ISSN: 1813-0410

Volume 11, Issue 1

Volume 11, Issue 1, Winter 2015, Page 1-328

Artin's Characters Table of the Group Q2m C3 when m is an Even Number

Rajaa Hassan Abass

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 1-10

The main purpose of this paper is to find the general form of Artin's characters table of the group
Q2m C3 when m is an even number where Q2m is the quaternion group of order 4m and C3 is the cyclic group of order3 we prove that this table depends on Artin's characters table of a quaternion group Q2m of order 4m when m is an even number. which is denoted by Ar(Q2m C3 ).

Analysis of selecting the most sustainable alternative to air-condition system for multi-story building by using AHP program

Angham E. Al-Saffar; Hussein Ali Mohammed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 11-28

Most buildings in Iraq have been designed and implemented using traditional methods, which in turn lead to large consumption of amounts of energy and resources, and negative environmental, social and economic impacts. Where possible, these problems should be dealt with, or their impacts minimized, through the application of the principles of sustainability. This research aims to highlight and demonstrate the role of sustainability and its criteria in the construction sector, as well as the use of sustainable engineering technique to reach the best performance. And have been using the Analytical Hierarchal Process software program (AHP) to reach for the best alternative from Proposed Alternatives to the Air-conditioning system for The building of the College of Administration and Economics at the University of Karbala was chosen as a case study for the application of the proposed management system in redesign or rehabilitation of the building and its conversion from conventional to sustainable building. In the light of what has been identified by the criteria specified weights, the best sustainable value of the proposed alternatives has been reached in determining the optimal alternative (package units system).

influence The Victorian Compromise in the Great Britain power 1837- 1901 "A study of compromise policy in Britain during The Victorian Era"

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 115-137

هذا البحث يسلط الضوء على حالة التكيف والانسجام والتوافق التي كانت سائدة داخل المجتمع البريطاني في الجوانب السياسية والاقتصادية والاجتماعية خلال العهد الفكتوري(1837-1901) والتي اطلق عليها اسم الوفاق الفكتوري The Victorian Compromise، موضحا اثر ذلك الوفاق على عظمة بريطانيا وتقدمها، ومبينا الأهداف المشتركة لدى معظم أبناء ذلك المجتمع ومؤسساته والتي تدعو إلى المحافظة على مصالح بريطانيا ونظامها البرلماني العريق ودعم تقدمها السياسي والاقتصادي والاجتماعي، وهذه الاسس كانت من العوامل الرئيسة التي جعلتها تتحول الى "إمبراطورية عظمى". يتألف البحث من مقدمة وثلاث فصول وخاتمة. تناول الفصل الاول طبيعة النظام السياسي البريطاني واثر سياسة الحلول الوسطية على ذلك النظام، مسلطا الضوء على الاهداف المشتركة لحزبي المحافظين والاحرار، على الرغم من اختلاف ايديولوجيتهما، تلك الاهداف التي تدور حول اهمية تقدم البلاد وخدمة مصالحها الداخلية والخارجية والمحافظة على سلامتها، كما اوضح الفصل المذكور دور البلاط الملكي في الوفاق السياسي والانسجام الاجتماعي، ودور البرلمان في دعم سياسة الحلول الوسطية، واثر الوفاق السياسي على اتخاذ القرارات الخاصة بتعزيز النفوذ الخارجي. وتطرق الفصل الثاني الى اثر الوفاق الفكتوري على الاوضاع الاقتصادية في بريطانيا وعلى عملية التقدم الاقتصادي التي شهدتها البلاد. موضحا اثار الثورة الصناعية على المجتمع البريطاني خلال العهد الفكتوري والنتائج الايجابية والسلبية التي تركتها تلك الثورة على طبيعة الحياة العامة في البلاد خلال تلك الفترة، وحالة الوفاق التي كانت سائدة والتي ساهمت في ذلك التقدم رغم كل تلك التحديات التي واجهت البلاد. اما الفصل الثالث فقد سلط الضوء على المظاهر الاجتماعية للوفاق الفكتوري موضحا تكيف ذلك المجتمع وتفاعل مكوناته فيما بينها تحت ظل التحديات والتغيرات الاقتصادية والسياسية الجديدة، والنتائج التي تركها ذلك الوفاق على تقدم البلاد على الرغم من التناقضات التي كانت موجودة داخل المجتمع، وموضحا اهم مظاهر ذلك الوفاق في الجانب الاجتماعي.

