ISSN: 1813-0410

Volume 12, Issue 2

Volume 12, Issue 2, Spring 2016, Page 1-264

The legal status of the seller at the auction on " A comparative study "

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 1-18

Led technological development, who arrived in all aspects of life, including the trade, to the emergence of electronic markets via the Internet in addition to traditional markets, featured e-commerce as well as traditional trade, it has become online shopping and buying from online auctions within reach of everyone, and creates contracted through auction-mail , the seller has the legal status under which certain rights, and have it upon himself certain obligations

Legal problems that raised from electronic contract & it's of coordination Comparative study

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 19-39

Electronic contract is the offer that raise from one of the party with the acceptance of another,aim to make contract by immediate communication methods , hearing (phone) or writing (telex) or by the copy as the original like transfer the picture by phone (Taccele). This contract is characterized by it found without not existing of parties or material contact , because most of it’s procedures be done with Internet from persons existing and belong to different states , electronic contracts is faced by different problems, one of that is the death of one party or capacity problems. When will is proved it’s effect in the contract it must be exist and represented and showing from adult and clear from defects that may be clear away or lack it so the contract may be false or stopping and that is represented from the problems that faced electronic contract

The Historical Yamen School from inactivity to Refreshing : A Study in the defect of the Historians about it.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 40-53

The search in The historical Eyman school from inactivity to refreshness and studying the defects of historians determines one of the important studies. That is for Eyman school although its dependence on transforming events orally including exaggerating in transforming the event,and its comers were of the adhearants of a revealed reigion but their writings distinguished by the historical sense although their depending on the story element and exaggerating in writting.also, we find that the Amawys' Khalifas took their help in Al- Sham, where Al- Khalifas Maawya.

Wahhabi invasion of Karbala and threatening to Najaf and Hilla (1216-1226 A.H / 1802-1811 A.D )historical Study

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 54-69

Iraq has witnessed in the late eighteenth century and early nineteenth centuries shift serious political represents the emergence of the Wahhabi movement – and its transformation from a religious character to the religious character of the political and had claimed Al Saud political leadership-and its threat to the government Ottoman in Iraq, was hostile force new weighted burden and added her new burden on foreign and domestic burdens afflicting.
That the most important thing has characterized the political scene in that period, repeated invasions on Iraqi cities like Karbala, Najaf ,Hilla and others ,and has been washing every year, The call did not affect the Wahhabi community because of violating the Iraqi Islamic doctrines, which estimated it to be unwanted movement this side, and imposed under the weight of the sword, especially if accompanied by Killing and displacement and violation by another.

The phases of Military expenditure in the Early Islam 1-41 H

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 70-80

The military expenditure is known , in term ,as the monetary sums that specified by state in the sector of defiance and security , these cashes usually could be spent in variable faces , so many countries waste 50% of their public balance .
Hence , this research : 66 the types of military expenditure in early Islamic era (1-41.H.) ( 622-661 .A.D.) try's to shed light on the parts of the Islamic expenditure in the early period of the Islamic rule and on the way by which the authorities have dealt with each part of the fiscal expenditure which have been defected for the war ends .

Ethical Principles of Human Individual’s Perfection in Mohammad Bakir Alsader

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 81-91

It is understood that the book (Fataw Al-Wdhiha) represents the Islamic laws of cleric Martyr Mohammad Baqir al-Sader, and part of it is a special section at the end of worship, discussed the moral magnificent, here the problem of the study is invoked. We put this question: what are the inherent connections between worship and this ethical research? The martyr al-Sadr is considering legislative worshiping, so what is the goal behind this search moral aspect? To resolve this problem, trying to prove our hypothesis in search: the martyr Sadr felt there are moral individual integrations, these integrals moral individual can achieve only integrals of worship, and to the individual aspect is that full moral aspect

The substantive scope of the contract Lease rent "A comparative study "

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 92-108

The funding is the primary engine for commercial projects, the project is always in need of capital to the production process, both when it was created or when the replacement and renovation of its assets, with the rise in productivity in asset prices - movables and real estate - They added financial possibilities modest for most commercial projects have become the procurement process cumbersome, but by finance lease can be for the project to get the industry and production requirements while maintaining his money, and achieved recourse commercial project - the tenant - to the financial institution - the lessor- Entered into a finance lease it determines under which productive assets they wish rented, and under this contract, the financial institution is committed to providing these assets, which select the project specifications in exchange for the latter's commitment to the performance of the agreed fare for the duration of the contract, and at the end of a finance lease be of the business free to choose between buying assets or continue to rent or terminate the lease stated productive assets to the financial institution.

Simulation and behavioral patterns of language in the Abbasid era Objectives and means

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 109-126

Abbasid period saw the emergence of obvious features the art of representation among the Arabs, by the range of clowns or Stooges Taken from the tradition of other major focus in their work, or a mask hiding underneath broadcast their thoughts and derisively. It was their simulation to others comprehensive voice and the Authority, uniforms, language and more extensively than originally snob. Of course, there are potential reasons behind the emergence of this art, for reasons of cultural, social, and what is political. Moreover hit this art a remarkable development the emergence of marginal groups and Almikdan Kalmthamqan and others.

Evaluation of the income tax and their role in the financing of the state public budget "Comparative study income tax in both: Iraq and Iran

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 127-149

The following comparative study shows the basic structure of the income tax in both: Iraq and Iran, by enumerating their valid law of income tax and analyzing them. The study aimed at correcting the income tax and its role in financing the government budget in each of the two countries. then search the possibility of reinforcing income tax revenue in such a way that decreases the risks of being dependent on petrol incomes. The study concludes by showing the decrease in average range of income tax revenue contribution in funding the general Iraqi budget in (2004 until 2014), which equaled (%0.808); whereas the tax income contribution in funding the Iran general budget in the same period of time equaled (%14.455). This phenomenon indicates a necessity in correcting the income tax in Iraq. The study reached a number of recommendations, including the necessity of repealing the income tax act, and the issuance of a new law regard to direct taxes which include income tax, which one of the things that would be taken in consideration are the fundamental taxing rules. As well as the need to increase the tax rate on corporate income in Iraq to 25% of taxable income tax income maximum to be gradually such that the companies are subject to pay income tax of 10% for the first year, 0.15% for the second year,20% the third year, and 0.25% for the fourth year onwards to the need for Iraq to increase tax revenue by, and encourage the creation of companies on the other.

Terrorism And Cultural Personal

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 150-158

Terrorism became the talk of hour and the main concern of peoples and Nations of various cultural and educational levels
Although , there was a terrorism along the history ,nowadays it become the most dangerous than ever .
In spite of the similarity in basis and aims at all times, the terrorism became more fierce and harder on term of power means and strength sources and enlargement of areas involved.
All religions reject violence and abuse on others and calls for human being to the highest levels of decent living that Allah Almighty wants to him .
Deviant behavior drives person to be vanity , arrogance and wants domination , injustice and tyranny
as well as marginize the principles and values that called by the religions.
So that .. the terrorism in fact is a result of such deviant behavior and the extremist poisoned ideas and false dreams which make whom carry them terrorist and violent , at this point of time he is in fact away from real Islam and it's great thoughts of peace .
In other hand these poisoned thoughts may presented by foisted institutions for the purpose of access to achieve their goals and provisions to control over the peoples .
There are many reasons for terrorism but the culture is the most important one , as it makes the personality of people and their values , but there are other environmental and genetic factors .
Culture in the general meaning is the summation of principles and values as well as customs and traditions . ,

Defamed narrations of chest incision event

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 159-165

Childhood of the prophet (Pbuh) is considered the biggest life period where many defamed narrations been entered, starting from his birth until his first years of age, the reason behind that may be due to lack of that period to historical documentation, all historical documentation that transferred to us about the life of the prophet (Pbuh) has come by narrators who didn't accompanied the events they transferred, so the early years of his honest age (Pbuh) have become exposed to Umawaian defamations, one of these defamations is (chest incision event) which we have chosen to search in its contents and ascriptions in order to discover its reality, according to the historical methodology, we have divided the research into an introduction, two researches and a conclusion, the first research has dealt with the time of event, while the second has been specified for the identity of chest incisor.

