ISSN: 1813-0410

Volume 11, Issue 3

Volume 11, Issue 3, Summer 2015, Page 0-212


Assessment of (comet assay) in some aquatic species (Tilapia zilli, Aspiusvorax, Uniotigridis,Sesarmaboulengeri)as molecular biomarkers of lotic aquatic system

Jassim M. Salman; Ayad M. J. Almamoori; ShaimaaS.Mohamed-Ali

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 1-9

This study was designed to evaluate of some environmental molecular biomarkers such as comet assay in some two species of fish (Tilapia zilli ,Aspiusvorax),theClam(Uniotigridis)and the Crab (Sesarmaboulengeri) which were collected from three sites in Hilla river. We determine the three paramrters in comet assay, by comparative with control for these species. Depending onTail length(µm). as indication of DNA damage, it has the highest level in st.1 in the species S. boulengeri, T. zilli,U. tigridis at respectively, and the highest level of DNA damage in the st.2 in the species S. boulengeri, U. tigridis A. vorax at respectively, and it highest level in the st.3 in species S. boulengeri This study indicates that the molecular markers different in response in aquatic organism

The Effect of Gama Radiation of Some Biological Measurements of Onion Fly Eumerus sp. {Diptera : Syrphidae }

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 10-17

The Onion fly Eumerus sp.{Diptera : Syrphidae } is considered one of the most important pest on onion in Iraq. So this study was carried to demonstate the posssibilty of using the sterile insect technique incombet this pest .
The data showed that the dose of 90 Gray caused complete sterility of females whereas , this dose at 105 Gray sterilized all males for study irradiated at 5 days old pupae.
The oviposition was noticed in the mating between irradiated males and untreated females in all doses used, but the eggs were not hatched to the dose of 105 Gray, while in mating between untreated males and irradiated females the oviposition was not observed at 90 Gray and higher.
Results also showed that all gamma rays have not effected on pupation percentage of larvae produced from hatched eggs of irradiated males and females for all doses , The results showed that all doses have no effect on adults emergence percentage or sex ratio of adults produced as first generation from all mating types.

First Record of the Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) in Euphrates River at Al-Hindia Barrage –Middle of Iraq

Abdulkareem J. Abulheni; Luay M. Abbas

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 18-21

Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. was recorded for first time in Euphrates River, The specimens (13 to 33 cm for total length, 11 to 31.5 cm of standard length and 30.6 to 1446 gm of weight) were collected from Euphrates River at Al-Musayab, before Al-Hindia barrage. Number of the gill rakers on the first arch is 27- 31. Dorsal fin with 12-13 rays and 16 spine, anal fin with 8-10 rays and 3 spines. The dorsal fin length relating to standard length is 53.47%, body depth is 42.78%, snout length is 12.05%, pectoral fin length is 31.47% , the eye diameter is 5.42% relation to standard length.

First Record of the Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) in Euphrates River at Al-Hindia Barrage –Middle of Iraq

Abdulkareem J. Abulheni; Luay M. Abbas

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 18-21

Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. was recorded for first time in Euphrates River, The specimens (13 to 33 cm for total length, 11 to 31.5 cm of standard length and 30.6 to 1446 gm of weight) were collected from Euphrates River at Al-Musayab, before Al-Hindia barrage. Number of the gill rakers on the first arch is 27- 31. Dorsal fin with 12-13 rays and 16 spine, anal fin with 8-10 rays and 3 spines. The dorsal fin length relating to standard length is 53.47%, body depth is 42.78%, snout length is 12.05%, pectoral fin length is 31.47% , the eye diameter is 5.42% relation to standard length.

Evaluation of some solid and liquid media to screening local bacterial isolates for solubilizing inorganinc phosphate

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 22-29

This research aimed to determine the efficiency of some agar media and broth for screening of inorganic phosphate solubilizing bacterial isolates. Sixty bacterial isolates were screened for their ability to solubilize phosphate using five culture agar media, differences were recognized upon agar media in which 50% of total isolates gave halo zone on AYG agar plate after 72 hours while only 26%, 20% and 13% of bacterial isolates solubilized phosphate for PVK, NBRIP and NBRIY respectively. Bromophenol blue dye caused only easer detecting for halo zone without change the percentage of solubilizing bacteria. This research indicated a difference between agar media and broth in which 100% of bacterial isolates gave detectable soluble phosphorous on AYG broth with decreasing in pH of broth which reached to3.6 for KP6.5. Soluble phosphorous determined to 62- 320 ppm for the best solubilizing isolates.

