prepared from aromatic carboxylic acid by esterification usual manner in the presence of absolute ethanol and concentrated sulfuric acid.The hydrazides
(S4-6) preparedthrough reactionof the corresponding esters with hydrazine hydrate in absolute ethanol. The hydrazones(S7-21), prepared by the reaction of hydrazides with different substituted benzaldehydes dissolved in ethanol absolute with drops of glacial acetic acid by thermal refluxing. (4,7- and-1,5-dione ) 1,3- oxazepine derivatives (S22-39) have been prepared through fusion(without using solvent)of hydrazones(S7-15)with malic anhydride and phthalic anhydride.Chelating polymers(S40-45) have been synthesized by the condensation of phenol with hydrazones(S16-21) with formaldehyde in the presence of (KOH) as a catalyst.
The prepared compounds were characterized by spectroscopic methods including, (FT-IR) infra-red and (1HNMR) for some prepared compounds , and the reactions were monitored by (TLC) Thin Lyer Chromatography.

Comparative study between follicles size on right and left ovaries in local Iraqi ewes and related with different seasons

Al-Hamedawi; T.M; Mohammed; A.H; E.A; Al-Yasiri; M.J; Ghafil

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 178-181

This study was conducted on 424 ovaries (212 slaughter Iraqi ewes) in Al-Shulla and Al-Kut abattoirs during period from December2015 to November 2016, age of animals were 3-5years. We collected ovaries and divided to three groups of follicles included small follicles (SF) <2mm, medium follicles (MF) 2-5mm and large follicles (LF) ≥5mm in both ovaries. We divided the follicles into four groups according to seasons( autumn, winter, spring, summer). Results revealed in the right ovary the number of SF during winter were highly significant (P<0.05), more over the number of MF during winter and autumn were increase significant (P<0.05, and the number of LF recorded highly significant (P<0.05) at autumn. While in the left ovary the number of SF during winter were highly significant (P<0.05), while the number of MF during autumn and winter were highly significant (P<0.05), The number of LF during winter were highly significant (P<0.05). The number of SF in right ovary recorded increase significant (P<0.05) in winter as compared with left ovary, as well as the number of MF in the right ovary were highly significant (P<0.05) during winter as compared with left ovary and the numbers of LF in the right ovary during autumn were highly significant (P<0.05) as compared with left ovary. In conclusions from this study the activity of ovaries were included all seasons, and the activity in right ovary was better at autumn, while in left ovary was better activity in winter on Iraqi ewes.

Experimental Investigation on Flat Plate Solar Collector with Integrated Wickless Heat Pipe

Mohammed Hasan Abbood; Ahmed Jabbar Hasan

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 182-191

An experimental study is carry out to investigate the effectiveness of a flat plate solar collector (FPSC) through replacing the riser tubes by integrated wickless heat pipe (WHP) heat exchanger. The study show the effect of working fluid filling charge of the WHP, the tilt angle, and inlet coolant temperature on the solar system performance. A FPSC with area of (0.76*0.96) m2 built with copper WHP of 19mm evaporator tubes outer diameter and single horizontal condenser of 28mm outer diameter using distilled water with (40, 60, and 80) % filling ratios as a working fluid inside the WHP. The collector efficiency was directly affected by the filling ratio of the WHP while tilt angle is contributed to solar radiation more than WHP performance.

Rhenium Separation from Aqueous Solutions by Rice Husk

Salem Jawad Kaduma; Zaidun Naji Abudib; Mohammed Nsaif Abbas; Thekra Atta Ibrahimc

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 192-201

The readily accessible, highly efficient and cheaply adsorbents of Iraqi Rice Husk (IRH) was applied for separation of rhenium (Re) from aqueous solution. Different operation parameters were studied which were initial Re concentration, absorbance material packing height, pH of aqueous solution, contact time, flow rate and feed temperature. It was found that Re could be adsorbed quantitatively (above 90%) on IRH in the pH range of 1.0-3.0. For other parameters, when flow rate and initial concentration were decreasing the percentage removal was increased, and vice versa with respect to contact time and the height of adsorbent. Best kinetic and isotherm results were achieved by that the pseudo-second-order and Freundlich isotherm equations, respectively. Thus, IRH as the sorbent was successfully applied to the separation of Re from the aqueous solution with satisfactory results.

Studying the effect of a cone inside the collector on the solar chimney performance

Mohammed H. Abbood; Ali Basim M. Ali

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 202-214

Objective of this research is to investigate, both experimentally and theoretically, the effect of added cone inside collector on the Performance of a Solar Chimney Power Plant (SCPP). A small prototype of a solar chimney was built with chimney height of 6m, diameter 0.25m, and collector diameter 7.5m, covered with glass. The experimental data gathered under actual weather conditions in Karbala city. Analytical solutions were then used to solve mathematical governing equations of continuity, momentum and energy using fortran90, these results then compared with the experimental results. The experimental results show that the maximum differences between airflow temperature and ambient air reached 16.5℃, airflow air velocity 16.4 m/s, the available power 84.6 W at a collector angle of 32.7°and a small pebbles on the cone under the collector. In summary, airflow temperature, airflow velocity and available power increases by using a cone under collector with small pebbles

Study of Surface Water Quality and Trends Assessment at Shatt Al-Arab River in Basrah Province

Ammar Salman Dawood; Ammar Ashour Akesh; Ahmed Sagban Khudier

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 215-231

In this paper, the monitoring of surface water quality for the Shatt Al Arab River between 2011 and 2014 have been done by using the physico-chemical parameters. These parameters are sulphate (SO4), phosphate (PO4), nitrate (NO3), magnesium (Mg), dissolved oxygen (DO), chloride (Cl), and calcium (Ca). Five sampling stations were selected to monitor these parameters along the Shatt Al Arab River. Mann-Kendall Seasonal Test for the water quality assessment was done to detect the different levels of pollution and trend is made use of in the area under investigation. The results have revealed parameter variation over time due to, at most, the increasing pollution levels at the monitoring stations along the Shatt Al Arab River during the 2011-2014 period. The current research submits the use and utility of trend statistical assessment of large and complicated database in order to get more useful information on the quality of surface water, sampling design and analytical protocols, the efficient control of pollution, and the good management of the surface water.


Ali Hameed Naser Al-Mamoori; Fatimah Hameed Naser Al-Mamoori; Maryam Hameed Naser Al-Mamoori

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 232-249

In the present research, experimental study has been devoted to investigate the behavior of sixteen circular reinforced concrete short columns which have different lateral reinforcement and amount of steel fiber and they were tested under concentric compression till failure in order to discover the best confining column system and optimum steel fiber ratio.
These columns are categorized into four groups; each group has four specimens, the first specimen without steel fiber and other specimens containing steel fiber with different ratio (0.5%, 0.75% and 1.0%).
All specimens have the same geometry and longitudinal reinforcement but differ, in the type of lateral reinforcement divided in three groups (no lateral reinforcement, tied lateral reinforcement and spiral lateral reinforcement; the spiral and tied reinforcement have approximately the same amount of reinforcement.) Also, these specimens compared with no longitudinal and no laterals reinforcement (plain concrete columns) as control specimens in the first group.
In this study, a crushed recycled concrete was used as a coarse aggregate combinations with natural aggregate (25% replacement of natural aggregate by a crushed recycled concrete) to produce concrete without any chemical and mineral additions.
The experimental results indicated that the use of steel fiber in columns caused increase rate in ultimate load are higher than normal concrete column but at certain limit less or equal 0.75%.
The combined effect of steel fibers and tied stirrups resulted in increasing the ultimate load in columns by about (7.39% - 23.34%) with respect to the same columns without lateral reinforced. While it's shown that the columns with steel fibers and spiral stirrups resulted in increasing the ultimate load by about (15.06% - 25.56%) with respect to the same columns without lateral reinforced. Also, it was observed that the behavior of spiral lateral reinforced concrete columns with or without steel fibers gives the best result when compared with other cases.