Some Types of Normalities of Fuzzy KS-Semigroups

Sajda Kadhum Mohammed; Sundus Najah Jaber

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 29-45

In this paper, we introduce new types of normalities of fuzzy KS-Semigroups, namely normal fuzzy subks- semigroups , fuzzy normal subks- semigroup of KS- semigroup and fuzzy normal subks- semigroup of fuzzy subKS- semigroup .Also,we study some of their properties .

Survey of external parasites on the turtles Emydura macquarii present in fish breeding ponds in AL-musaib Technical Institute

Hussain Takheal Hussain

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 46-49

Examination of 89 of Emydura macquarii from aquaria in AL- Musaib Technical Institute during a period from April 2014 until September 2014 for the presence of ectoparasitic infection. The inspected results showed the presence of the species of protozoa which include Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Trichodina cottidarum and Plisthophora typicalis.
The Emydura macquarii is recorded as a new host for this protozoa in Iraq. The Percentage incidence of infection with the studied protozoa are varied according to different months.


Nashwa Abdul Hammied Saad; Fadhel Abass Hashim; Athraa Hussien Hashim

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 50-60

One technique that may be used for repair of defects arising from process upsets is simply re-welding using the nominal process parameters. In such a case, it is important to know whether or not using a different welding process is capable of repairing defects in the already welded material (which will presumably have somewhat different properties as compared to the base metal). To examine this issue , three TIG weld passes were performed in aluminum AA7020 strips(6 piers of strips with 25 *200 *9.5 mm dimension ) by used (Al Mg 5 Cr ) filler metal according to AWS (A- 5.10) standard .Then friction stir weld pass were performed in exiting TIG welds (for only 3 piers of welded strips) with a tool rotation speed of (1000 rpm) and moved straight speed (welding speed ) of (14 m /min). Microstructure and Vickers hardness testes were done for weldments in three regions (base metal , TIG and FSP weld metals) to comparison .
Results indicate that for this material and these conditions weld control parameters its possible to use another welding process to reduce defects in upsets process. Weld metallurgy is only slightly changed in the interface between TIG and FSP structures due to refining in exiting TIG welds structures. While there is no change in metallurgy of other TIG passes and base metal. Hardness in the weld metal after FSP pass increased by about 120% of the base metal.

A new Approach for the Turbidimetric Determination of Cyproheptadine Hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical Preparations by Using Homemade Linear Array Ayah 6SX1-T-2D Solar cell CFI Analyser

Nagam S.Turkey Al-Awadie; Kefah H. Ismael Al-saadi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 61-80

A new turbidimetric – flow injection method is described for the determination of Cyproheptadine hydrochloride(CPH-HCl) in pure and pharmaceutical preparations .The method is characterized by simplicity ,sensitivity and speed ,it is based on formation of ion-pair between CPH-HCl and hexacyanoferrate (III) in aqueous medium to form yellow precipitate .This precipitate was determined using homemade Ayah 6SX1-T-2D Solar cell-CFI Analyser via the reflection of incident light from the surfaces precipitated particles at (0-180°) .Chemical and physical parameters were studied and optimized .The calibration graph was linear in the range of 0.5- 10 mmol.L-1 , with correlation coefficient r = 0.9785 ,while the percentage linearity (%r2) was %95.75 .The limit of detection (S/N=3) 280.72 ng /100 µL from the stepwise dilution for the minimum concentration in the calibration graph with RSD lower than %1.5 for 5and 7 mmol.L-1 (eight replicates ) concentration of CPH-HCl .The method was successfully applied for the determination of CPH-HCl in three different companies of pharmaceutical drugs . A comparison was made between the newly developed method analysis with classical method (HANNA instrument for turbidity measurement) using standard addition method via the use of t-test and F-test ,it was found that there was no significant difference between two methods at %95 confidence level .