Comparative between Some Populations of Calliphoridae by Using Outline – Based Geometric Morphometric Technique

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 30-40

The Geometric Morphometric of wings technique was used in order to compare The variations in size and shape of the wings of some populations of Lucilia sericata , that were collected from two locations in Babylon provinces . The average of Centroid size of the left wing were 938.40 mM and 930.38 mM of the ( B1 ; B2 ) Babylon provinces respectively . The results of the statistical analysis by using ANOVA test followed by ( T ) and ( F ) tests showed that there were no significant differences in the average of the Centriod size for the left wing for Lucilia sericata. of the two regions which mean that the two populations belong to same species .

Population density of Mycorrhizal fungi associated with corn plants in some Iraq Governments

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 41-47

Samples of soil rhizospher of corn plant were collected from ten Iraq Governments .The samples were subjected to microbial analysis to determine population density of mycorrhizal fungi in soil rhizospher . results showed that the highest populalion density was Al- Diwania whereas Basrah was the lowest population, which were ( 283.3 spore/10 g ) and (113.3 spore/10 g soil) respectively. the highest infection severity was Al-Najef while Maysan was the lowest infection severity which were (78.3 %) and ( 61.7 % ) respectively.

Seasonal variations of natural feeding of Himri Barbus luteus (Heckel) and common carp Cyprinus carpio L. from Euphrates river at Al-Musayab city , Iraq

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 48-55

194 of Himri Barbus luteus and 190 common carp Cyprinus carpio L. were collected from Euphrates at Al-Musayab along the period from 2/1/2014 to 31/12/2014 using gill net and cast net. Foregut contents analysis was carriedout by using frequency of occurrence (%O) and numerical analysis (points method %P ) as well as Importance Ranking Index (%IRI) whereas( %IR I= %P x %O ) to make knowledge on the importance of fish food items.The results (according to %R) re-vealed that Himri Barbus luteus was herbivorous fish therefore the plant origin food formed %80.17 while the animal origin formed %16.62. The results showed that the aquatic plants ranked first formed %27.12 followed by detritus and algae which formed %25.90 and %20.22 respectively, then insects, diatoms and non diagnosed digestive food which formed %8.62 , %6.92 and %5.89 respectively, while common carp Cyprinus carpio L.may described as omnivorous fish because the plant origin food formed %50.09 while the animal origin formed %45.49 ,so the detritus and non diagnosed digestive food got the highest ratios of fish diet formed %29.88 and %25.08 followed by insects , aquatic plants, crustacea and algae which formed %10.87, %10.30 , % 9.24 and %7.06 respectively. As conclusion , Himri Barbus luteus may considered as herbivorous fish while Common carp Cyprinus carpio L. was omnivorous fish in this study during all year seasons.

Electric and Magnetic Field Exposure Level Assessment for 132KV High Voltage Power Lines Safety Zone Areas

Jawad Abdulkadhim Al-Aboudi; Saadallah T. Idan; Saad Mahdi Salih; Ibrahim K. Fayyadh; Ahmed Ibrahim Alwan; Alaa M. Hammadi; Mohamad T. Hamza

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 56-64

The electric and magnetic field effect on human health and environment is a matter concerned in recent years. In this work, electric and magnetic field exposure level assessment has been made for a residence and safety zone areas near a sample of 132KV power line in Baghdad city. GIS spatial analysis maps are introduced using Arc Map GIS version 10, the utilization of such maps is very important for exposure assessment and further future studies. Statistical analysis for measurements data was made using IBM SPSS Version 22. The maximum electric and magnetic field exposure level was 110 V/m and 193 mG respectively. The magnetic field exposure in this study is greater than standard limits issued by Switzerland and lower than standard limit issued by USA (Florida) and ICNIRP. There is no national Iraqi limits. Exposure level exposure values unveil the necessity of imposing new recommendations and limits and reducing exposure level in residential areas as low as possible

Study of The Possibility of Radioactive Waste Cementation By Different Types of Improved Iraqi Cement

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 65-75

In the present work study of the possibility of radioactive waste cementation by using ordinary portland cement and Sulphate resisting cement obtained from Iraqi cement state company ( AL-Qaim plant) .The solidified samples prepared with different weight (Water/Cement ratio: 0.62 ,0.55 ,0.44) into cubic of length 50 mm .The chemical additives (Fly ash/Cement ratio: 0.2 ,0.3,0.5) and Topflow SP703,SP603 with (1 liter/100 Kg cement).Resulting mixture were stirred for 30 min.The result showed that the maximum compressive strength after 28 days from preparation of specimens when used ordinary Portland cement and increases with chemical additives .