Defamed narrations of oracle of Mecca phase as a sample

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 166-176

Oracle was the start of a divine message changed the history of humanity, due to the social, economic and political concepts changed complete peoples whose effect stayed up to day, that's made scientists writing all details of divine oracle, starting from the meaning of oracle, form and image, then how the prophet (Pbuh) has received the Oracle, the concern and urge to write the moment of revelation had a negative side, where authority historians have urged to insert many topics in the details of the first meeting between the prophet (Pbuh) and Gabriel (Pbuh), and how the prophet (Pbuh) dealt with divine notification, so we will unveil these defamed narrations and discussing them in whole, we have divided the research into four researches and a conclusion, the first research has dealt with the revelation, parts and images, while the second has been specified for the defamed narrations, the third research has come to shed light on the relationship among Warqa Bin Nawfal, the prophet (Pbuh) and Gabriel (Pbuh), at the fourth research, we have discussed the defamed narrations in delay of oracle to the prophet (Pbuh) and feature of that delay.

Improvement in gas sensitivity of ZnO thin film by doping with Ti

Mohammed A. Kadhim

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 1-7

In this work, we explore immaculate and doped ZnO films with Ti for CO gas detecting. Immaculate and doped ZnO layers have been manufactured by puls Laser deposition procedure (PLD) with different doping proportion. Structure and morphological properties have been studied by XRD and AFM to concentrate on the parameters that enhance the gas detecting. Pure ZnO films and Low doping with Ti at room temperature indicating low affectability. Expanding the working temperature and dopant proportion prompts expanding the responsively and lessening stall the reaction time and recuperation time.
Keywords: PLS method; XRD diffraction; AFM analysis; Heartbeat Laser; ZnO Layer

Preparation and study of Mg - Zn ferrite Samples for Absorbing of X-Band Waves Using the Solid State Reaction Method

Abbas Fadhel Hadi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 8-14

In this research, samples of spinel ferrite of the form Mg0.2 Zn0.8 Fe2O4 has been prepared by the method of solid state reaction (ceramic method ) for absorbing spectrum of X- Band waves with the range of frequencies ( 8-12 ) GHz and study its characteristics using the waveguide device. The values of reflection coefficient, absorption coefficient and attenuation coefficient were calculated for all (3) prepared samples and their sintering temperature ( 1100, 1150, 1200 ) °C. The results were appearance of a number of resonance peaks at x-band frequencies. Further, it was shown that the less values of the reflectivity and highest values of the absorption and attenuation were reached at 1200°C. The results of x-ray diffraction ( XRD ) showed compatibility with standard results except for some secondary phases with the ferrite samples.
Key Words:- Ceramic method, X-Band, Waveguide, X-Ray Diffraction.

Causes of fluctuation of estradiol level during ICSI cycle

Aseel J. Al-bderi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 15-21

Eighty eight subfertile women involved in the study . All of them were subjected to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation during intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycle(ICSI) . Measurement of serum estradiol (E2) level was done at day 2 of their menstrual cycles .Second reading was done at day of HCG injection (where ovum size reach 16-22 mm).Third reading of serum E2 was done at the day of pickup of the ovum (before the pickup ) and at the time of pickup follicular fluid(FF) E2 was also measured. The results show that E2 in blood in day 2 is significantly higher in those with BMI≥25. The result show significant difference in E2 in blood which is higher in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCO) in day2 of cycle and higher in non PCO group in day of HCG. There was significant positive correlation between the level of E2 in blood in day of pickup and in the FF .There reveal highly significant difference in the E2 level in blood in different days. The result show highly significant difference in the E2 level in different days in PCO group. The result show highly significant difference in the E2 level in different days in non PCO group. Correlation between serum E2 in day of pickup and E2 in follicular fluid among PCO group show significant positive correlation between E2 in day of pickup and E2 in FF. Correlation between serum E2 in day of pickup and E2 in FF among non PCO group show significant positive correlation between E2 in day of pickup and E2 in FF.

Homogenuous n-parameters Abstract Cauchy Problem

Ayat A. Neamah

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 22-33

We use the semigroup theory to study the homogeneus n-parameter ACP

where X is a Banach space, H_i:D(H_i )⊆X→X ,i=1,2,…,n is a densely – defined closed linear operator. We discuss the existence and uniqueness of solution of n-ACP. In fact, we claim that if (H_1,H_2,… ,H_n) is the generator of a C_0- n parameter semigroup W(t_1,t_2,… ,t_n ) ∶ then n-ACP with some conditions has a unique solution.

Spectroscopic study of UV-VIS electronic transitions of Ni2+ ions in different phases of Sol- Gel process

Qussay Mohammed Salman

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 34-43

Allowed and forbidden Electronic transition of Ni2+ ions have been investigated in solution, sol and Xerogel .Two complexes NiCl2.6H2O and Ni(NO3)2.6H2O) have been dissolved in (water and ethanol) and doped in silica matrices using sol-gel technique. The molar ratio of TEOS: H2O: Ethanol which adopted in this study were 1:8:12 of PH value = 1 at 60oC. It is found that up to 150oC the Xerogel samples as well as in sol and solution Ni2+ ions have octahedral symmetry. The Racah parameter (B) and ligand field strength (∆) has been calculated for Ni2+ ions in solution it is found ∆ /B=0.85, while in silica matrices ligand field strength has been increased to be greater than 0.9 .It also found that absorbance peaks also have red shift with increasing draying time .

The Indirect Serological Detection of IgG Antibodies against Fasciola hepatica in Blood, Milk and Meat Juice of Female Buffaloes in Al-Qadsiya Province

Amal Hassan Al-Shabbani; Nuha Qasim Mohammed; Ihsan Mohammed Sulbi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 44-49

The present study was the first regard based on detection of chronic infections of F. hepatica infection in Iraqi female buffaloes. At slaughterhouse, a total of (28) female buffaloes were submitted to the serological indirect ELISA test to detection the specific IgG antibodies against Fasciola hepatica by using three different samples involved blood serum, milk and meat juice and the results were (21.43%), (14.29%) and (3.57%), respectively. As well as, the degree of infection between the tested samples was obtained according to the levels of antibody titer. Whilst the mild infection had (10.71%), (7.14%) and (3.57%) in serum, milk and meat juice, respectively; the moderates had (3.57%) for sera and (7.14%) for milk, and the strong infection occurred, only, in blood serum samples (7.14%). The significant differences were detected between the seropositivities samples and, also, between the levels of infection’s degree (P<0.005).

Prevalence of Aeroallergens in Patients with Symptoms of Respiratory Allergy in Al-Najaf Province.

Suaad Mohammad H. Rasheed; Hayder AL-Joboury; Sawsan M. AL-Hasnawi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 50-58

Back ground: Identification of the most common aeroallergens to which patients are sensitized in a specific area is important in the diagnosis and treatment of respiratory allergy,
Aim:the aim of this study is to investigate the pattern of skin prick test reactivity to various aeroallergens among allergic patients by skin prick test and the associated risk in Al-Najaf city.
Methods: a cross section study were conducted on 128 patients (67 male and 61 female) with respiratory allergies, age of patients range from 15-63 years with mean of 35.48 ±10.521. Skin Prick Tests (SPT) were done for them with series of common allergenic extracts.
Results: skin prick test was positive in (87.5% ) of patients. Skin prick tests results showed high percent of sensitization to tree pollens especially date palm pollens (48.2%)followed by Bermuda grass pollens (31%) ,HDM genus glycefygus was the more prevalent in patients suffer from mite sensitivity, whereas alternaria mold was the most prevalent type of molds. The study showed that young age group exhibit skin test reactivity more than other age groups(p<0.05) and housewives and employers had high percent of skin positivity, additionally , skin test reactivity was significantly higher in people live in urban area than those live in rural area.
Conclusion: pollens were the most common aeroallergens in patients with allergic symptoms