Prevalence Enterobius vermicularis infection in children and relationship with nocturnal enuresis in Najaf Province

Zainab Ali Hussein

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 81-86

The current study aims to investigate the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis among children and to evaluate the possible association between Enterobius vermicularis and nocturnal enuresis among children 4 to 7 years of age in Iraq- AL-Najaf province for the period from 30 April to the 30 of August 2014. Scotch tape technique were applied on (124) children were diagnosed to have Enterobiasis by using direct microscopic examination for the observation the helminthes eggs in the stool. The overall prevalence rate was high (83.9 %) and to investigate age, gender related factors . The rate of infection in males was (59.4%) higher than females (40.6%), statistical analysis showed significant differences at the level of 0.05 between gender. The rate of infection was the maximum (26.9 %) seen in the age (4) years in comparison to the lower infection rate was found in the age (12) years (1.9%), the statistical analysis showed significant differences at the level of 0.05 between the ages. Enterobiasis had significant relation with nocturnal enuresis and the percentage of children who had pinworm infection and enuresis was (61.5%).

Experimental study of increasing energy dissipation on stepped spillway

Thulfikar Razzak Al- Husseini

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 87-100

An experimental study was conducted on flat sloped and stepped spillways in order to specify the efficiency of energy dissipating of flow and then trying to improve that as a new and novel study. Twelve spillways were constructed from plywood and tested to compare between flat sloped and stepped spillways first, and as a conclusion in this study and many previous papers (which is when increasing discharge the energy dissipation decreasing), so it can be choosing the most effective one that dissipate energy at high discharges and try to modify it using two cases of blocks and one case of cascade for increasing energy dissipation secondly , so three downstream slopes of stepped face (θ = 27 o, 32 o , and 40 o) were tested with flat sloped, stepped having two steps, and stepped having four steps. The results showed that when decreasing both number of steps and downstream slops stepped face of the spillway will cause an increase of the ratio of flow energy dissipation, and the stepped spillways are more efficient in flow energy dissipation compared with flat sloped spillways, also when using cascade spillway the energy dissipation will decrease compare with original step spillway that have the same characteristics and increased when using blocks.

Design a donor bridge acceptor system (D-B-A) using quantum mechanics methods

Adil Jalel Najim

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 101-110

The geometry optimization for the structures of molecules under study and other properties have been calculated using density functional method with (B3LYP) and 6-31G(d,p) level and Austen model (AM1) semiempirical method. The aim of this work is to calculate the electronic properties for aminotulene molecule as an electron donor molecule, as well as study the electronic properties for bromotulene molecule as an electron acceptor and aminosalicylic molecule as a bridge between donor and acceptor, then grouping these molecules together in one entity to form donor bridge acceptor system (D-B-A).
The results show that the total energy rises from donor to bridge to acceptor. As regarding to the HOMO energy for donor molecule, the latter was more than that of acceptor molecule and both these HOMO energies are more than that of bridge molecule, but when designing the donor bridge acceptor molecule, the HOMO energy was the least. This result was similar when calculating LUMO energy but the only difference being the LUMO energy for (D-B-A) was a little higher than that of bridge. With respect to electron affinity (Eea), then both donor and acceptor molecules have electron affinity more than that for bridge, but for (D-B-A) molecule the electron affinity was the least, while ionization potential (IP) value increased from donor to bridge to acceptor then decreased again when (D-B-A) was built. The electronegativity property for bridge, acceptor and (D-B-A) is close together, whereas for the donor it was the least. Finally, it have been estimated the vibration spectrum for all donor, bridge and acceptor using DFT-(B3LYP) and for (D-B-A) it is estimated using Austin model (AM1) which they have been illustrated in this paper. These properties make this system a good (D-B-A) for transporting electrons from donor to acceptor throughout the bridge, thus when a photon collides donor molecule, then it will release an electron because donor molecule has lowest ionization potential of about 7.3 eV, on the other hand bridge has more electronegativity than that of donor, and thus it has high tendency to attract this released electron, which in turn will transmit this electron to acceptor molecule.