Ion-pair Formation From of Hydroxyl Propyl Methyl Cellulose (HPMC)-Water in three weight percentages Tetra Ethyl Ammonium Bromide (TEAB ) At (293.15 and 303.15)K

Hamida Edan Salman; Hameed Ridha Abed; Manal A. Mohammed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 250-260

In the present work , investigated some physical properties of polymeric blending for Hydroxyl Propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC)-water mixtures and tetra ethyl ammonium bromide (TEAB) in the water mixtures (0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3%) at (293.15 and 303.15)K, by using deionized water with specific conductance 5x10-7 Scm-1 at 298.15K .
The physical properties of mixed solvents were studying which covered the measurements of densities (d), viscosities (ɳ), dielectric constants (ε) and specific conductance (σ) for the solvent mixtures at specific temperatures from this data. The deviation of solvent mixtures from an ideal behavior was studies by the excess molar volume (V_m^E). The physical properties of Tetra methyl ammonium Bromide (TMAB) and Tetraethyl ammonium Bromide (TEAB) were studying for nine concentrations for each three wt% of HPMC-water mixture at two experimental temperatures covered densities (d), viscosities (ɳ) and molar conductance (Λ) and it were compared between the two salts. The association constant (KA) and limiting molar conductance (Λ₀) was calculated from Shedlovsky equations by using an appropriate computation program. The obtained results give a good agreement between the values of KA which have been derived from Bjerrum equation and by Shedlovsky method.

Optical modeling and analysis of polyurethane lens for correcting presbyopia by using Zemax program

Ali.H.Alhamdani; Rajaa A.Madlool; Maha. R. Abdul-Hussein

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 261-270

This study aims to design an optical system based on the model of Liu & Brennan by using Zemax EE2006 program. This model was selected because it more accurately reflects anatomical and visual data as compared to the physiological eye model. Polyurethane lens (Pu) is designed for patients with presbyopia patients by using multi-configuration function in Zemax. According to human eye structure, three distances were defined, namely, far (10.0+09mm), middle (1000mm), and near (500mm), to simulate the position of the body, investigate the difference in image received by the eye, and determine the effect of visual defect on image quality. Several techniques have been adopted in the Zemax program to evaluate the visual design efficiency and the magnitude of the difference in the image before and after lens insertion. Results showed that bi-focal polyurethane lens exhibited good performance for far and intermediate distances.

Does dexamethasone interfere with process of blastocyst implantation in the pregnant rat uterus?

Alaa Hussein AL-Safy; Akram Yousif Yasear

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 271-278

Results has been revealed that the blastocysts from both the control and treated groups were successfully implanted. The decidual tissue as one of the indicators of success of implantation was formed .Implantation of blastocysts started in the antimesometrial side of uterus at day 7 of pregnancy , then the position of the embryos were shifted to mesometrial side of the uterus. Conclusion of this study have shown that dexamethasone is safe during implantation period, but probable side effects might occur during subsequent stages of pregnancy

In investigation of the gene responsible for the production of hlyA enzyme and aggA gene in E. coli isolated from the diarrhea of chicken by polymerase chain reaction in the province of Al-Qadisiyah

Jenan Nadhim Sadeq; Mahasen abdul razzaq Khudair; Hiba Turkey Atyia

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 279-286

This study aimed to knows the prevalence and occurrence of hlyA gene and aggA in E.coli that taken from clinical Diarrheic in Chickens by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology in AL-Qadisiyah Province , 55 of fecal samples has sent to microbiological lab to make microbiological culture and PCR assay, extraction DNA as the first step, run the extracted samples in thermocycler apparatus by using primers design online as the second step , then immigration the samples by using electrophoresis to read the results .(72.72%) represents percentage of isolated E.coli in our study by use culture methods on MacConkey agar, Eosin methylene blue agar and CHROMagar salmonella, also prevalence of hlyA and aggA gene in present study were (45%) and (37.5%) respectively , the virulence strains have more resistance than non- virulence stains, hlyA gene and aggA gene in E.coli contributes in the pathogenesis of organism.

Properties of Self Compacted Concrete Modified with Epoxy and Exposed to Sewerage Environment

Ameer Ghayyib Talib

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 287-299

Recently, there has been a lot of research that is concerned with developing the durability of concrete exposed to a sever environment in order to reduce the cost of maintenance, by making the maintenance in interval spacede specially in strategic projects that serve many people such as sewage and sewerage projects. In this study, the properties of the epoxy modified self compacted concrete were studied after being placed in a sever environment (partially submerged in septic tank) for different periods of 30, 90 and 180 days. Epoxy material was added to the self compacted concrete (SCC) in three different ratios 5, 7.5 and 10% of the cement weight. The properties studied in this work were compressive, splitting tensile strength, change in weight and total absorption. In general, and through the results of the tests, a deterioration in the reference SCC was observed due to exposure to extreme conditions. At 180 days of exposure it was observed that there was a noticeable decrease in compressive and tensile strength of 20.8% and 46.5%, for the reference SCC, respectively, compared to the same concrete prior to exposure. The exposure of the reference SCC to the sewerage environment led to a significant deterioration in the percentage of weight loss and absorption after 180 days of partial immersion in septic tank. The modification of SCC by the addition of epoxy resin resulted in a clear improvement in all properties examined and was the greatest improvement when using 10% of the epoxy. After 180 days of exposure to the sewerage environment, the increase in compressive and tensile strength of 10% epoxy SCC were 87% and 142%, respectively, compared to the reference SCC without epoxy resin.

Diversity in Crowding Selection to Improve Fractal Coding Technique Performance

Naseif J. AL-Jawari; Nadia M. G. Al-Saidi; Shaimaa S. Al-Bundi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 300-311

Since Barnsley conception of fractal coding, this research topic was rapidly grown and considered as the most promising technique. The high encoding time prevents the popularity of this technique. Crowding as an improved Genetic algorithm (GA) is used for fractal coding method to improve the searching computational time between range- domain blocks. Although, crowding method is one of the approaches that maintain population diversity, but still the offspring replaces the most similar individual. In this method, each offspring is completed with one of its parents and replaced it. That means, crowding method concentrated on best element’s population search space, which makes the new generation influenced by the properties of the previous generation. To support global exploration and prevent trapping in local optima, a new probability is added, which helps to satisfy diversity in the population selection from both the best and worst individuals. This prevents the algorithm from being trapped in local optima. By this method, the time complexity of the algorithm is improved because it makes a balance between reaching the optimal solution and population diversity.

Estimation Rainfall-Runoff Erosivity Factor of RUSLE equation in the Euphrates River Watershed by GIS Modeling

Saleh Issa Khassaf; Ali Hussein Jaber Al Rammahi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 312-319

The average annual erosion losses of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) models with tons/acre/year units were depended on the rainfall-runoff erosivity factor (R) with US units in the present study. The (R) factor is mainly depended on precipitation data, the rainfall data can be derived from the thirty one gauge stations that spreading inside and outside of the Euphrates watershed basin which located in Iraq. The Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) is the interpolation method to estimate the cell values at unknown location of map based on the distance between the unknown cell and the known points. The (IDW) method was provided in ArcMap 10.2 software. The precipitation data of watershed basin is classified into six category that ranging from 85.392 mm to 159.314 mm. The maximum watershed area of precipitation data is about 37% of entire area, it is ranged from 112 mm to 124 mm. The R factor with US units of the Euphrates watershed basin can be ranged from 3.653 to 9.998 hundred

Analytical Study of Dynamic Shear Strain effect on Shaping tool

Sabah hatam obaid; Alawi Hamada; Kamil jawad kadhim; Jabbar Abbas Jaber

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 320-332

Research papers deals with using the strain gauge technique with equipment of dynamic strain measuring to get of maximum practical readings for "Shaping Tool Strain" which is known there physical and mechanical properties from beginning of cutting process to cutting stroke end .The" Merchant cycle" is using to analysis of cutting forces and measuring of label piece's dimensions that is getting at shear plane by changing cutting depth (2, 3 ,5 mm). The theoretical dynamic strain is determine by knowing mechanical properties of cutting material. The standard deviation (0.00016) and correction factor (0.3) that is referring to the ability of the technique can be using to improve cutting process and increase service life of tool cutting 30% approximately .The process is repeated with using one of lubricant liquid to determine dynamic strain values during lubrication and comparing with the previous one can be predict lubrication coefficient during cutting process that average value is (0.93) .