The correlation between electrical pressure and radius of nanofiber with different electrodes distance and voltage

Ahmed Kheralla Shaheed Al-kadumi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 59-64

The present work is a theoretical study of electrodes distance and the voltage which affected on the fiber formation of polymer type (Poly Ethelene Oxide) [PEO] with assisted electrospinning process, The relations of these parameters with ions electrical pressure(electrical charges forces with respect to area(Nt/m2)) and the radius of the jet, The solution polymer are tested systematic for production nanofiber with different electrodes distances(2,4,6,8)cm in the systematic, and different voltage from (1-30)KV and Using Matlab program to find the results

Numerical Investigation of Performance Improvement of a Modified Centrifugal Compressor with second Splitter and Vaned Diffuser

Layth H. Jawad; Mahir H. Majeed; Boraire Ahmed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 65-84

The performance of a centrifugal compressor for the turbocharger device is heavily affected by impeller design due to the flow dynamics in the impeller. Furthermore, modification and improvement of a centrifugal impeller is a challenging task for turbomachinery engineers . Hence, this study is aimed to further increase the compressor performance by introducing extra splitters in the impeller design. A series of impellers, having vaned diffuser stage was used for the performance evaluation of different configurations. A commercial CFD code, was used to simulate the flow and the primary grid generation. The influence of vaned diffuser meridional outlet section with a different width ratio of the modified centrifugal compressor has been studied by comparing the compressor stage and impeller performance at different width ratio. The comparative study of these results indicated noticeable compressor stage performance differences between the conventional and modified types. The results showed that the fluid dynamics within the modified compressor has indicated that the pressure ratio and volume flow rate were increased. Obviously, it was observed that the efficiency was increased and both the total pressure ratio and static pressure for 0.5 width ratio are increased. Overall, the numerical results obtained from CFD simulation could produce a highly reliable compared with experimental results for estimation on the performance and efficiency of the modified centrifugal compressor.

Image Fusion-based Fingerprint Authentication System

Rajaa K. Hasoun; Soukaena H. Hashem; Rehab F. Hasan

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 85-95

This paper proposes deception to secure storing fingerprint in server site, that by image fusion system; it is carried out by fusing the fingerprint image that’s entering from the user with the virtual fingerprint image that’s selected from server site. So the user template will be stored in server database, while the fused image will be stored in server database and user database in order to be used by the user to compare the stored fused image with the displayed image from the server site to ensure this site is trusted and not phishing site.
The contribution of this proposal is using image fusion technique to cheat the attacker in database of server. The results obtained from the proposal are; detecting best fusion technique which gives clearer image and best entropy

Synthesis and Characterization of New Oxazepine and Oxazepane Derived From Schiff Bases

Sawsan Khdeaur Abbas

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 96-125

In this work new bis -1,3-oxazepine and bis 1,3- oxazepane - 4,7- dione derivatives have been synthesized by cycloaddition reaction type [2+5→7] of maleic, phthalic and succinic anhydrides to synthesized Schiff bases derivatives . ortho-Tolidine was condensed with different aromatic aldehydes (4-hydroxy3-methoxy benzaldehyde, 4- isopropyl benzaldehyde, 2- formyl furan, 2,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde and 4-chlorobenzaldehyde) in presence of glacial acetic acid as catalyst in absolute ethanol to give schiff bases derivatives A1-A5 respectively. The resulting Schiff bases derivatives A1-A5 were then introduced in [2+5→7] cycloaddition reaction with each maleic ,phthalic and succinic anhydrides in dry benzene to give new bis-1,3-oxazepine,1,3- oxazepane-4,7-dione derivatives A6-A11 and A12-A16 respectively.The synthesized target compounds A6-A11 and A12-A16 have been characterized by (C.H.N.)elementary micro analysis and the spectroscopic methods including FT-IR , 1H NMR

Effect of bisphenol-A- on some immunological parameters of female rats (Rattus Norvegicus)

Qasim Hamadi Abid; Ayyed H. Hassan

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 126-129

Bisphenol-A-(BPA) is one of endocrine disruptor substances. The present study was conducted to investigate effect of BPA on some immunological parameters such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β),interleukin-6(IL-6),interleukin-2(IL-2), tumor necrotic factor-α(TNF-α),complememt3 (C3) and Immunoglobulin G (IgG).Twenty four female rats were used and divided into three groups (8 animals for each group) randomly. Animals of first group was negative control group and second group was positive control group received normal saline and corn oil orally respectively, while female rat of third group were received BPA suspended with corn oil (250mg/kg B.W/day) orally as treatment group for 30 days . Results of the present study revealed significant increase (P≤0.05) in serum level of (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-2, TNF-α, C3 and IgG) in group administrated BPA in compared with all other groups


Shakir Al-Busaltan

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 130-141

It is well observed that filler types play a significant role in properties of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA), from one side. From other side, currently, massive quantities of waste or by-product materials are resulted from local and global industrial processes, municipals services, and mining. Such waste or by-product materials reached to massive levels which bring a harmful impacts on human being life. Thus, this research is an attempt to evaluate the volumetric and mechanical properties of HMA comprising different composition of waste and/or by-product as filler materials. Cement Kiln Dust (CKD) was suggested as a partially and completely replacement to Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) in HMA, while other two fillers were selected, up to 30% to help in activating the CKD; namely Silica Fume (SF), and Rice Husk Ash (RHA). Traditional volumetric and mechanical properties were conducted to evaluate the designed HMA, while microanalysis techniques were used as tools to characterise different filler types. Results showed that CKD with at less15% SF, or 27.5% RHA could bring design HMA to satisfy the local specification requirements, where totally replacement of CKD will not satisfy the local specification. Furthermore, microanalysis properties of different filler types can be vital tool to explain the variation in HMA properties.

Study of optical properties for photonic crystals by using OptiFDTD simulation

Hayder Fahim Saber

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 142-151

In this research, a high transmission Y-junction and T-junction in (1×2) splitters based of two dimensional waveguides of photonic crystal with lattice consisting of air holes was designed. The results of optical properties obtained by using a simulation program(OptiFDTD) at a wavelength (λ=1900nm) which was used to calculate the electric and magnetic fields as well as the poynting vector-z. The comparison of results for the (Y and T) junctions shows that the T-junction improved the electric and magnetic fields better than Y-junction.

Collection Efficiency Models of precipitator industry

Fadhil K. Fuliful

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 152-162

The cement industry is one of the primary producers of carbon dioxide, which is a major greenhouse gases. Electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) are common installations on coal-fired cement plants to remove over 99% of ash particles, typical efficiency of ESP as a function of geometrical and operation factors. In this paper investigation revealed a simple model, developing the Deutsch collection theory .The model evaluate the collection efficiency of ESP in cement plants depends on two operations factors, applied voltage and current density. The effects of the gap between collection-plates and discharge-wires on collection efficiency were studied.

Study Of Optical Properties Of (PEO-PEG) Blends

Raheem G. Kadhim; Ahmed S. Hussein

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 163-174

The study it includes the recording of the spectrum of absorbance and transmittance for (PEO) solutions and the blend solution (PEO – PEG) , at the temperature (30 ºC). and calculating the absorption coefficient and other optical constants. These samples have been prepared in different weight concentrations (0.1,0.2,0.3,0.4,0.5,0.6,0.7,0.8 g/mL) % as solution for (PEO),then the additives added as (0.25 g ) and ( 0.5 g) of (PEG)respectively, also samples prepared by liquids mixing method before and after adding (PEG) polymer. Optical properties such as ( absorbance and refractive index ) have been measured, then from those properties other properties were calculated such as (transmittance, reflectance, absorption coefficient of electromagnetic waves, natural lifetime, coefficient of fineness, molar reflectance, critical angle and Brewster angle ). All those properties have been measured for two cases before and after addition at temperature (30 ºC).

Effect ultraviolet radiation on charging process of the dust grain in plasma with negative ion.