Doppler study of the uterine artery in patients with copper intrauterine contraceptive device-induced abnormal uterine bleeding

Bushra Abdulameer Ali Shabaa; Dalal Mahdi Al-Jarrah; Nada Al-Ibrahimi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 111-117

Objective: to evaluate the effect of copper intrauterine device (CIUD) induced abnormal uterine bleeding on uterine artery blood flow using pulsed color Doppler ultrasound.
Design: prospective clinical study.
Setting: Al-Zahra'a teaching hospital.
Patients and methods: ninety three women were examined by trans-vaginal color Doppler to detect the pulsatility index(PI) and resistance index(RI) in the uterine arteries. Women were divided into three groups: Group I. Included 31 women using CIUD and abnormal uterine bleeding. Group II. Included 32 women using CIUD with normal cycle. Group III. Was a control group that included 32 women with normal menstrual flow and not using any contraceptive methods.
Results: No significant differences in RI and PI were observed between group II and III, the comparism between group I and the other two groups revealed significantly lower mean RI and PI values for group I.
Conclusion: This results confirm the hypothesis that there is an increase in the uterine blood flow in women with CIUD- induced abnormal uterine bleeding.

Calculated yields of the produce Gallium from the induced proton on Zinc target element

Iman Tarik Al-Alawy; Hamza Abed Al-Kadhim Mezher

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 118-134

Stopping power and calculated yields for induced protons to produce Copper from Zinc isotopes ( , , , and ) in the energy range from threshold energy up to 85 MeV proton energy have been calculated except for reaction where the proton energy have 350.8 MeV. Complete energy range starting from threshold energy for each reaction have been analyzed statistically and the adopted cross sections were reproduced in fine steps of incident proton energy in 0.01 MeV intervals with their corresponding errors. The stopping power according to Zeigler formula was used in order to obtain the cross sections and calculated yield for each reaction based on the complete spectrum of cross sections.

Kinetic and thermodynamic studies for the adsorption of Nickel (II) by Basil seeds in aqueous solutions

Elham M . AL-Rufaie; Beidaa A.kadhim

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 135-145

Environmental pollution as a result of a heavy metal presence led to serious health problems. Inthis study, the adsorption by swollen Basil seeds were determined. The adsorption behavior of Basil seeds with respect to Nickel (II) has been studies by batch method to consider its application in this field.The effects of various experimental parameters like contact time, dosage of Basil seeds, initial concentration of the metal ion, pH of solution, and temperature have been investigated .The removal percentage is a pH dependent and decrease with increase in temperature, The best removal were at 200C. The equilibrium adsorption experimental data were found to fit Freundlich isotherms for Nickel (II). The pseudo-first and second order kinetic model both fitted the kinetic.The thermodynamic parameters, (∆0G) was found to be positive and become negative at low temperature (below 100C), ∆0H is negative that means exothermic adsorption process and ∆0S is negative also which indicate the increase in the order at the solid-solution interface.