Study of Leaching and Mechanical Properties for Immobilization of Radioactive Waste

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 76-84

the present work is a study of leaching and mechanical properties of radioactive waste solidified by cementation using ordinary Portland cement produced by Iraqi cement state company with fly ash (fly ash/cement ratio :0.3) , using different radioactive waste loading capacity (5% ,10% ,15% ,20% ,25% solid and sludge wt%) .
The results showed that the compressive strength increases as the waste loading capacity decreases .a comparison was made between leaching of radioactive nuclides from specimens of different loading capacity for the same period of time apart for readings. It was found that leaching proportional with loading capacity

Studying the Radioactivity of Local and Imported cars oil in Baghdad using (HPGe) detector

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 85-94

The radioactivity of fifteen cars oil samples were be studied in this research, eight of them are local collected from the fuel station in Baghdad, the remaining seven are imported from different origins collected from local markets of Baghdad.
The specific activity of the detected radionuclides were be measured by the spectral analysis technique of gamma-ray using high purity germanium (HPGe) detector.It was also a calculation of radiation risk factors; and the specific effective activity (Aeff), which was calculated for the first time in this research.
Eight radionuclides were be detected in this research ;( 226Ra, 214Pb, 214Bi) which belong to the uranium-238 series and(212Pb, 208Tl, 228Ac) which belong to Th-232 series in addition to40K and 137Cs.
The results shown that the radium equivalent activity (Raeq)were(1.73-13.72)Bq/l, the absorbed gamma doserate (Dˠ) were (0.82 -6.24) nG/h, the representative gamma index (Ir) were(0.012-0.096), the indoor annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE)in were)0.004-0.031( mSv/y,the outdoor annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE)out were(0.002-0.037)mSv/y, and the internal hazard index(Hint) (0.009-0.052), the external hazard index (Hext) (00.5-0.037).
Another factor has been calculated for the first time in this research it’s the specific effective activity (Aeff) which is ranged between 1.76 and 13.26Bq/l.
The obtained results were compared with the worldwide average;it was within the recommended values. That mean, oils used in automobile engines are safe, valid for consumption and does not pose a danger to society and the environment.

Studying the Radioactivity of Local and Imported cars oil in Baghdad using (HPGe) detector

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 85-94

The radioactivity of fifteen cars oil samples were be studied in this research, eight of them are local collected from the fuel station in Baghdad, the remaining seven are imported from different origins collected from local markets of Baghdad.
The specific activity of the detected radionuclides were be measured by the spectral analysis technique of gamma-ray using high purity germanium (HPGe) detector.It was also a calculation of radiation risk factors; and the specific effective activity (Aeff), which was calculated for the first time in this research.
Eight radionuclides were be detected in this research ;( 226Ra, 214Pb, 214Bi) which belong to the uranium-238 series and(212Pb, 208Tl, 228Ac) which belong to Th-232 series in addition to40K and 137Cs.
The results shown that the radium equivalent activity (Raeq)were(1.73-13.72)Bq/l, the absorbed gamma doserate (Dˠ) were (0.82 -6.24) nG/h, the representative gamma index (Ir) were(0.012-0.096), the indoor annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE)in were)0.004-0.031( mSv/y,the outdoor annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE)out were(0.002-0.037)mSv/y, and the internal hazard index(Hint) (0.009-0.052), the external hazard index (Hext) (00.5-0.037).
Another factor has been calculated for the first time in this research it’s the specific effective activity (Aeff) which is ranged between 1.76 and 13.26Bq/l.
The obtained results were compared with the worldwide average;it was within the recommended values. That mean, oils used in automobile engines are safe, valid for consumption and does not pose a danger to society and the environment.