Experimental Investigation Effect of Capillary Tube Number on Window Type Air Conditioning Unit Performance

Ali Khalid Shaker Al-Sayyab

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 333-341

Capillary tubes are widely used in refrigerating and air conditioning units. It has no moving part however, a capillary tube is less expensive and generally performs nearly as well. In this work, the effect of capillary tube numbers on air conditioning system performance is studied for refrigerant R22. The study was adopted with the five capillary tubes at same diameter of 2.2 mm and length of 0.6 m. The experimental work shows that, the air conditioning operates with three capillary tubes gives highest COP from other of the same diameter with 14% increasing from base case of two capillary tubes, where the performance of the air conditioning that operates with one capillary tube gives the lowest COP from other.

Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis for Primary School Site Selection in Al-Mahaweel district Using GIS Technique

Khalid Ahmed Ali

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 342-350

Site selection is the process of finding sites that meet the requirements set by the selection criteria. The long-term and success sustainability of planning school, finding the appropriate school locations is challenging and an important. This study aims to develop a primary school site selection model using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) integrated new approach. It was carried out by Geographic Information Systems and multi-criteria evaluation model (MCEM). Different criteria were used to suggest a number of potential primary school sites using a spatial analysis, which is the new school should be away from existing schools and the major roads, a new site should also be reliably flat land and on certain types of land use. The population factor of the age group less than 14 years was included as a factor to choose the suitable location. As a result, the final suitability map indicates that 18 % of the study area is suitable for a primary school site, 73% moderately suitable, and 9% of the study area under unsuitable.

Improve On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

Intisar Al-Mejibli

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 351-363

Ad hoc wireless network is a dynamic reconfigurable wireless network with no dedicated infrastructure, which makes establishing stable route between two mobile nodes difficult task. This attributed to the mobility characteristic in nodes that resulting in changing the network topology frequently. On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol ODMRP is a common multicast routing protocol designed for wireless ad hoc networks. The dominance of ODMRP comes from its simplicity, high ratio of packet delivery, and independency on a specific unicast protocol. The main rule that ODMRP based on is flooding the entire network with the multicast route request to establish routes of multicast group with forwarding group and to keep the membership of nodes up-to-date. On the other hand, using unicast messages in establishing multicast group is vulnerable to node failures that are common because of the ad hoc networks dynamic nature. This paper proposed an improvement to the available ODMRP which aims to reduce the number of required broadcasting and tackles node failure issue. It’s used unicast messages instead of broadcasting to refresh the nodes membership information which achieved by using ROUTE record with each JOIN REQUEST sent by multicast source. Additionally, it is proposed sending leave message LEAVE MSG by any node intends leaving the multicast group or forwarding group to alert all related nodes to be ready of using alternative route. NS2 simulator is used to apply the suggested improvements. A comparison is conducted between the proposed enhancements and the ODMRP for validation purpose. The obtained results were promising

Investigation of Adrenaline, Nor-Adrenaline and Complete Blood Count in Nursing Students with Phobia at First Clinical Experience

Immunology; Ali J. Eidan; PhD; Hassam M. Al-Amarei; Kalid N. alazawy

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 364-371

Background: The first clinical experience for nursing students can be tense. The students expressed feelings of irritability, an irrational , intense, persistent fear of a specific object or social situation that cause extreme distress and concern due to reasons such as not being ready for clinical experience, thinking they have inadequate clinical skills, unsupportive health professional staff and clinical learning environment, concerns over patient safety. [1]
Objective (s): To determine the level phobia, CBC, epinephrine and nor-epinephrine .To investigate the association of phobia with CBC, epinephrine and nor-epinephrine and identify the relationship of phobia with CBC, epinephrine and nor-epinephrine.
Materials and methods: A cross-sectional descriptive approach was designed to investigate the adrenaline, non-adrenaline level, Complete Blood Counts, and their association with phobia, in apparently healthy nursing students before and after first clinical experience by using Enzyme Linked Immuno-sorbent Assay (ELIZA) technique and utilizing self-report questionnaire. The period of the study is from January / 2017 to March / 2017.
Results: The current study was determined that the majority of age group at age category ≤20 by about (84.5%). Concern to gender, female was more than male (77.5%) and (22.5%) respectively. The education was mostly secondary school (97.2%). Additionally, urban was more than rural (78.9%) and (21.1%) respectively. For martial status, single more than married (94.4%). The studied group were can mostly enough income (54.9%). Additionally, the mean and standard deviation of blood tests and hormone level were different before & after first clinical practice of the nursing student. The statistical results were significant for WBC, HB and highly significant for LYM, RBC, MCP, MCHC, PLT, Adrenaline and nor-adrenaline. The levels of all above blood tests parameters were slightly decrease except adrenaline and nor adrenaline where increase, however these results were statistically significant. The phobia was increased after first clinical practice by about (57.7%). The statistical result was significant at (P-value=0.03%).
Conclusions: The present study concluded that the phobia state in nursing students with first clinical experience had elevated phobia level and increase hormonal level (Adrenaline and nor-adrenaline) and decrease blood cells production when phobia increased.

Steel Fiber Reinforced Self-Compact Concrete Beam under Static Loading Using Finite Elements Method

Sura Amoori Abbas

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 372-387

Static resistance loading of reinforced concrete beams using normal and steel fiber self-compact concrete, with loading applied at the one – third of the beam (four points) was studied. The reinforced concrete beams have been designed under static load according to ACI-318R-2014 [1]. The static loading consists of dead load and residential live load based on ASCE-07-2010 [2].as the beam a part from residential building that scaled down and modeled to not at full scale but as like the traditional experimental test. A three-dimensional finite element models by ANSYS15.0 software [3], have been established to provide a numerical solution as an alternative approach to the experimental models, with some acceptable accuracy. Experimental tests for normal, self – compact and with and without steel fiber concrete to specify compressive strength, tensile strength, and modulus of elasticity presented. Modeling analysis as simply supported beams as approximate situation of beam that was performed to evaluate the performance of ordinary, self-compact and steel fiber self-compact concrete beams under static loading.

Studying Some Factors Affecting in Gingivitis

Meead Hamza Xigheer; Atyaf Ali Sahib

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 388-395

One hundered swabs were taken from patients suffering from dental and periodontal diseases. Seventy fife swabs were taken from males and twenty five from females. All patients did not receive antibiotics for three days at less, to state the relationship between gender, smoking, miswak, toothpaste, milk and sugar with black tea with gingivitis. Streptococcus mutans was isolated with 100%. S. mutans was isolated with 75% from males and 25% from females depending on the morphological and biochemical tests. The results showed that smoking and miswak were the most influence factors under study on gingivitis in both genders. Erythromycin showed biggest inhibition zone with S. mutans, but it was resistance to Tetracycline, Optochin, Bacitracin and Carbenicillin.

Comprehensive Faults Classification Method for Unbalanced Power Distribution Systems

Shamam Fadhil Alwash

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 396-406

Unbalanced power distribution systems experience single faults and compound faults types. The classification of these faults is considered as one of the most important requirements for the fault analysis and the fault location techniques. However, existing methods for fault classification have been formulated to consider only single-fault types. This paper presents a comprehensive faults classification method for unbalanced power distribution systems. In this method, new fault classification indices are derived to consider all fault types including the compound-fault ones. The values of these indices are determined based on the transient analysis of the current signals using discrete wavelet transform (DWT). These indices are utilized in conjunction with adaptive neural-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) to classify all fault types. In order to verify the accuracy of the proposed method, a practical distribution system is used to test the method under different fault conditions.

A methods of ensuring consistency between UML Diagrams

Ihab L.Hussein Alsammak; Humam M. Abdul Sahib; Wasan H.Itwee

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 407-417

The Unified Modelling Language (UML), is the first step of developing an object-oriented design method and a standard notation for the modelling of real-world objects and it consists of fourteen various diagram types. The complex relationships between UML diagrams will lead to the inconsistencies among the unified modelling language (UML) diagrams therefore, it is so important to verify model in the early phase before implement it because early error detection will be easier to fix than later phase.
This paper focuses on in what the way to determine and identify inconsistencies between unified modelling language diagrams. Eleven of the consistency rules will be applied to check the consistency models between mostly used categories of unified modelling language diagrams in the field of systems design and systems analysis. As follows state of these diagrams: (Use Case Diagram, Class Diagram, Communication Diagram, and Sequence Diagram). To check inconsistencies between unified modelling language diagrams there are four ways: dynamic check, automatic maintenance, manual check, and compulsory restriction. Using these methods and rules are useful for developers to model material systems. In the consistency rules each diagram has elements are described by a logical approach.