Zainab A. Mankhi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 175-182

This work represents computer simulation to study ultraviolet radiation effect on charging process of the dust grain immersed in to plasma with negative ion. The program of simulation has been written in the MATLAB programing language by basing on discrete model and Orbital Motion Limited theory (OML). Numerical results are presented the dust charge fluctuates with time for different values of ultraviolet rays intensity

Influence of Gender and Smoking Habit on the Minor Elements Levels of Washed Scalp Hair from Karbala, Iraq

Joda A. Baker

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 183-189

In recent years elemental analysis of human biological samples has become more advanced in terms of human health. This study has investigated the chemical analysis of Iraqi human hair samples in relation to differing forms of smoking (active and non-smokers) collected from Karbala, Iraq. Hair samples were obtained from 236 individuals (32 females, 204 males) aged between 3 to 70 years. Methods were developed and validated for the analysis of minor elements (namely Na, Ca, Mg and Fe) in human scalp hair samples. Different washing procedures and digestion methods were studied. The effect of gender and smoking habit on elemental levels was examined and the results compared with published values in the literature. Significant correlations were found between the gender and the levels of these elements in scalp hair samples at a probability level P of 0.05. In addition, significant differences were found between the Ca levels in smokers and non smokers at P of 0.05.

The Faults Detection and Categorization for a Part of Iraqi Electricity Power Transmission Grid Based on Neural Network Techniques

Haider M. Umran; Mazin A. Hameed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 190-200

Modern power systems are characterized by the instant isolation of faults especially in the high voltage transmission lines. Therefore, the faults detection and categorization are very important to get a stable power system, and keep on integrity of the electrical equipment.
This paper focuses on using the Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) as a technique of Artificial Intelligence to detect and categorize faults of the Basra-Karbala transmission line. The measurements of three phase voltages and current of the power system are used as input signals to the proposed design of neural networks. All types of faults that may occur in the studied transmission line are taken into account, while the high accuracy of the detection and categorization of faults are considered in the design. The adopted radial power system which is used as the case study, consists: main power station is connected with a substation across the transmission lines, transformers, bas bars, circuit breakers, and loads. The proposed design includes three ANNs instead of one to reduce the complexity and minimize response time. The performance of the studied power system and the operation results of ANNs are assessed by simulation.

Locally T-Semi Connected Spaces

Bushra Kadum Awaad

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 201-203

In this paper, we introduce the concept, of locally T-semi connected space, which generalizes the concept properties of locally T-semi connected spaces are proved.

Effect of dietary supplementation with Saccharomyces cerevisiaeon blood parameters, liver function, immunity and health status and quantity carcass characteristics of Awassi male lambs fed low and high concentrate

Areej A.M; Hoida; F.M; M.K andSundus

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 204-212

Twenty four Awassi male lambs with (27± 1.78 Kg) initial weight, and 4 – 5 months of age ,were divided into four groups (6 lambs each), to study the effect of two levels of feeding on liver function, immunity, health status and quantity carcass characteristics. Two levels of feeding (low level (40:60) and high level (60:40) that supplemented with two levels of bakery yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae.These diets were offered to lambs once daily. Significantly increased(P<0.01) in total blood protein, albumin and (P<0.05) globulin with 40:60 level of feeding, while significantly increased(P<0.01) albumin and decreased globulin with 60:40 level of feeding.Total cholesterol, S. Total triglyceride, High density Lipoprotein (HDL) and Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) were significantly decreased (P<0.01) after 3hrs of feeding and no significant with Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) in level 40:60, whereas significantly increased (P<0.01) of serum cholesterol concentration, S. Total triglyceride, High density Lipoprotein (HDL) and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and no significant in Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) in level 60:40 of feeding. The activities of some liver enzymes SC significantly increased (P<0.01) (AST) (GOT) but Lipase enzyme decreasedsignificantly(GPT) and totalbilirubin after 3hrs of feeding with 40:60.Whereas decreased (P<0.01)(GOT) ,(GPT) and total bilirubin in serum blood with 60:40 level of feeding .SC supplementation significantly increased(P<0.05) on skin weight gain (kg)with 60:40 concentrate : roughage ratio. On the other hand, no significant increase on offal's weight and heart girth of Awassi male lambs. In concolusion the obtained results refer to the using of SC as growth promoting agent for lambs to increase the nutritional value of low diet in order to decrease the diet costs


Ali Ghanim Abbas AL-Khafaji; Bahaa Hussein Al-Abbas

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 213-227

This paper presents the numerical study of the nonlinear finite element behaviour of steel beams with openings strengthened by CFRP plates. A three dimensional nonlinear finite element model is developed using a most famous software package (ANSYS V.14.5). The steel beam and CFRP plates were simulated by four-node shell elements (SHELL 181) and one dimensional nonlinear spring (COMBIN 39) as interface element between steel beam and CFRP plates. Parametric studies were adopted to investigate the effect of shape, locations of the web openings and number of layers of CFRP plates which were used in strengthening the steel beam. The obtained results showed that the ultimate load decreases with the increase in the opening area. Circular web openings at the shear zone of the steel beams were caused smaller decreasing in the ultimate load capacity because of a very less stress concentration at the web openings, while the beams with rectangular opening results the lesser load carrying capacity, .i.e. 38% less than their corresponding beams with circular or square opening. Applying CFRP plates around the web opening of steel IPE-beams was a successful method for increasing the load carying capacity and decreasing the deformations.Moreover, increasing the number of CFRP layers leads to increase the stiffness and shear resistance of the steel beam, hence, increasing the ultimate load capacity by ( 15-36 %).

Radon Concentration in Drinking Water Sources of the University of Babylon /Iraq

Mohsin Kadhim Muttaleb Al-jnaby

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 228-235

Radon is a radioactive noble gas of a natural origin. It is worthy to carry out the distribution of radon (222Rn) activity concentration and their annual effective dose exposure in drinking water samples from University of Babylon (100 Km) south of capital Baghdad. Water samples were collected before and after winter season and analyzed using RAD7connected to a RAD-H2O accessory. The measured Radon concentration ranges from (0.072 Bq.L-1) in N7 (Education College) to (0.325 Bq.L-1) in N2 ( Basic Education College) with an mean value of (0.183 Bq.L-1). The measured values of Radon concentration are well in the range within the EPA’s maximum contaminant level of (11.1Bq.L-1). The total annual effective dose resulting from Radon in drinking water were (1.74 Sv.y-1) significantly lower than the (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation UNSCEAR recommended limit for members of the public of (1 mSv.y-1). Has been chosen this subject of the current study of the importance of water in human life and living, and the lack of previous studies in the study area.

Study the Optical Characteristics of the extraction Pigments from Vinca flowers

Adnan F. Hassan; Alaa Meahdy Mohamed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 236-244

In this study , we had been three organic pigments extraction from Vinca flowers ,which are they have five color (yellow , red, white ,pink and purple) in the laboratory at room temperature. So we measurement the concentration of solvent for each the three pigments extraction from vinca pink , yellow and purple, considering the concentration for each pigment is constant .
The optical characteristics had been studied like (absorption, transmittance, reflectance ,Fluorescence and energy gap ). Also the optical constant were calculated including (absorption coefficient and extinction coefficient ) for three pigments and shown that the value of absorption coefficient increases when the Photon Energy increases, with constant the concentration ,but the value of extinction coefficient is decreases with increases wavelength.
Absorption and fluorescence for the three extraction pigments is a good, they have ability to absorbed a high quantity from the sun light.
The results also shown that the values of energy gap for the three pigments are( 2.5 - 2.1 ) eV, which is within the limits work of the solar cell energy gap (photon energy was largest then or equal energy gap).