Monte Carlo assessment of gamma ray attenuation properties for MCP-96 alloy using transmission technique

Ali N. Mohammed; Mahmood S. Karim; Hassan H. Daroysh; Luma Y. Abbas

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 95-104

The photon attenuation properties of a material can be evaluated using the linear attenuation coefficients (μl), mass attenuation coefficients (μm) and related parameters such as mean free path (mfp) and half and tenth values thickness (HVT) , (TVT) respectively etc.
In present work, a new procedure of computer simulation program based on Monte Carlo method and photon attenuation technique was designed and written to be as virtual experimental system, instead of the real experimental system, concerning evaluation of attenuation properties for materials. The attenuation coefficients, as well as several other properties, were determined for MCP-96 alloy to assess its use in radiation applications. The density of alloy, also, was calculated. These provide followed the histories of numerous emitted photons from radioactive source. These photons with varying energies will pass through various thicknesses of MCP-96 alloy. The count rate for the beam of incident photons, after that the attenuation within the alloy was took place, was determined for each varying thickness of the alloy. Plotting the thickness of the alloy versus the corresponding logarithmic count rate of the beam will allow calculation of the attenuation properties. Counted photons were treated by means of correction factor. This factor gave present simulated results good agreement with XCOM program output and published experimental results. Contributing the porosity in the error percentage of simulated density value was discussed. Our simulation results are useful for training and development of human resources, staff and students, in the field of application of nuclear techniques, particularly, in radiation shielding protection

Determination of radioactive concentrations in Carpio fish Samples In Baghdad Province

Hadi J.M Al-agealy; Mohsin A. Hassooni; Ahmed M.Ashweik; Raad H.Mjeed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 105-114

In this study, the concentrations of radioactive including (_^40)K (_^226)Ra, and (_^232)Th in some tissues of most common Carpio fish collected from Baghdad city and their in Tiger river which is an important water source for irrigation and drinking in in Iraq during 2015-2016 were investigation and studied using a high purity germanium detector .
The results of fish sample obtained showed that the the effective activity concentration of (_^40)K : 97.65 Bq/kg in S_5 sample to 567.34 Bq/kg in S_9 , (_^226)Ra : 1.17 in S_3sample to 33.51Bq/kg in S_9 sample, and (_^232)Th are 2.39Bq/kg in S_9 to 11.89 Bq/kg in S_5 sample . These confirm that that never affected on the integrity of the environment and fisheries at Baghdad province, its indication a certain degree of bio-accumulation. That’s refers to conditions will help the fish to withstand sudden changes if available oxygen generators .

Carbon steel corrosion inhibition in acidic medium by expired drugs

Faliah Hassan Ali; ThaeraAbdulridhaMussa Al-Shimiesawi; Kafa Khalaf Hammud; Samira AhmedAbdul Rahmman

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 115-126

Corrosion and expired pharmaceutical materials represent a research spot because of their important issues in earth planet and human life. Three different expired drugs were bought from pharmacies in Baghdad city, Iraq and tested to determine their efficiencies in solving carbon steel corrosion in 1M HCl solution.

Various exposure times were subjected to test Citicoline (Samozina, syrup, 100 mg in 1mL); Carbocisteine (5%) (Rhinathiol syrup, 750 mg); or Paracetamol (Panalife syrup 120 mg in 5mL) as an inhibitor protect carbon steel specimen from being corroded. Inhibition efficiencies (IE%) of the tested drugs were ranged from low to high values reflecting the effects of drug- active component type, time, concentration, and acidic hydrolysis as a suggested explanation.

Temkin isothermal model was applied and Kads were ranged from [(26.43374-183.549), (10.36883 - 311.2802), and (3.499144 - 61.50259)] for Citicoline, Carbocisteine, and Paracetamol respectively. While Δ Gads values (in negative sign) were varied from (18.0494-22.8559, 15.7418-24.1738, and 13.033-20.1562) for Citicoline, Carbocisteine, and Paracetamol respectively. From Δ Gadsvalues, it can be concluded that physisorpion than chemisorption was occurred

Kinetic study for the decolorization of dispersive blue 26 dye from suspension solution of commercial ZnO

Luma; M. Ahmed; Q. M. Mahdi; F. S. Mahmoud; M. J. Mahammed; N. S. Ahmed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 127-136

In this work, the photocatalytic decolorization of dispersive blue 26 dye solution was performed in suspension solution of the commercial ZnO, under the artificial light (high pressure mercury lamp) type 250 Watt as UV A source. The photoreaction of this dye was obeyed to pseudo-first order kinetics. The optimum conditions for the photocatalytic decoloration of this dye were determined such as the optimum concentration of dye that equal to 50 ppm, the best dose of ZnO is 300 mg/100 mL, and the maximum value at the initial pH of an aqueous solution is 7.45. Moreover, the apparent activation energy is equal to 22.116 kJ/mol. From other the hand, the some thermodynamics parameters were calculated and ΔH# = 19.591 kJ/mol, ΔS# = 0.201 kJ/mol and ΔG# = -43.043 kJ/mol. There data clear due to the reaction is fast, endothermic and spontaneous reaction.