A Study of Nuclear Structure of 122-128Te Even-Even Isotopes by the Interacting Boson Model-1

Amir A. Mohammed Ali; Khalid Hussain Hattif Al-Attiah

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 418-424

Feature of energy levels for even-even tellurium isotopes (122-128) and reduced electric transition probability B(E2) have been studied using the Interacting Boson Model-1 (IBM-1). The calculations of energy levels were carried out using the program package IBM-code, and the program IBMT-code for evaluating the electric transitions.
The present study assigned the spin/parity for some levels which have been assigned definitely, where the level (2.4 MeV) for 122Te have been specified with a spin/parity 24+, the levels (2.3, 2.2 and 2.6 MeV) for 124Te by 51+, 43+ and 62+ and the level (2.7 MeV) for 126Te by 43+ instead of (2+, 3+, 4+ ) which is experimentally specified.
In addition to the determination of the spin/parity of other energy levels which are not assigned practically where assigned the spin/parity of the energy level (1.7 MeV) for 124Te by the value 31+ and the level (2.6 MeV) for the 126Te by 51+.
The present results suggest some new energy levels: (2.41 MeV) for 122Te with spin/parity 51+ (3.2 MeV) and (4.06 MeV) for 124Te with spin/parity 82+ and 102+, (3.5 MeV) and (1.9 MeV) for 126Te by 82+ and 03+ and the other levels (2.13 MeV, 2.19 MeV, 2.7 MeV, 2.84 MeV and 2.88 MeV) for 128Te by 03+, 42+, 23+, 24+ and 43+ respectively. The Te isotopes have shown their membership to the vibrational limit SU(5).

Analysis of linear canonical correlation to study the levels of students in the morning and evening study of the Department of Finance and Banking at the University of Karbala

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 1-10

The research Stops entirety on one of subjects multivariate of statistical variables , That is canonical correlation analysis which facilitates the study of the relationship between the two sets of variables , and was sample of the study is the degree of students in the fourth stage in the department of banking and finance to study the morning and evening at the University of Karbala, find out the levels of students' in the study evening by comparing the degrees students of the study morning the same subjects , and reached the study to the presence significant differences between the two groups through the extracting statistical indicators using software (SPSS / Syntax - ver 20, Statgraphics) . and it divided portions of the search on two parts take the first section theoretical side the display the subject of linear canonical correlation , take Section II practical side the display analysis of results using the software above

Determine the appropriate model to queuing theory to improve banking service

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 11-24

إن نظرية صفوف الانتظار شهدت اهتماماً واسعاً لدى الباحثين والدارسين عن طريق كثرة البحوث والدراسات عن هذا الموضوع التي وجدت مجالات عدة لتطبيقها .
إذ أستعرض في الجانب النظري من هذا البحث أهم العناصر الأساسية لنماذج صفوف الانتظار, والأنماذج الرياضية الخاصة بصفوف الانتظار.إما الجانب العملي فقد تضمن عملية جمع البيانات الحقيقية,واستخدام الانموذج( M/M/m ).واجراء اختبار حسن المطابقة لغرض التأكد من نوع التوزيع النظري للبيانات الحقيقية .
وكانت النتائج أن الأنموذج المناسب هو ( M/M/3) , بدلاً من(M/M/2).الذي يؤدي إلى صغر حجم صف الانتظار وعدم ضياع وقت الزبائن .

Synthesis & Characterization of new chalcone azo dyes

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 25-31

يتضمن البحث تحضير اصباغ جالكون جديدة عن طريق تفاعل ازدواج للجالكون المعوض مع مركبات فينوليه مختلفة . مشتقات الجالكون المحضرة تم تشخيصها باستخدام تقنيات الاشعة تحت الحمراء، الاشعة فوق البنفسجية – المرئية ، الرنين النووي المغناطيسي للبروتون .

Impact of buzz Marketing to build proactive approach using competitive strategies

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 32-57

The rapid development and intense competition under which marketing organizations are working has forced these organizations seek to find the latest methods to promote products and brands, therefore specialists that the use of marketing methods Hummingbird is one of the important steps that stimulate companies to keep abreats of developments in the environment marketing, as researchers wannt to draw the attention of marketing managers of modern marketing methods such as marketingBuzzer which which in our study as an independent variable where the dimensions ofthecreationof the noice the strategy of cultivating ideas to sowing the product( customer orientation, orientation towards competition, function integration) ,srtategies that have been seleted as an intermediate variable through its dimensions ( low cost , leadership, discrimintion , ets through proactive strategies such as proactive approach the main conclusion of the research is that there is a correlation between the used of the strategy of planting and sowing ideas in rhe mind of the customer and the strategy of the creation incentives and participation of individuals as the represent the main dimension of the buzzer marketing varible, the most important of what is recommended by the researchers is the need of the attention of the marketing decision makers in particular to study the external environment and its vaiables , especially in the persence of companies that floodedin the iraqi market with foreign productin order to anticipate the satisfaction of the needs and desires of customers and achieve copetitive precedence by adopting one of the competitve strategies , the research will cosist of four main topics . the first section will explain the methodological framework of the research , while the third section explains : the practical framework of research , the last section includes the most important conclusion and recommendations

Effect of Copper Cu on the structure Properties of Zinc ferrite Films ZnFe2O4

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 58-66

In this study, the effect of ( Cu) on the structural properties of ZnFe2O4 on quartz glass substrate of ratio(0,0.1,0.3,0.5,0.7,0.9)by using chemical spray pyrolysis method of thickness (300 ± 15)nm At the temperature of 400 ± 10oC and annealing at( 520 oC) for 4h, the structure of the films prepared using( X-R)D was determined. The results showed that the films of the Spinal Ferrite type and the preferred direction (311) It was also found that the particle size decreases by increasing the rate of doping while increasing the proportion of the density of crystals number of crystals, and the Lattice constant increases.

Effect of 2,4-D pesticide on the histological structure of the testes in Albino mice (Mus musculus)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 67-73

The results obtained from this study showed that all animals of two experiment groups that treated with 2, 4-D pesticide indicated a change in the thickness of seminiferous tubule wall of the testes and contraction in them where its appearance became irregularly and crooked as well as observed atrophy in some seminiferous tubule and depletion of some germ cells and collected in the cavity of the seminiferous tubule. Also an increase in the area between Sertoli cells was observed.

The Effect of Adding Dry Bread to the Fattening Ration of Local Kids in Increasing Weight and Body Measurements

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 74-78

Three different rations of dry bread were used in this study: 9%, 12% and 15% for three fattening periods: 1-45 days, 1-90 days, and 1- 135 days. Results showed that there was a significant difference in the average of body weight when the percentage of the three rations of dried bread was changed. Third group (15% dried bread) significantly (P≤0.05) through fattening period of 1- 90 days for the average weight gain in comparison to other groups. A significant difference (P≤0.05) in the median weight of the goats at the fattening period of 1-135 days, while 1-90 days fattening period recorded a median weight equal to 29.607kg and minimum fattening period of 1-45 days was recorded a median of 27.865 kg. Height of the body has a high significant effect (P≤0.01) at level 15% dry bread in comparison with the other rations.
Additionally statistical analysis pointed out a differences (P≤0.05) of fattening period 1-135 days on the characteristics of the kids body (chest, size and height of buttock and length of body) sizes in comparing with other fattening periods. A high significant difference (P≤0.05)during the fattening period of 1- 135 days to body measurements represented by abdomen and height at front in comparison to the two previously mentioned characteristics for fattening periods

Effect of Micro and Nano Zirconia (ZrO2) Addition on the Thermal Conductivity of Iraqi Kaolin Composite

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 79-94

Iraqi kaolin is used as a principle part of the study after additives sugarcane straw in ratio (10%) and (2%) from Poly Vinyl Alcohol ( PVA) as a binding material. (Micro or Nano) Zirconia added to the composite in different ratio ( 0% , 5 % , 10% , 15% , 20% ) for the purpose of improving the thermal properties. Samples are reformed in a semi-dry pressing with pressure about (25 MPa).
The formulation is achieved by using a template of (40 mm) diameter and a period about (2 min). Then sintering for the prepared samples where done.
Burning process by three temperature degrees ( 1000, 1100, 1200 ) Co at average raise about 3 temperature degree / 1 minute and remained at every temperature degree for two hours.
The results showed that the increase in the proportion of ( Micro or Nano ) Zirconia lead in a reduction the value of thermal conductivity and received the best results by adding Nano Zirconia, while it lead increasing the temperature degree of the burning to increasing the value of the thermal conductivity.