Some physiological and histological effects of genistein in female albino rat

Ayyed Hameed Hassan; Hayder Nadhim Alkhalissi; Wafaa Kadhim Jasim

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 245-249

The present study was conducted to determine the effects of oral administration of genistein on hematological (total count of red blood cells "RBCs", white blood Cells "WBCs", and packed cell volume "PCV") , hormonal (follicle stimulating hormone "FSH", luteinizing hormone "LH" and estrogen "E") and histological changes in liver and kidney of female rat. Twelve mature female albino rat 10-12 weeks in age, weighting 200-250 g were divided randomly to two groups (6 animals /group). The group was control treated with 1:4 DMSO only and second as the experimental group and received 100 mg genistein/1kg body weight/day dissolved in 1:4 dimethysulfoxid DMSO for 16 days. At the end of experiment, blood samples were collected by heart puncture, then animals were sacrificed and the liver with kidneys was harvested for light microscopy study. The results showed decreased p≤0.05 RBC count and PCV, whereas WBC count was increased p≤0.05 in genistein treated group in compared with control grouped. Estradiol level was significantly increased p≤0.05 while LH showed significant decrease p≤0.05 in serum of females due to genistein administration. Female rats exposed to high dose of genistein have no obvious histological changes in liver and kidneys. In conclusion, the daily genistein administration caused severe untoward effects on blood and reproductive hormones like other exogenous estrogen analogue

Study OF Electrical Properties Of (PEO-PEG) ) and (PEO-PMMA) Blends.

Raheem G. Kadhim; Ahmed S. Hussein

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 253-259

The study it includes the recording of the spectrum of electrical properties.The electrical properties include the measuring of the electrical conductivity,then calculate the molar conductivity and the degree of dissociation. for the blend solutions at the room temperature .
These samples have been prepared in different weight concentrations (0.1,0.2,0.3,0.4,0.5,0.6,0.7,0.8 g/mL) % as solutions then the additives (PEG , PMMA ) added as (0.25 g ) and ( 0.5 g) respectively , also the samples prepared by liquids mixing method before and after adding (PEG ,PMMA) polymer.
The electrical properties include the measuring of the electrical conductivity and then calculate the molar conductivity and the degree of dissociation. have been measured,. All those properties have been measured for two cases before and after addition at room temperature . The conductivity of pure polymer and its additives used in this work are increasing with the increase of the polymer concentration. After adding of the polymers to polyethylene oxide, the conductivity increases with the increasing of concentration for all additives , Noting the molar conductivity values decrease with increasing the molar concentration, note these values of the molar conductivity decrease after the addition of polymers, that dissociation values of the polymer decrease with increasing of concentrations

Phenotypic and molecular diagnosis of the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and the effect of temperature under light and dark conditions on the sclerotia development

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 1-12

تم تشخيص الفطرSclerotinia sclerotiorum (lib.) de Bary بالاعتماد على الصفات المظهرية والمجهرية ، وجزيئيا باستخدام تقانة Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)، باستخدام البادئS rRNA gene18 . تضمنت الدراسة عزل وتشخيص الفطر واكثاره باستخدام وسط حبوب الحنطة Wheat grain media لغرض الحصول على اكبر كمية ممكنة من الاجسام الحجرية. كما تم دراسة تأثير بعض الظروف البيئية من درجات الحرارة ، والاضاءة ، والظلام في انتاج الاجسام الثمرية Apothecium ، والاكياس البوغية Ascus، والابواغ الكيسية Ascospores من الاجسام الحجرية. اوضحت النتائج ، ان البادئ المستخدم نجح في تشخيص الفطر، كما أثرت العوامل البيئية المتمثلة بدرجات الحرارة 10،15،20،25 0م والإضاءة أو عدمها .في أنتاج السويقات Stipes والأجسام الثمرية Apothecium من الجسم الحجري، فكانت درجات الحرارة 10 و15 و20 0م مناسبة لإنتاج الاجسام الثمرية شرط توفر الاضاءة والا فان الاجسام الثمرية لم يكتمل نموها وتبقى بشكل سويق stipe يستطيل في ظروف الظلام ،اما درجة الحرارة 25 0م لم تنتج اجساما ثمرية حتى بوجود الاضاءة ولم يحصل تطور للسويقات عند هذه الدرجة . يعتبر الماء المقطر المعقم أفضل الأوساط البيئية الملائمة لتطور الأجسام الحجرية وتكوين السويقات شرط توفر درجة الحرارة الملائمة.

The Role of (VRIO) Analysis in the Sustainability of Competitive Advantage for of Industrial Organizations A Survey Study For the views of a sample of managers in Men Clothing Factory in the holy city of Al-Najaf

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 13-32

This Research aimed at determining the role of (VRIO) analysis on the sustainability of competitive advantage apply in Iraqi Organizations. For this purpose the researcher has depended on the processes of (VRIO) analysis (VALUABLE (V), RARE (R), COSTLY TO IMITATE (I) and ORGANIZED TO CAPTURE VALUE (O)) according to (Rothaermel,2015:104). The dimensions of sustainability of competitive advantage (Durability, Imitability) that have been used are according to (Wheelen&Hunger,2012:164). Men clothing factory in Najaf has been chosen to verify this Research via a questionnaire used (30) individuals of the managers of the company , in addition to personal interviews. The Spearman connection factor , and the (t) test to recognize the identity of this relation, and the (F) test to determine the identity of the regression equation , also the (R²) has been used to explain the degree of the influence of the independent variable in the dependent variable . Some of the most important conclusions the study arrived at are that (VRIO) analysis have a significant impact in the growth and competition of organizations through building capability , competences of the company that help in building and sustainability of competitive advantage and achieve Organizational Excellence. The study has been concluded with a number of recommendations ,some of which are :
 Focus on practice (VRIO) analysis in the factory more broadly in light of Iraq environment exposed to the threat of foreign products.
 Consolidating the factory's resources and capabilities on all levels in a way that competitors find difficult to surpass.
 Keeping a high level of skills and knowledge , and increasing the staff's expertise in a way that achieve a competitive advantage to the factory

Econometric analysis of demand function on rice imports in Iraq application ARDL model period (19980-2011)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 33-45

the research aims to release the reality of production and consumption of rice and estimate the demand function on imports of rice in Iraq as part of a dynamic application ARDL model. show that the increase in production is less than the increase of consumption and the cause of low production of rice due to lack of water in the Tigris and Euphrates rivers . As the incoming water to Iraq fell from 77 billion cubic meters annually during the eighties to 33 billion cubic meters per year during the first decade of the third millennium . The higher prices at the rate of 1 % offset by a decline in demand for rice imports by 13% , while the gross domestic product, a teacher signal (LGDP) positive and reflecting relationship between this variable and variable demand for imports of rice. , And the change of GDP at a rate of 1 % increase in the demand for imports of rice by 38 % in the short term . The results showed that higher prices at the rate of 1 % offset by a decline in demand for imports of rice in the long -term rate ( 24%) , and the GDP change rate of 1 % increase in the demand for imports of rice by 77%

Study growth and performance hybrid vigor of maize (Zea mays L.)under two levels of nitrogen fertilization

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 46-62

A field experiment was carried out at the center of the guiding and training agricultural Al-Mahnawia – Babel during the autumn season 2103 and autumn 2014 to evaluation the parents and it's hybrids the production by half diallel crosses under two levels of nitrogen fertilizer (160-320) kg N/H and selected the superior hybrids.
At autumn season 2013 a half diallel crosses was done among the seven pure inbred of maize (HS-R153 , IK8 , ZP 707 , ZP 607 , D K , SY 7) using Graffing method 2 fixed method twenty-one hybrids were collected in the end of the season. During autumn 2014 a comparison experiment was done with split plot arrangement with random complete block design with three replication was used including two levels of nitrogen fertilizer (160-320) kg N/H assigned in the main plots and the seven inbreds lines of maize and it's crosses were assigned in the sub plots to estimation of mid all traits and heterosis under two nitrogen levels for all qualities studied: leaf area, number of ears , number of grains / ear , 500 grains weight, grain yield, total plant uptake nitrogen.