Synthesis of TiO2 and Cu2O nanoparticles and TiO2/Cu2O nanocomposite and study the ability to remove pollutants from aqueous solution

Shaimaa hamed jaber

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 137-146

TiO2,Cu2O nanoparticles and TiO2/Cu2O nanocomposite have been synthesized by electrochemical deposition method. The synthesized nanoparticles and nanocomposite characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).
Results showed that TiO2 nanoparticles have average size of (8-14)nm, Cu2O nanoparticles have average size of (11-15)nm and TiO2/Cu2O nanocomposite have average size of (13-20)nm.
The synthesized nanoparticles were applied to remove 1-nitroso-2-naphthol from aqueous solution. UV-vis spectra results indicate that the percentage of degradation with the sequence
TiO2/Cu2O= 89%< TiO2= 68% < Cu2O= 42% .

Synthesis and characterization of Nanoporous Material via Rice husk

Hayder Hamied Mihsen; Thana Jaafar Al-Hasani; Kasim Mohammed hello

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 147-156

The idea of this research depended on the preparation of nanoporous material via rice husk based on the silica material. The silica material is prepared from the rice husks in appropriate chemical method. Where it is known that the rice husks are produced by the production of rice plants that are too large quantities and cause high pollution in environment. Instead, the husks is embedded or burn in the exposed atmosphere in urban and rural areas could benefit from it by the suitable chemical treatment and burning it in controlled conditions, it produces pure silica labeled as RHA (Rice Husk Ash) can be entered in chemical reactions for the production of Nanoporous Material labeled as RHAC-Pd(DTO)2 .This Nanoporous Material is inorganic-organic hybrid. According to analysis of CHNS and FT-IR spectra can be conclude that the bis- dithiooxamidepalladium(II) chloride [Pd(DTO)2]Cl2 has successful incorporation on RHACCl . X-ray diffraction technique was used to determine the amorphous formula of [Pd(DTO)2]Cl2, while the Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique was used to confirm its nanostructure of compounds. The surface area measurements indicated that [Pd(DTO)2]Cl2 had a specific surface area of 70.83 m2g1- and a narrow average pore diameter of 3.25 nm. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA-DTA) of RHAC-Pd(DTO)2 indication that the physical adsorb water was lost between 30-160 °C which means it is weakly bonded in the silica matrix, while the residual parts of material decomposed up to 300 °C.

A PERFORMANCE STUDY OF CERAMIC FILTER MADE WITH WOOD ASH

Sanaa Abdul-Razak Jassim; Afaf Khairi Ismail Shuwaikh; Mohammed Thamer Jaafar; Rusul Dawood Salman

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 157-165

Wood ash is a mineral waste cheap and available material, which has a high adsorption activity. It was used with clay mineral type paligorskite to manufacture the ceramic filter. The physical properties and mineral composition are measuered for the ceramic which is produced.
The efficiency of ceramic filter is measured to remove the heavy metals ions (Mn2+, Cd2+
and Co2+), from its aqueous solution with two concentration (1 and 10 mg/l) by the produceding ceramic. So, the ability to remove these ions as follows: 99.6 to 99.9% for the influxing concentration 1 mg/l, and 24 to 31% for the inflowing concentration 10 mg/l . The ability of the product to purify the raw water is measured, the producing ceramic reduces the concentration of water pollutants which are the acceptable ratios according to (WHO) drinking water specifications.

Determination of some oxides, methane and some aromatic compounds in air via monitoring station in Babylon province during 2011

Mahammed E Al-Defiery; Ali. K. Al-Muttarri; Ali T. Mukhalif; Ahmad A. A l. Kahewich; Ali Abdul Razzak Hassan