The audit risk and its impact on the opinion of the auditor and the credibility of the audit results and ways of reducing them (Applied study in Crescent Industrial Joint Stock Company)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 95-116

That most of the economic units activities contain a variety of risks, including with regard to the nature of its activities or internal abide by its laws, and the aim of the audit is to examine and test the items contained in the financial statements show the auditor's professional technical neutral opinion about the fairness of the financial statements and representation of the financial center, The auditor's opinion occupies a great importance by all parties benefiting from , in making their decisions so access to this view which is not easy because there are several obstacles facing the work of the auditor and these obstacles are the difficulty of convergence of audit risk in the audit process, leading to the auditor to face an opinion may be misleading , the beneficiaries may harmed , due to the weakness , the lack of interest in building a methodology that is considered in accordance with the rules and standards which may determine how the auditor deals with the risks of auditing of the financial statements. The importance of the research is highlighted by identifying the significant impact that the audit risk poses on the adequacy and effectiveness of the auditor's performance, which seeks to perform a better performance by expressing a neutral professional opinion on the fairness of the financial statements, which reflects positively on the increase the trust of users from their report, The objective of the research is to identify the various types of audit risks and the factors affecting them, to study, assess and analyze those risks to the auditor regarding the validity and fairness of the financial statements, use the methods and procedures by which these risks can be reduced according to the rules and standards that determine how the auditor With the risk of auditing the financial statements, for the purpose of achieving the objectives of research and testing hypotheses was chosen Al-Hilal Industrial Company, a joint stock company sample research, in the light of the theoretical and practical aspects of it was reached a set of conclusions was the most prominent .
1 -The use of the auditor for analytical procedures contributes to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the audit because it helps the controller in the identification of errors and distortions in the items of financial statements, which contributes to reducing the risk of discovery.
2 - the audit risk assessment is based on the auditor personal judgment , a precise and accurate assessment of the audit risk and its components can not be made .it relies on the ability and profession competence of the self –auditor to develop and analyze the risks surrounding the economic unit environment and its internal control system and the risk analysis of the professional currency.
The study came out with a number of recommendations, notably:
1. The auditor should consider the analytical procedures at all stages of the audit because they are important for disclosing unusual cases in the financial statements. In addition, the auditor contributes to increasing the company's understanding and the variables that occur during previous years, in addition to reducing the risk of discovery.
2. It is the responsibility of the auditing of account to follow effective and professional audit procedures necessary to obtain evidence and evidence in order to reduce the risk of discovery to the level allowed and to express a professional opinion neutral on the veracity and fairness of financial statement .

Study the Effect of Titanuim Particles Addition on the Some mechanical Properties of Hybrid Composite Materials

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 117-126

This research studied the mechanical properties (tensile strength ,impact strength and Brinell hardness) for hybrid material with matrix of unsaturated polyester reinforced by four different weight fraction (5,10,15,20)% of titanium particales, with constant percentage 10% of carbon or glass fiber. Standard samples for tensile, impact and hardness test were prepared. Three samples for each percentage and the average of the three recorded data were taken , the results showed high improvement in the tensile strength from (11.7,22) MPa to (18,29.5) MPa for hybrid polyester reinforced by 10% glass and carbon fiber with 15% weight fraction of titanium particles respectively. Impact test also showed good improvement from (75,160)KJ/m2 to (115,210)KJ/m2 for hybrid polyester with 15% titanium particles. The hardness increased from (98,393)HBN for hybrid polyester with 15% titanium .
Generally reinforced by 15% weight fraction for titanium particles improved the mechanical properties more than the rest weight fraction by titanium particles and the same reinforced condition.

Assessment of the waste water effect on The Presence and the density of the Tigris River benthic fauna by using biodiversity index in AL-Kut City.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 127-136

The present study aimed to investigate the effect of heavy water (sewage water) on the quality of water and the living organisms in the water, especially the benthic invertebrates. Five stations were selected in the river at AL-Kut city, the first is before sewage pipe , the second near the sewage pipe and third , fourth and fifth were after the position of sewage pipe. The samples were collected monthly during the period from July- December 2015. The study includes several statistical indexes (Relative abundance index, Constancy Index, Shannon-Weiner Diversity Index, Species Uniformity Index and Species Richness Index). The results revealed that there were decreasing in the studies indexes, at station (2) which is near the position of the sewage pipe. The benthic invertebrates biodiversity was also affected by the sewage pipe at the station (2). Results of the present study recorded the highest percentage and it was 45.1% Oligochaeta , Chironomidae was 29%, Mollusca was 19.4% and Nematode was 6.5%.

Assessment of the waste water effect on The Presence and the density of the Tigris River benthic fauna by using biodiversity index in AL-Kut City.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 127-136

The present study aimed to investigate the effect of heavy water (sewage water) on the quality of water and the living organisms in the water, especially the benthic invertebrates. Five stations were selected in the river at AL-Kut city, the first is before sewage pipe , the second near the sewage pipe and third , fourth and fifth were after the position of sewage pipe. The samples were collected monthly during the period from July- December 2015. The study includes several statistical indexes (Relative abundance index, Constancy Index, Shannon-Weiner Diversity Index, Species Uniformity Index and Species Richness Index). The results revealed that there were decreasing in the studies indexes, at station (2) which is near the position of the sewage pipe. The benthic invertebrates biodiversity was also affected by the sewage pipe at the station (2). Results of the present study recorded the highest percentage and it was 45.1% Oligochaeta , Chironomidae was 29%, Mollusca was 19.4% and Nematode was 6.5%.

Isolation and diagnosis of some fungi from the staff at the maintenance center of the manuscripts in the threshold of Husseiniya holy and impact of sensitivity

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 137-151

A total of 242 isolates fungi were that take from the mouth, nose and ulcers of the center for the maintenance and restoration of manuscripts and the library. The total number of mouth, nose and ulcers was 82, 87 and 73, respectively. Nose recorded the highest percentage of fungal numbers 36%, followed by mouth 33.9% and lowest percentage 30.2%. The superiority of fungus Aspergillus with 64.6% of isolates. A.niger recorded the highest percentage of 39% and 37% of the mouth and nose, respectively , it also recorded the highest frequency of 29.85% and 24.68% of mouth and nose, respectively. , And the samples taken from the same workers Yeast recorded the highest percentage of the Occurance of 43%. And the highest percentage of frequency of 33.85%. The distribution density coefficient of fungi isolated from the mouth, nose, and ulcer derived from the workers A.flavus, Yeast, A. niger, were the most intensive in distribution respectively.
Some of the 51 male workers were aged 22-36 years, 31 (60.8%) were previously allergic and 20 (39.2%) had no previous allergic reactions. The nasal sinuses were ranked first at frequency 36 followed by asthma and skin sensitivity at a frequency of 31 for both.
The results showed that 17 (33.3%) participants were normal and did not suffer any lung function problems despite the presence of clinical symptoms diagnosed by the specialist doctor.
The results showed that the ratio of eosonophyl count and IGE titter of the workers was different. The results of the X-rays of the participants who were referred to the radiation showed no satisfactory symptoms, confirming the role of fungi in their sensitivity