Knowledge management processes and their role in human resource strategies Analytical exploratory study of the views of a sample of administrative leaders in the Directorate General of education holy province of Karbala

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 63-86

تناول البحث متغيرين لتشكيل الإطار الفكري له وهما ( عمليات إدارة المعرفة واستراتيجيات الموارد البشرية) ، وقد انطلق البحث من مشكلة معبر عنها بعدد من التساؤلات والتي تتمثل بالاستفهام عن إدراك العاملون في المديرية مجال البحث عمليات إدارة المعرفة واستراتيجيات الموارد البشرية ؟. وهل توجد علاقة ارتباط بين عمليات إدارة المعرفة على المستوى الكلي والفرعي و استراتيجيات الموارد البشرية ؟ وهل توجد علاقة تأثير لعمليات إدارة المعرفة على المستوى الكلي والفرعي في استراتيجيات الموارد البشرية ؟ . ويهدف البحث لمعرفة مدى إدراك العينة لمتغيري البحث و الكشف عن علاقات الارتباط والتأثير بين أبعاد عمليات إدارة المعرفة واستراتيجيات الموارد البشرية في المديرية ، وقد أجري البحث على عينة بلغ قوامها (74) شخصاً متمثلة بمسئولي الإدارة العليا والوسطى والتشغيلية في المديرية العامة لتربية محافظة كربلاء المقدسة ، وذلك باستعمال الاستبانة بوصفها الأداة الرئيسة للبحث ، واستعملت أدوات إحصائية لامعلمية في تحليل البيانات والمعلومات ومعالجتها ، وذلك باعتماد البرنامج الإحصائي الجاهزSPSS.V. 18)) ، واعتمد البحث منهج البحث القائم والتحليل البعدي ،وتوصل البحث إلى مجموعة من الاستنتاجات منها إثبات فرضياته ، وخرج البحث بمجموعة من التوصيات.

Estimation of some genetic parameters for inbrids Be accustomedto poaceae and it's hybrids of (Zea mays L.)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 87-100

Filed experiment was carried out at the center of guiding and training agricultural Al-Mahnawia Babel / in south of baghdad during the autumn season 2010, 2011to evaluation the parents and it's hybrids that production by half diallel crosses select the superior hybrids. During full season 2010 the parents of maize was plant and flowering the half diallel crosses was done among the these eight parents (syn-1, syn-74 , inb-8 , inb-20 , inb-27 , pjo-25, pjo-46 , pjo-47) by using Graffing methods. The number of hybrids are 21 hybrid in the end of season at fall season 2011 a field comparison experiment was done according to R.C.B.D. The mean heterosis, gene action combining ability with its effects heritability and the average degree of dominance for all characters was studied. The biometric analysis variance was significant by (LSD) to comprised among treatment at 5% , the analysis revealed a high significant difference among the genotype for all study traits, this means that a large different among the parents. (4) parents was superior for flowing traits leaf areas number of row/ear, 36.70 cernals / row and 6.49 T/h sequentially (2467.75 , 16.75 , 36.70 , 16.41 ). But the hybrids (2x5) was superior by giving high average for the following traits : leaf area , number of rows/ear, grain yield (3143.25 , 18.40 , 9.50). While the heterosis of the hybrids (2x5) was superior by giving high heterosis for flowring traits: leaf area , number of rows/area , total gram yield , by giving (4681.81 ، 32.85 ، 20.24 and 176.56), the (7x8) hybrid was superior at A spiciphic combining ability by giving high for flowering traits ((leaf area , number of rows/ear and number cernals / row). While the ratio between gca / sca larger than one however the bread sense heritability was high for all traits study, yet narrow sense heritability gave low value, and the average degree of dominance was more than one for al study traits.

Effect of Addition potassium and calcium mixture in salt stress reduction for some cultivars of wheat and relationship with some physiological and biochemical indicators

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 101-115

The experiment was conducted to study role of potassium and calcium mixture to reduce salt stress of some genotypes of wheat: This experiment included three factores the first factor was three levels of potassium and calcium 0Ca + K , 500Ca+ 1000 K and 1000Ca +2000K (µM).L-1. The second factor was three levels of salinity at 1.4 ds/m , 4 ds/m and 8 ds/m-1 .Third factor was four varieties of wheat: Sin Al-Fel, Ibaa 99, Jandola and Abu Ghraib, with three replications was adopted to be a number of experimental units(108).The result can be summarized as follow :- Sin Al-Fel variety was superior in values of activity antioxidant enzymes Peroxidase , Catalase , Superoxide dismutase , spikes number and weight of 1000 grains , while the second of durum wheat variety Jandola was superior in values of the proline concentration, grain number and potassium and phosphorus concentration. Ibaa 99 variety of soft wheat was superior in values of the antioxidant enzymes activity Peroxidase , Superoxide dismutase , grains number and potassium and phosphorus concentration, Abu Ghraib3 was superior in proline concentration , weight of 1000 grains 0Ca + 0 K treatment was superior to giving higher values in the antioxidant enzymes activity Peroxidase , Catalase , Superoxide dismutase and proline. This was the result of nutrition stress of potassium and calcium, while 500 Ca + 1000 K treatment was superior in giving higher values of spike number and weight of 1000 grain, while K 2000 +1000 Ca treatment was superior in giving higher values of

Morphological and molecular isolation and diagnosis of Candida albicans from mouth and dipers of in fants in hospital of children .

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 116-122

This Study aims to isolate and diagnose some of Candida specious in children who suffered from symptoms of candidiasis at the mouth and diper areas . The children ages ranged between (1 day -12 years)
The samples were examined in the laboratory and the percentage of candida albicans was estimated ,then the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was used for molecular diagnosis .
The Sabouraud Dextrose Agar was used as a media with chloramphenicol to inhibit the growthof bacteria . The results showed that the higher percentage of growth was for Candida albicans as it was 70 % at 45c which means it can with stard when higher of temperature. However , When PCR was used a 90 % of tested samples was achieved

Study the effects of dreneching of origanum Vulgare on some physiological parameter in the blood of sheep Awas

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 123-126

This study aimed to the effects of dreneching of origanum vulgare on some physiological parameter in the blood of sheep we used (20) of iraqi sheep breed Awasi divided randomly into equal experimented groups of 10 animals each . the first group (control group) drenched (5ml) normal saline orally daily for thirty days . thesecond group ( treatment ) drenched 500 mg kg of body weight of water extract of origanum vulge for thirty days also at the end of the drenching period blood samples were drawn from all animals from jagulare vein and blood was analysed for metabolic (total protin, albomin, cholesterol, glucose and creatinine )
and Himatological test (total RBC,andWBC count Hb% pcv% and blood indices of MCH,MCVand MCHC.were calculated in addition to blood smear were done to estimate percentage of differential Leukocytic count . the results were appear that thesecond group increased significantin (p≤0.05) in (total protein,cholesterol and glucose compared with first group (control ) also ther is significant effect (p≤0.05) of increasing in WBC and MCV and decreasing in MCHC second group compard with first group also ther is increased of lymphocyte and nutrophile in blood smear of second group compared with first group and ther is no significant (p≤0.05) in eosinophils ,monocytes and basophils compard with first group (control).

Studies on shapes of sex chromatin in relation to some blood metabolite traits in local buffaloes

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 127-132

This project was designed to study shapes of sex chromatin (SC) in polymorphonuclear leucocytes (neutrophiles) and relationship with some blood metabolites traits in local buffaloes. This study was carried out at laboratories of animal production techniques department, Al-Musiab Technical College, during the period extended from July to November 2015. This study included 20 adult females buffaloes (4-10 years old). For this purpose blood samples were collected, prepared and examined to determine presence of SC and it's figures and measurements. The results showed that percentage of Sessile Nodule (SN), Small club (SM), Drum stick (D), and Tear drop (T) figures were 52 , 34.7 , 12.57 and 0.72% respectively. The overall means of horizontal axes, vertical axes and area of nucleus were 14.82 µm, 15.6µm and 181.486 µm2respectively, and the overall means of horizontal axes, vertical axes and area of SC were 1.02 µm, 1.05µm and 0.840 µm2respectively. The overall means of the number of lobes reached 4.27 lobes. The results also showed that non-significant effect of SC figures on glucose and total protein concentrations, while the effect was significant (P<0.05) on total cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations. In conclusions, possibility to use figures of SC as a means of selection and genetic improvement

Oil incomes and its Influenceon Economics of some Rent countries from 2oo1 – 2013 (IRAN , EMIRATES , IRAQ )

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 133-145

Many studies and research on the subject of oil being President supplier for budget and most of the producing countries, particularly developing countries, economies, and for the consuming countries it represents the need (demand) him, which calls for deepening the merits of the sources and methods of discovery and production in order to benefit from the advantages arising from the export or import as well as when used in domestic consumption, but, despite the great importance him huge returns achieved by not see the development in the field of economic and social development, suggesting the abuse of such proceeds and thus a negative impact on the overall economy of the oil countries, especially what happened in the State of Iraq.