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 166-176

The air pollution by any biological agent, physical or chemical may alter the natural characteristics of the atmosphere and harm happens to humans, animals and plants. Therefore, this study came for the purpose of conducting measurements of certain air pollutants that may cause concern to public health or have global effects.
Air pollution by aromatic compounds, carbon oxides, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides and methane were investigated monthly during 2011 by weather station of Babylon university within the province of Babylon by using the following devices: Fluoresence SO2 Analyzer, Chemiluminescence NOx Analyzer, Photometric O3 Analyzer, Gas Filter CO2 Analyzer, Synspec alpha 115 VOCs Analyzer GC and Synspec alpha 115 Methane Analyzer. The correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship between pollutants and meteorological measuring . The results showed that the concentrations of SO2, NO, NO2, CO2, O3 and CH4 were (0.31 - 27.17 ), (20.27 -63.60 ), (49.13 - 136.26), (346.25 - 1648.75), (39.88- 75.70) and (1.31-3.08 ) ppm respectively and the concentrations of (aromatic compounds) O-xylene, P-xylene, benzene, ethyle benzene and toluene were (0.03 -0.23 ), (0.00 - 0.11 ), (0.16 -0.33 ), (0.21-0.51 ) and (0.19 - 0.49 ) ppb respectively on weather station during 2011. The results indicated that a high positive correlation between O3 with air temperature and negative correlation with relative humidity. Also positive correlation between O-Xylene with air temperature and negative correlation with relative humidity.

Evaluation Water Quality of Main Out Full Drain in the Diwaniyah Province and Indicate Their Suitability For Different Uses

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 177-186

The chemical quality of main out full drain water in the Diwaniyah province and availability to use it for different purposes were studied in this work. Seven sites were selected along of the river. Season Results revealed an electrical conductivity (EC) ranged from (4.55-9.99) ds/m, total dissolve solid (TDS) (2910- 6580) ppm, Sodium Adsorption Ratio(SAR) (5.1-9.99 ). Water quality of main out full drain river were evaluated according to FAO 1992 . They were moderate saline water, primary drainage water and ground water. There was no risk from Sodium Adsroption Ratio to affect soil permeability. The concentration of heavy metals ( pb,cd,cu,zn,Mn,Fe) were very little and not accessed tolerant guideline of irrigation water and not reached the toxic limit in water, soil and plant .

Assessment of Water Quality for Drinking Water Supplies Plants at Basrah, Iraq.

Luma J. M. Al-Anbar; Faris J. M. Al-Imarah; Amal M. Essa; Inas K. Mohammad; F. Gahzi; Aymen

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 187-198

Water Quality Index (WQI), a simplified way of representing water quality information, was used for assessment of the water quality for water treatment plants in Basrah Governorate. The study conducted for forty water treatment plants streaches from northern sectors, Qurnah and Mudainah towards the southern sectors Umm Qasser and Safwan, in which eight variables as chemical parameters for each sample were analyzed for a period of three years 2012-2014. Parameters studied were, total hardness, sulphate, chloride, sodium, calcium, magnesium, turbidity, and Electric conductivity. Average values for all measured chemical parameters were exceeded the permissible limits for safe drinking water. The results show that the WQI values of water treatment plants in Basrah Governorate ranged between 26 and 89. For the three years of study 2012-2014 most of water treatment plants within Basrah Governorate were either poor or marginal, few were fair and good. Al-Abass and Shuaibah water treatment plants which represent only 5% among the 40 studied plants were classified as good, while others were classified as marginal or poor, that was during the years 2012 and 2013 then it was deteriorate afterwards, moreover, WQI showed that drinking water released from water treatment plants within Basrah Governorate were never reach excellent levels.

Fabrication and Characterization Membrane Prepared from Oxidized Multiwall Carbon Nanotube/Nylon 6 Composite

Akram R. Jabur; Laith K. Abbas; Saja A. Moosa

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 200-212

Mixed matrix nanofibres membranes were prepared, characterized, studied and evaluated for performance and properties in this research. Acid oxidized Multiwall carbon nanotubes MWCNTs embedded in Nylon 6 as matrix polymer were the materials used to create the prepared membranes. Through; the electrospinning process, the hydrophilicity of the membrane was enhanced by blending (MWCNTs) due to migration of functionalized MWCNTs into the membrane surface. Scanning electron microscopy SEM and morphology studies showed that average fiber diameters produced were about 72-193 nm and average pore size 183 - 226 nm . It was found that as fiber diameter decreases high porosity and small pore size will be created and increasing the amount of functionalized MWCNTs leads to increase of pure water flux. The MWCNT blended with Nylon 6 membranes showed better antibactericidal ability as compared to the neat Nylon 6 membranes. Water filter media with a high rejection ratio against heavy metal ions reached (80%) at (0.8 wt. % MWCNT) membrane. Addition of MWCNTs forms a membrane with high mechanical strength (4.158MPa) of Nylon/ 0.8 wt. % MWCNT.