The development of normal air cooler to air cooler with four doors

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 152-165

In this research, an experimental study is conducted to design a proposed air cooler with four doors to suit the weather conditions in Iraq and especially in Karbala city. This is due to the inability of normal air cooler to reduce the weather’s temperature degree. The proposed air cooler is designed to increase the cooling effectiveness and to obtain temperature degrees within the comfort chart of human beings. For this purpose, two air coolers of the same size and type (Barfab) are configured and one of these air coolers is adjusted to become an air cooler with four doors, where the cold air is pushed from the bottom side. Study and experiment are conducted on both the proposed and the normal air coolers at the same time and within the same weather conditions, for comparison purposes. The experimental results of the performance of the air coolers show that the effectiveness of the proposed air cooler (30.3% - 75.4%) is higher than the effectiveness of the normal air cooler (15.2% - 70.4%) from 33oC to 42oC. However, the cooling effectiveness of both air coolers is the same at 42oC and 43oC. Accordingly, the high cooling effectiveness of the proposed air cooler compared with the normal one, in addition to its reduction in the temperature degrees of the air coming out of the air cooler, confirms the priority of utilising the proposed air cooler under most of the weather conditions of Iraq

Adsorption of methyl green from aqueous solutions by used nano surface Mg/ Al layered double hydroxides and study of thermodynamic properties

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 166-175

Adsorption of pigments using LDHs is a new effective approach to remove the contamination of aqueous liquids. A descriptive and quantity study was implemented for investigation of the LDHs ability in adsorption as an alternative method for eliminating the contamination from water. The ultraviolet spectroscopy technique was used to monitor the concentrations of the pigment in the aqueous liquid after mixing with specific weigh of LDHs. Different liquids of pigment was utilized to obtain the adsorption of isotherm. The langmuir and freundlich equations of adsorption isotherm were applied. Additionally, effect of the temperature and LDHs concentration were investigated. The best temperature was found to be 293 °C while the best concentration was 0.2 g. The influence of pH was also examined, showed the adsorption quantity depending on the alteration of the pH when it was 3 whereas it reduced after pH became 6.9. This study indicated clearly to high capacity of the LDHs compounds in elimination of the pigments.

A survey on the prevalence of parasite Sarcoptes scabiei in some areas of Karbala

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 176-183

The prevalence of scabies was investigated in Karbala governorate in 2016-2017. A total of 20032 patients ,368(220 mail, 148 female) patients found infected (1,83%) and the highest infection was in the district of Hindiya with 2.42% and the lowest in Al Husseiniya area was 1.22% The results showed that during the months of the year, the distribution of infection rates was different The percentage of infection in the month of May amounted to 1.45% and the lowest rate in November was 0.36%. The percentage of infection with sex differences with age groups was 59.8% in males and 40.2% in females. %. The results showed a difference in the percentage of infection among different age groups, and the highest rate was 35.3% in the age group confined between 15-45 compared to the lowest rate of 3.3% in the age group less than a year. As well as the months of study and the season of infection as the results show that the highest percentage was in May and the lowest rate was in October and amounted to 0.36%. The results showed that the prevalence rate of infection varies from one person to another according to his profession, with the highest number of injuries among workers, 32.6% In females and trunk area in males it was reached 100% and 98%, respectively

Usage of Insect grouth regulater Match and Alcoholic Eucalyptus leaf extract as new drug against Scabies

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 184-193

The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of aseries of concentration of alchoholic extracts(Eucalyptus, Myrtus) and IGR (Neporex, Match) treatment of scabies cases. As for treatment with Eucalyptus extract 50mgl for 24h in two weeks the results indicated that the cure rate for children was 90% Vaseline and 80% without Vaseline higher than that of other age groups (males and females), the cure rate was 60% for both sexes when treated with the water solution and 70% for males and females respectively in the treatment with Vaseline. In the treatment with the Myrtus extract and the same concentration, the results were 60%, 40%, 50% for both children and males And females respectively in the water solution But after using Vaseline ratios stood at 80% and 60%, 70% respectively. The highest concentration was 50 mg / l, with 100% cure rate for all studied groups (children, males, females) when using treatment every 24 hours, as well as for the Neporex growth regulator and the same concentration and treatment period of two weeks. At the time of the treatment of the heterozygous action between the regulator and the plant extracts, an increase in the treatment effect was observed, with 100% of the treated groups being treated every 48 hours compared to the neporex antagonist with plant extracts. The cure rate was 100% 50 mg / L when treated every 24 hours

Evaluating the efficiency of sodium bicarbonate and ascorbic acid in protecting apple fruit from injury isolated fungus Aspergillus niger producing ochratoxin under normal storage conditions

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 194-200

This study included evaluation of the efficiency of the subjects a solution sodium bicarbonate concentration of 0.05 mg and ascorbic acid concentration of 0.5 ml in protecting the apples fruits from infected by Aspergillus. niger producing ochratoxin A, where the study included the treatment two groups of apples (stricken and right) by sodium bicarbonate and ascorbic acid with treatment vaccine A. niger under study, this study was conducted in the form of experience Stockpile for ten days under normal laboratory conditions, and the results showed the effectiveness of sodium bicarbonate solution in protecting the apples (stricken and right) fully as the prevalence and severity of zero, while the acid solution of ascorbic did not provide Protection of the fruits as the percentage of 100% incidence and severity of injury 25%


journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 201-212

A field experiment was carried out at the Abu Ghraib Research Station during four seasons (autumn 2015, spring and autumn 2016 and spring 2017) to study the genetic function controlling the inheritance of morphological growth traits and determining the general and private coalition viability. The first season included one-way cross-fertilization of six strains of maize (MGW-48, ART-C-26, Dr-B-32, S-267, Pio-318 and Dr-C-15) in the Griffing (Half Diallel) method for first-generation hybrids, spring and autumn season, The first is to obtain second and third generation hybrids, The results showed that there were significant differences between the generations in the traits except the status of the product of each plant, where the superiority of the third generation by giving the highest rates in all attributes, except for the plant. Dr-B-32xDr-C-15, with the highest average height of the plant in the third generation, outperformed the ART-C-26xS-267 by giving it the highest rate in the third generation of the row number (8.19). The results showed that the positive hybrid strength of the traits except the number of rows in the mullet gave positive and negative hybrid strength. The hybrid (Dr-B-32 x MGW-48) gave the highest positive hybrid strength of 64018%. The genetic analysis showed that the average squares of the public and private coalition were significant. ART-C-26 showed a highly controversial effect that distinguished the DR-C-15 x MGW-48 hybrid by giving it the best effect of the special coalition. The rate of sovereignty was higher than one. The inheritance ratio in the broad sense was high and the inheritance ratio in the narrow sense was low.
Keywords: yellow corn - genetic act - coalition viability - inheritance ratio

Evaluation of the efficiency of some plant extracts against all the stages of gray scale insect Parlatoriablanchardi (Targioni-Tozzetti( on date palms ((Homoptera: Diaspidadae Phoenix dactylifera L. In Laboratory

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 213-221

The research was carried out to study the efficacy of water extracts of tea plants Camellia sinensis (L.), Eucalyptus camaldulensisand Oleavera in the control of gray scale insect parlatoriablanchardi(Targioni-Tozzetti). The results showed an advantage of the Oleavera extract on the plant extracts used in the experiment in eliminating all insect stages, with a relative efficiency rate of 45.9, 52.8%, 42.5 and 39.2% Respectively for each of the eggs, the crawling nymph , sitting nymph and the adult stage, the results showed that the best concentration gave the highest mortality rate for egg was the concentration (3 ml / L.) of the Eucalyptus extract was found to be 100% effective after five days of treatment with extract and a significant difference in all concentrations and time periods. The highest relative efficiency of the elastomeric stages was the total of the aloe vera extract and the concentration of 3 ml / L and five days after treatment with the extract and a significant difference from the rest of the concentrations and for all periods of time was 91.2, 74.3 and 91.1%, respectively

Effect of water and alcohol extract of Peganum harmal plant, Cinnamomum zeilanicum and Cuminum cyminum against the red flour beetles Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 222-231

The current study showed that the larvae and adults mortality rate of the red flour beetles Tribolium castaneum was 90% and 56.7%, respectively, in the treatment of 5% alcohol extract, followed by the alcohol extract of 53.1% and 26.5% at 5% and 4% Respectively. The Cumin extract gave the lowest loss rate of 35.1% and 12.3% at 5% concentration. The highest percentage of larvae and adult larvae was treated with 5% water extract (51.9% and 45.0% respectively), followed by water extract (25.1% and 30.0%, respectively). The water cumin extract was the lowest For larvae and adults were 19.9% and 26.0%, respectively, at concentrations of 4% and 5%. The study of the extruding and attractive effect of plant extracts showed that the extract of water cumin and the alcoholic acid had an effect of 80% and 46.66% And the cumin extract, where the percentage of expulsion was 6.66% using the method of McDonald