Effect of Black Currant Aqueous Extract (Vitis vinifera L.) on Some Histological Criteria for Male Albino Rat Induced Cadmium Chloride

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 146-158

The presented study aimed to know the black currant aqueous extract effect on some histological criteria in albino male rats treated with cadmium chloride.
The study was conducted at the animal house in University of Karbala / college of pharmacy during the period from the first of April to June in 2015. The fortieth of adult albino male rats were randomly divided into eight groups included (5 animals per group). The first group G1 is a group of control oral intubation daily physiological salt solution (normal saline) for a period of two months and considered negative control group. The second group G2 oral intubation of cadmium chloride concentration of 3mg / kg of body weight and considered a positive control group. The third group G3 has been oral intubation of cadmium chloride concentration of 3 mg / kg of body weight and oral intubation the black currant aqueous extract a dose of 60 mg / kg of body weight per day for a period of two months, and the fourth group G4 oral intubation of cadmium chloride concentration of 5 mg / kg of body weight per day for two months, and the fifth group G5 oral intubation of cadmium chloride concentration of 5 mg / kg of body weight and oral intubation at the same time a the black currant aqueous extract a dose of 60 mg / kg of body weight per day for a period of two months, the group sixth G6 oral intubation of cadmium chloride concentration of 7 mg / kg of body weight every day for two months, the seventh G7 oral intubation of cadmium chloride concentration of 7 mg / kg of body weight and oral intubation of at the same time a the black currant aqueous extract a dose of 60 mg / kg of body weight per day for a period of two months .the results showed:

Geometrical Classification of Rock Mass Shapes according to Parallelism of Slope, Discontinuities, and Beds with their Dips Variations and their Effect on Slope Stability

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 159-175

In this research geometric classification of rock blokes shapes that produces from exist the relationships among a variation of inclination of slope (45°,90°,45° towardsrock mass), a variation in bedding plan dip (90°,45°,0, 45°towards rock mass), and a variation in discontinuities dip 90°,45°,*45° (towards rock mass) in parallel strikes case (with equal spacing approximately), also to observing the extent of their influence on slope stability and the possible failure type in it.
The classification includes(36) class, each class results from possibility of existence of parallel sets of discontinuities (with equal spacing approximately) (one set d1 or d2 or d3 or two sets d1 and d2 or d2 and d3 or d1 and d3 or three sets d1,d2, and d3), which (d1) represents perpendicular discontinuities, (d2) a dipping discontinuities (45°) with direction of slope, (d3) a dipping discontinuities (*45°)towards the rock mass ,and the (sd1,sd2,sd3) represents the spacing between discontinuities of (d1,d2,d3) respectively with variation of bedding plan dipping(with equal spacing approximately) (sb), and with variation of active slope inclination (s.s) according to the above angels, these cases might give rock blocks with different shape, dimensions, in same class. Each class and its models in the proposal classification are represented by block diagrams and stereographic projection.

Effect of spraying salicylic acid and enraizal in some physiochemical properties of white oleander(Nerium oleander L .)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 176-181

This experiment was conducted during the spring growing season 2015 inprivate farm of Babylon to study the impact of spraying salicylic acid ,enraizaland their interaction on some physiochemical propertiesof white oleander(Nerium oleanderL .). Plants were sprayedtwo times in 30 days intervals with three levels of Salicylic acid(SA) (0 ,100 and 200 mg. L-1) and three levels ofenraizal(En) with( 0, 5 and 10ml. L-1). Randomized Complete Block Design( R.C.B.D. ) with three replicates(15 plant for each treatment) was adopted.Means were compared by L.S.D.O.O5.Vegetative growth and chemical indicators significantly increased with the SA200 mg.L-1 and En 10ml.L-1except the for leaf area and carbohydrates, that increased significantly by spraying (En 5), IAA significantly increased when spraying by (SA100).(SA200 + En 10) significantly increased plantheight,leaf number, leaf area ,fresh weight,dry weight ,chlorophyll,carbohydrate and GAat73.98cm,70.65 leave .plant-1, 20.87cm2,67.78gm,29.76gm, 80.65 µ, dry weight,37.61 mMrespectively as compared to control treatment. Shootnumber waseincreased by(SA200+ En5) treatment at 15.87shoot.plant-1.IAAwase also increased by(SA100+ En10) treatment.Itwas concluded that Salicylic acid and Enraizalenhance growth and chemical properties of White oleander characters

Studying the efficiency of barley (Hordeum vulgare l. ) cu. AL-Warkaa for nitrogen use and its parameters under effect of nitrogen fertilizer levels and number of cuttings

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 182-191

A field experiment was conducted at the experimental farm of AL Najaf during 2012 /2013 and 2013 /2014 seasons; A split plot arrangement with Randomized Complete Block Design in three replicates was used. The objective of this experiment was to study the efficiency of AL-Warkaa cultivar on nitrogen use and its parameters under effect of nitrogen fertilizer levels (80 , 160 and 240 Kg/ ha ) were assigned in the main plots where's number of cuttings (without cut, one cut and two cuts) assigned the subplots on yield.
The Results showed that nitrogen fertilizer at 80 kg/ha with cut once gave the best interaction in nitrogen use efficiency(51.50 ,40 for the two seasons ,the same nitrogen fertilizer with uncut gave the best interaction in nitrogen uptake efficiency and nitrogen harvest efficiency(3.26 , 2.08 (0.27 ,0.24 for the two seasons , the same nitrogen fertilizer with cut twice gave the best interaction in nitrogen utilization efficiency and nitrogen harvest index(24.300 (24.39%) during first season .while 160 kg/h with cut once gave the best interaction in nitrogen utilization efficiency and nitrogen harvest index (24.137 during the second season .also Results showed that nitrogen fertilizer at 240 kg/h with uncut the gave best interaction in total uptake of nitrogen (287.56 ,210.831 for the two seasons ,also the nitrogen fertilizer of 240 kg/h with cut once gave the best interaction in grain yield (4840 ,4360 kg/h) for the two seasons

Study of Epistasis gene action using TripleTest Cross procedure in Maize

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 192-201

Two pure lines of maize (HS and DC-r-10 ) were planted on full season for crossing between them ,the pure lines tester of Maize (ZP607 , ZP707 , SY7 , SY19 , OH40 and ART-B12 ) were crossed with three families , HS , DC-r-10 and (HS * DC-r-10 ). Genotypes . (lines , families and hybrids )were planted by using randomized complete block design with three replications for the study of epistasis , estimation of variance components and some genetical parameters for , dateanthesisof male and female , plant high, ear high , leaf area , number of leaves , number rows per ear , number of grains per row, number of grains per ear , 500 –grains weight and grains yield per plant . mean squares for genotypes , hybrids and parents (testers and families ) were significant for all traits analysis of variance for epistasis gene action test indicated the absence of epistasis additive and dominance variances were important for inheritance of most traits . brood sense heritability estimates between 60% for number grains per ear and 99% for leaf area while narrow sense heritability ranged from 15% for 500 grains weight and 78% for date anthesis , ( as parent of the mean ) was found to be high for number of grains per ear , low for number of leaves per plant , the expected genetic gain highest for number of grains per ear and lowest for leaf area . the conclusion of the study could improvement the characters with selection for elite hybrids for produce the hybrids or elite inbred

Deconstructive Impact on aesthetics in Architecture

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 202-214

The research deals with the concept of deconstruction and aesthetics in architecture. Many studies dealt with these two contexts in diverse forms, in all these concepts we do not see a clear relationship between Deconstruction as philosophy thinking and aesthetics, and as so, the research problem focused on the ambiguity of this relationship resulted from the overlap of the concepts and differences found in the viewpoints dealt with these concepts in a manner caused this ambiguity of the deconstructive role on the aesthetics of the architectural product. The research assumes a relationship linked the deconstructive concept with aesthetics using complexity and ambiguity as designing features.
The methodology of the research was addressed by studying the concepts of deconstructive and aesthetics two axes; the first was establishing theoretical data basis used to define the deconstruction concept basing on the architectural thesis and studies to access the deconstruction indicators in architecture, and also on the aesthetics concepts in order to reach and explain the aesthetics indicators. While the second axis is focused on the scientific concept which adopts analytical approach, using survey samples, to reach the aimed results.