Effect of Water and Alcohol Extracts of Allium sativam , Myrtus communis and their Synergistic Effect on Controlling the Red Flour Beetle Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleptera: Tenebrionidae)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 231-241

A series of laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the effect of Allium sativam and Myrtus communis extracts and their synergistic effect in control of the Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), The results of the experiment showed a significant effect between the type of extract and extraction method with water and alcohol extracts and concentrations of extracts In the rate of larvae stage killing of Tribolium castaneum, The concentration of 4 mg / ml was recorded In the extraction method (the extract of alcohol) of the plant Myrts communis highest kill rate in the larval stage of Tribalium castaneum was 33.333%, The concentration of 2 mg / ml was obtained by extracting the alcohol extract and a concentration of 3 mg / ml for Myrtus communis highest mortality rate in Tribolium castaneum was 20.0%. The results showed a significant effect on the synergistic effect of sunflower oil Between the type of extract and extraction method and concentrations of extracts In the adult mortality rate of the Tribolium castaneum the concentration of 3 mg / ml was recorded with the activated (synergistic) water extract of Myrts communis highest rate of killing in the adult stage of the insect was 83.8% .

Study of sexual hormones alterations in native black goat does during winter and summer season

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 252-257

Current study showed There are high significance increase (P<0.01) of the carcass weight in the winter compared with summer, whilst there is no significant difference between the number of ova in both seasons. There is a high significance effect increase in temperature and illumination period (P<0.01) during summer compared to winter, and also there is a high significance difference increase (P<0.01) in the animal age during winter compared to summer season. The study shows that there is a significant correlation (P<0.05) between temperature and the concentration progesterone, and a significant correlation between the carcass weight and the progesterone, also there is a high significance correlation (P<0.01) between carcass weight and the number of ova.

Study of protective role for aqueous extract of cyperus esculentus L.on some parameters of physiological and histological for testes in rabbit

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 258-267

The study involved fifteen health adult male rabbit white (Lepus arcticus), the average weight (1.500-1.600) K.g. and age 8 month to one year old . The rabbits were divided to fife group , the first group was treated with lead acetate (1.5)ml daily and for amount , the second group was treatment aqueous extract of cyperus esculentus tubers (4.5) ml and lead acetate (1.5) ml day after another day for amonth the third group was control treated with normal salin . the study amied to determine the effect of cyperus esculents extraet on the some level of testosterone hormone , leutenizing hormone follicale stimulating hormone and sperm count and mean diameter of seminiferous tubules , the height of the germinal epithelinm and lumen of semini ferrous , spermaltogenia , primary spermatocytes spermatids and sertoli cells .
The result of the present study showed :-
Significat decrease (p <0.05 ) in mean leval of testosterons , sperm count , LH and FSH hormones and in mean diameter of seminiferous tubules height of the germinal epithelium , spermatogonia , primary spermato cytes , spermatids and sertoli cell in lead acetate group compared with control group while significant increase (p < 0.05) look in mean diameter in lumen of seminiferous tubules compared with control group additionally significant increase (p< 0.05) appear in mean level of testosterons , sperm count ,LH , FSH hormones and in mean diameter in seminiferous tubules, hight of the germinal epithelium spermatogonia , primary spermatocytes , spermatids and sertoli cell in the aqueous extract of cyperus esculentus group compared with control group on the other no significant (p>0.05) in mean diameter of lumean of seminiferous tubules compared with control group .

The histological structure of digestive tube in Chondrostoma regium .

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 268-275

The present study was carried out to determine the histological structure of digestive trube in Chondrostoma regium . The histological study showed that wall of the digestive tube is comprised of four layers these are: tunica mucosa, tunica sub mucosa, tunica muscularis and tunica serosa. The tunica mucosa of the esophagus is represented by lining epithelium of stratified epithelium tissue with mucous cells and supported by lamina propria/ sub mucosa, as the muscularis mucosa has not distinguished in the esophagus and along the intestine in this species. The lining epithelium of the intestine is represented by simple columnar epithelial tissue with mucous cells as well as the present study has demonstrated that the mucous cells of the esophagus gave negative expression for PAS-- and positive expression for AB+ whereas the mucous cells along the intestine gave positive expression for both PAS+ and AB+ .

The histological structure of digestive tube in Chondrostoma regium .

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 268-275

The present study was carried out to determine the histological structure of digestive trube in Chondrostoma regium . The histological study showed that wall of the digestive tube is comprised of four layers these are: tunica mucosa, tunica sub mucosa, tunica muscularis and tunica serosa. The tunica mucosa of the esophagus is represented by lining epithelium of stratified epithelium tissue with mucous cells and supported by lamina propria/ sub mucosa, as the muscularis mucosa has not distinguished in the esophagus and along the intestine in this species. The lining epithelium of the intestine is represented by simple columnar epithelial tissue with mucous cells as well as the present study has demonstrated that the mucous cells of the esophagus gave negative expression for PAS-- and positive expression for AB+ whereas the mucous cells along the intestine gave positive expression for both PAS+ and AB+ .

Effect of Sodium Triphosphate , Sodium Lactate and Nisin On Microbial Count and Sensory Characterstics of Cold Ground Beef

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 276-285

The study was conducted to reveal the possibility of improving sensory characteristics and microbial content of ground beef which was stored by chilling, by addition nisin1000IU, Sodium triphosphate 2%,sodium lactate 3%, all treatments were stored separately for 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 days at 4 ° C and tested sensory and microbiologicaly .appearance Results of the sensory evaluation indicated an increase of values of general shape as well as color and general palatability of meat , while results of taste evaluation indicated an improvement of tenderness, flavor and meat Juiciness in comparasion with the elongation of storage period caused adecrease of tenderness ,flavor with an increase in meat juice , Microbial tests showed a reduction of bacterial numbers either as total count or psychrotrophic or coliform as well as reduction of fungi and yeast as compared with the control, elongation of storage period by chilling caused an increase of those values.

Gallstones: some of the factors causing the infection and some associated blood changes in some patients in Karbala Governorate.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 286-294

It had been studied the reasons of gallstone infection, which included 130 cases in Al-Hussain hospital at Karbala governorate during the period 7-2011 to 2-2012. The study included both gender male and female to all ages after collecting the following information from patient which are age, weight, type of nutrition and genetic factor and for female if they had been taken the oral contraceptive pill or not, as well as the measurement of total account of both W.B.C and R.B.C, the level of cholesterol in the blood, in addition to those cases with diabetes or not. The result had shown most of gallstone infected patient were female at rate 70.8% compared with male 29.2% especially with old ages to both gender, where at age range between (66-75) years for male the rate was (34.21%) while in female the rate was (39.13%) at age (76-85%) years. Also the study shown a relationship between weight and gallstone infection, which reached in male to 34.2% at weight ranging from (101-110 kg), while in female the rate was (33.7%) at weight (111-120 kg). Most of infected female with gallstone were the oral contraceptive pill at rate was (76.1%). In the case of nutrition, results had shown that most patient with gallstone were using meat which the rate was (52.63%) in male and (54.35%) in female. The total count of W.B.C. was higher in those patient (11.5-12 x 103 / ml3) at rate 28.95% in male and (11.5-12 x 103 / ml3) at rate 32.6% in female. While the total count of R.B.C, there was no association between the R.B.C and gallstone infection. Finally, the results of study had shown a relationship between incidence of gallstone and diabetes which the rate 73.68% in male and from one side and the relationship with cholesterol level in blood from other side where the rate in male reached to (65.79%) and in female (67.39%).

Use of the reagent 2-[(4-methl phenyl)azo]-4,5-diphenylimidazole [4-MPADPI] in Spectral determination of Ag( I ) ion

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 295-304

The organic reagent 2-[(4-methyl phenyl)azo]-4,5-di phenyl imidazole form an orange complex with silver (I) in aqueous media at (pH=9).The complex was found to be stable for at least 24 hour the given pH .Beers low is obeyed in the concentration range (9.27x10-6 -9.27x10-7) M. with molar absorptivity of (1.1866x104 L .mol- 1.Cm-1) .The stoichiometry of complex was studied using mole ratio, Jobs and molard methods .The results indicated that the confirmed ratio of reagent to metal is (1:2). The studied effect of different parameters such as effect of cations and anions ,masking agent , effect of time , sequences of addition and effect of temperature were . Stalistical figures for determination of Ag (I) ion by (4- MPADPI) were RSD % (% 4.280 - % 0.310) error %[(0.25- 0.34)] and DL(4.38 x10-7 M).

The effect of aqueous extract of Foeniculum vulgare seeds on soom electrolytes in serum of white male rat induced by inflammation of the kidneys

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 305-314

This study aimed to find out the effect of the warm aqueous extract of seeds fennel on white male rats infected kidney inflammation induced glycol ethylene.
The study was conducted at the animal house of the college of pharmacy/ University of Kerbala for the period from November 2015 to March 2016. A number of 75 white male rats were taken as a sample and randomly divided into five groups ( 15 rats for each group ). The first group was the negative control group which was given tap water for a period of 45 days. The second group received glycol ethylene with a concentration 0.75% was given with water and considered as a positive control group; while the third, fourth, and fifth groups were induced by kidney Inflammation of treating glycol ethylene. The rats were orally given and after days of Inflammation induction of kidney by seeds fennel aqueous extract with doses of 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg of body weight per day for a month successively .
Blood samples were collected from both groups before the induction of kidney inflammation and after 15 days of induction of kidney inflammation and month after the dosage aqueous extract seeds plant fennel to study Almaiaralaty :measure the level of sodium (Na+) and measure the level of Potassium (K+) and measure the level of calcium (Ca2+) and measure the level of Magnesium (Mg+) and measure the level of Chloride (Cl-) and measure the level of Phosphate (Po4) in the blood as well as taking other textile segments of the liver, kidney, heart, and for the purpose of studing the histological changes after measuring the weights of these members , showed the results of the current study
The results of the study . said the induction of kidney inflammation in male albino rat led to a significant increase (P<0.05) in the Sodium (Na+) level and Potassium (K+) and Calcium ( Ca+2) and Magensium (Mg+2) and Chloride (Cl-) and Phosphate Po4 compared with healthy control , and obtain a significant decrease (P<0.05) in the Sodium level and Potassium K+ and Magensium Mg+2 and Chloride Cl- and phosphate Po4 and Calcium Ca+2) in the treatment of aqueous extract fennel seeds plant as compared to the infected control totals

Study the ability of bacteria Escherichia coli to formation of biofilm isolated from patients with urinary tract infections and Resistance to Antibiotics

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 315-319

This Conducted this study isolation and identification bacteria Escherichia coli isolated from patient with urinary tract infection (UTI) and auditors to the hospital of imam hussain medical city. For the period of December 2016 to February 2017 a total of 120 sample has been taken from people with UTI for both sexes that aged rang between (12-72) Years in which there were 45% of cases infected by E. coli and the infection was more in females than males. A total of 55 were diagnosed of bacteria Escherichia coli and investigated for their sensitivity to antibiotics for each ampicillin ,imipenem with resistance 90.9% and 72.7% respectively, then followed by cefoprezon with resistance 58.2% and the isolated bacterial were more sensitive to amicacin ,cefoxitin and norfloxacin with the percent of 94%, 90% and 65.5% respectively. In This study was investigated the ability of bacteria to formation of biofilm by method congo red agar (C.R.A) and the emergence of colonies black dry guide to formation of strong and medium biofilm while the colonies with color pink is a non formation biofilm. And there was 58% of isolated bacteria formation of biofilm while there was 41% with negative formation of biofilm and most of isolates formation biofilm was resistance to antibiotic.

Evaluation the inhibitory efficiency of hybrid nano levofloxacin against some gram negative bacteria isolated from diabetic foot ulcer

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 320-329

The inhibitory activity of each of nano antibiotic levofloxacin Magnisum-Alaminum –Levofloxacin – Layered Double Hydroxide (Mg-Al-LEV-LDH) and free levofloxacin (LEV) were assessed by diffusion agar method against bacterial isolates Proteus mirabilis , Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas spp. isolated from diabetic foot ulcer. Result showed that highest inhibitory activity was obtained against Proteus mirabilis 17a and 17b isolates with average inhibition zones of 40.535 and 40.035 mm, respectively, while the Escherichia coli 102 isolate was the lowest affected with average zone of 3.464 mm. The antimicrobial susceptibility test was carried out for 14 antibiotics and the results of the bacterial susceptibility to different antibiotics varied depending on the tested bacterial isolates. Amikacin and Imipenem were the most effective antimicrobial agents against Escherichia coli. Generally, high resistance among the tested isolates was detected.

Effect of scion species and iron spray on growth of sour lemon and clementine mandarins seedlings budded on sour orange rootstock

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 330-338

This study was conducted in the Horticultur Station of Mahaweel – Hort. & For. Company during Sep. 2016 to Mar. 2017, to find out the impact of species and foliar spray with Fe ( 50 mg. L-1 , 100 mg.L-1 , 150 mg.L-1 and control ) on the vegetative growth characters of tow citrus species ( sour lemon and Clementine mandarins ) budded on citrus seedling rootstock . Randomized complete block design (RCBD) was followed with three replications. Results showed that the species (Sour lemon) showed a significant influence on most characters studied )percentage of successfully scion , seedling length , vegetative shoot number , leaves number and iron concentration in leaves as compared to the local orange cultivar, while Clementine mandarins was significantly dominat in leaf area , leaves dry mater percentage , root dry mater percentage, chlorophyll content and carbohydrate percentage .The treatments 150 mg.L-1 iron resulted in significant increased in all studied characters as compared to the control. The interaction between Sour lemon and the treatment 150 mg.L-1 iron showed a significant influence on percentage of successfully scion , seedling
length , vegetative shoot number , leaves number and iron concentration in leaves as compared to the local orange cultivar, while the interaction between Clementine mandarins and the treatment 150 mg.L-1 iron was significantly dominat in leaf area , leaves dry mater percentage , root dry mater percentage, chlorophyll content and carbohydrate percentage.
Key words: citrus seedling، buddes، iron، foliar spray

Study the effect of additive Carbon nano tube to poly-aniline for ammonium gas sensor

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 339-345

Gas sensors have been prepared by using conducting polymers. Polyaniline (PAni) has been used as the active layers. The formations of PANI on the surface of the carbon nanotubes were investigated by FT-IR. The present research discusses the mechanism of sensing and configurations. Many factors that affect the performances of sensors are addressed such as the relation between which conductivities of PANI and time are registered for several concentrations (100,200,300,400,500) ppm of NH3 and response sensors for same concentrations. The behaviors of conductivities and responses with all concentrations are also recorded.

Evaluation chapter "equilibrium and moments" of physics for the fifth level on secondary teaching

journal of kerbala university, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 377-387

Stage of primary and secondary education is an educational phase is extremely important, and as the Messenger of Allah (r) say, (always has been in his youth, always will be on old age). And the words of the Arabs ( learning at a young age as carving in stone ). Students, What he hears and reads in school is more influential in the construction of scientific and ethical character . One of the elements of the success of the educational process and through the ages and times is the scientific sobriety curricula to make them keep pace with scientific development movement experienced by civilized societies in addition to educational and teaching method to address the vocabulary curriculum and teaching method.
The research problem is to work on evaluating the style of presentation of scientific material and diagnosis of some scientific errors and topics contained in Chapter-4 in physics for the fifth level on secondary schools which includes the study of static equilibrium. The research aims to go out an objective assessment of student help increase understanding of static equilibrium in a simple , without raising question marks . Find relied on the study of the principles of dormancy (Static) as a mechanical engineering sciences , according to the method of presentation of the material , which worked more common scientific sources . The most important conclusions that came out of the research is to repeat the write forces and moments as vectors while using the numerical expression when applied examples resolved, and this is contrary to what the student will find it in college. View article confuses the student did not help him to understand the content well. In addition to some scientific errors and typos.