Effect of spraying urea and soil fertilizer levels with urea and sulfur on some physiological traits of popcorn (Zea mays ssp everta)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 215-222

A field experiment was carried out in a private field at Abu-Garaq (10 km west of Hilla city) during the autumn season of 2014 in silty clay loam soil, to study the response of some physiological characters of popcorn to foliar fertilizer with urea (control and spraying urea twice time at 12 leaves stage and at silk stage)under different levels of soil fertilization by urea fertilizer (0, 100 and 200 kg.ha-1 ) and agricultural sulfur (0, 10 and 20 kg.ha-1 ). The experiment conducted as split – split plot within randomized complete blocks design (RCBD) with three replications . The experimental units contained 4 ridges 4m long and 0.75 m width (12m2) . After ridges first irrigation , popcorn grain (local var.) were seeded at 15/7/2014. Vegetative and physiological characteristics were measured and the results showed significant superiority of nitrogen level N3 (200 kg.ha-1) , which gave the highest content of chlorophyll (58.88 spad ) , high percentage of N, P, and K in leaves (2.453%, 0.365% , 2.824%), respectively. Sulfur level S3 (20 kg.ha-1) was significantly superior giving the highest content of chlorophyll (58.26 spad ) , high percentage of N, P and K in leaves (2.453%, 0.365 , 2.824% ), respectively. Urea spray was superior giving the highest average of chlorophyll (58.15 spad ) and high percentage of N and P ( 2.491% and 0.366%), respectively. The interactions had a significant effect on most studied traits.

Role of the Sesbania and Blady Grass Plants Rhizosphere Transformation Minerals .

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 223-233

To study the effect of Sesbani (Sesbania exaltata) and Blady grass ((Imperata cylendrica L.) plants rizhisphere . Two sites were chosen the first site was taken the Sesbania plant and the second was taken the Blady grass plant , for every plant two samples were taken the first form the outside of rhizosphere and the second from rhizosphere in three replicates . The chemical , physical and mineralogical analysis were measured .
The results showed :
- The smectite , true chlorite , mica and kaolinite were showed in all samples in outside of rhizosphere in both plants.
- The X-ray diffractions showed 15.6 angstrom in ethylene glygole treatments in the rhizhosphere soil in both plants and dis appeared in the heated treatment (350 and 550( centigrade and that mean the swelling chlorite were formed addition to the origin chlorite was found in the soil by the second and third diffractions (7.2 and 4.7) angstrom were singed to the true chloride and it's still fixed in all treatments .
- The calcium was absorption in high quantities but Magnesium was low and that led to increase of magnesium ions in rizhosphere and Magnesium hydroxyl layers was formed as a result of alkali media of soils and the inter hydroxyl layer was formed and that lead to the swelling chlorite .
- The potassium ion were absorption by roots in both plants and that led to release from inter

Molecular detection of the fungus Fusarium solani and the effect of two types of bacteria Azotobacter chroococcum & Bacillus thuringiensis in addition to poultry manure and it's pathogenicity on the citrus root

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 234-245

This study is aimed at the effect of t types of bacteria Azotobacter chroococcum & Bacillus thuringiansis in protection of sour orang seedlings from F.s that causes root rot of citrus trees in babil governorate the result of this test show the infection ability of fusarium isolated ; the isolated varied in their effect in germination percentage of cabbage seeds .the germinetien percent varied from 0 – 4 % which it wan 100% in the control treatment (without infection ) . on the other hand , the results reflects the feasibility of the experiment factors A. chroococcum and B. thuringiansis . under the lathhous conditions as well as the pultary manner in reducing the infection intensity of (Fs.1) for one – year old citrus seedling , that it cause reduction up to 8.27% and 9.5 % infection intensity . this however caused an increment in growth characters (fresh weight , dry weight , plant height and root length for 16.20 26.50 , &gm/plan 4.60, 10.00, t cm/plant 86.30,51.70 respectively as compared with the control treatment (the fungi com ) which recorded 30. 70 10.33, 19.80 , 50.10 & gm/plant 10.80, 5.00 , cm/plant respectively

The effect of spraying garlic and whey extract in improving some characteristics of rooting system for seedlings pomegranate Punica granatum L cv. Salimi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 246-250

The experiment was conducted in the lath house, College of Agriculture / University of Karbala during the growing season of 2014 on seedling Pomegranate cv. Salimi. The seedling were Sprayed by garlic extract in three concentrations (0, 4 and 8 ml . L-1) and whey also three concentrations (0, 50 and 75%) for five periods. Experiments were factorial in (R.C.B.D) with 3 replications.
The results reflected the following findings :
Results replay that Garlic extract Concentration (8 ml . L-1) resulted in the highest means of the (Lengths roots , number of roots and fresh and dry weight of the root system). Whey extract at (75%) was the superior treatment in giving the highest rates of root system characters. Interaction of (8 ml . L-1garlic + 75% whey) had a positive influence on the root system characters of Pomegranate seedlings.

The effect of different levels of salinity and concentrations Glycine betaine added spray in some physiological the qualities of the plant wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 251-258

To study the effect of adding Glycine Betaine in reducing the salt stress, which exposed him plant wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), experiment carried out in plastic pots canopy wired the Agricultural Division in Kerbala University. Wheat cultivar namely (Fateh class) was planted during the winter season 2014 - 2015. The factorial experiment was designed using a complete randomized design (CRD) with three replicates. Treatments included four levels of soil salinity (S) which is (0, 3, 6 and 9 ds m-1) and four Glycine Betaine concentrations (G) ( i.e zero, 50 , 100 and 150 mg L -1) with foliar applications . Study has some vegetative growth , Anatomical and physiological indicators in the flowering stage (100%) . In the mature stage yield and its components were masuared Mean were compared using LSD at 0.05 probability level.
The results showed that levels of soil salinity affected significantly in most of the traits except Glycine Betaine content in leaves. It has given soil salinity level (9 ds m-1) lower values for the content of the leaves of chlorophyll and relative water content which amounted to18.570 unit Spade and 54.154% sequentially. On the other hand given the level of soil salinity (9 ds m-1) the highest in the qualitie of which the concentration of proline, which amounted to 7.767 . There was no effect of salinity in Glycine Betaine content in the leaves.

Study the effect of the equatic and oil extract of Cinnamum zeylanicum in larvae of Meloidogyne incongnita that effect the plant Lycopersicon esculantum

journal of kerbala university, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 259-264

This study was conducted in a farmer holy city of Karbala in order to test the effect of water and oil extracts of plant cinnamon against the larvae of nematodes root ganglia Meloidogyne incognita in the laboratory and the field, by using a series of concentrations (1000- 2500 -3500) mg / L .Both extracts, as shown through the results of laboratory study that there is a direct correlation between the concentrations used and the percentage of death, reaching 59% at concentration 1000 mg / L and this percentage increased with increasing concentration of up to 91% at concentration of 3500 mg / l for aqueous extract, which proved clearly his efficiency against larvae of nematodes followed by the oil extracted at percentage of killing of 53% at the lowest concentration of 1000 mg/ L increased up to 73% at a concentration of 3,500 mg / L compared with the use of commercial pesticide cadusafos as percentages were killed, 50%, and this value is less than the percentages of death when the two extracts are use. As for the experience of the field, both extracts impact significantly