Study on the Natural Radioactivity in Some Building Material

am Sami Mallak; Amar Yassir kazam; Qasim Sattar Kareem

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 146-155

As a result of intense daily use of building material by people, in this search the natural radiation of samples were measured (block, brick, gypsum, thermo stone, cement and plaster). The detection and measurement system are made up of a nuclear detector was used, . The radioactive sources (137Cs, 22Na, 60Co) were used detector

The results showed that values of activity concentrations of 238U,232Th and 40K are less than level of (MCL) proposed by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The values of the Radium equivalent activity and annual effective dose are less than the maximum permissible levels recommended by world health organization, the heist external and internal, hazard and gamma activity concentration index were lower than unity

Study of the calculated yields for induced deuterons on Zinc to produce Copper and Gallium

Iman Tarik Al-Alawy; Hamza Abed Al-Kadhim Mezher

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 156-168

In this research was the study of copper products and Gallium deuterons interactions of zinc element with the importance of used therapeutic and pharmaceutical and diagnostic. It has been calculated stopping power and evaluation yields for induced deuterons to produce Copper and Gallium from Zinc isotopes ( , , and ) in the energy range from threshold energy up to 25.8 MeV deuteron energies have been calculated. Complete energy range starting from threshold energy for each reaction have been analyzed statistically and the adopted cross sections were reproduced in fine steps of incident deuteron energy in 0.01 MeV intervals with their corresponding errors. The stopping power according to Zeigler formula was used in order to obtain the cross sections and calculated yield for each reaction based on the complete spectrum of cross sections.

Face Detection using RGB Model

Jameelah Harbi H; Zeyad Nabeel N

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 169-175

Skin tone detection had been performed by using RGB color system, it is an interested filled of working due to the great hazard facing the digital world at this time. Many of the RGB images are the most common area of that detection. In this paper, an experimental study of face detection algorithms based on “Skin Color” has been introduce using Matlab environment to detect the skin color of an image. Having a true color image is the input, then the resulted image is a skin image that are detected by the algorithm that is built for that purpose.

Determination of Arsenic in Human Scalp Hair and Fingernails of Healthy Individuals Resident in Karbala, Iraq by Using ICP-OES

Joda A. Baker; Fadhil K. Ayad; Sultan A. Maitham

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 176-182

The use of unconventional biological materials as biomarkers in trace element studies has increased in terms of published research studies. In this study, human scalp hair and fingernails were used to be a possible biomarker for arsenic in the human body as no study has been published in Karbala yet. Samples were obtained from 56 healthy individuals resident in Karbala, Iraq. The level of arsenic was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The validity, precision and accuracy of the methodology were evaluated using a “pooled” sample for each media and certified reference materials. The validation methods provided acceptable levels of precision and accuracy with lower range of RSD (1.1%) and acceptable range of elemental recoveries (98.09 %), respectively. The results show that the arsenic levels of study sample are in general agreement with the literature ranges for scalp hair with exception reported for fingernails. It was found that there was no significant difference for arsenic between the two tissues (at P < 0.05). In addition, the value of correlation coefficient (r = 0.804, P = 0.05) was indicated that there is a significant positive correlations for arsenic level between scalp hair and fingernails.

Synovitis associated with Salmonellosis infections of broiler chickens in Karbala Province

Mohammed Abdul khadhim Hussein

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 183-187

The study aimed in part to identify bacterium Salmonella spp. isolate of culturing and antimicrobial susceptibility test in diagnosis of this bacteria that causes arthritis isolated from chicken farm in Kerbala governorate, Iraq. A total of 40 joint swabs were collected from broiler suffering by arthritis isolated from chicken farm in Kerbala governorate, through a period of three months (from December 2014 to February2015), in an attempt to detect the bacterium Salmonella spp. which play a role for Arthritis. The research was concluded that the isolated salmonella spp. belongs to the Enterobacteriaceae play important in the synovitis of broiler chicken, Ciprofloxacin and Chloramphenicol had the highest overall in all salmonella spp. vitro efficacy, but resistant 100% coverage of Amoxicillin against salmonella spp. that isolate and tested

Synthesis and Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity for Some New 1,5-Disubstituted Tetrazoles Containing Benzothiazole and Thiadiazole moieties

Zeid Hassan Abood; Nooralhuda Mohammed Abdul Hussain

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 188-204

In this work new 1,5-disubstituted tetrazoles containing 1,3,4-thiadiazole, benzothiazole moieties and azo group have been synthesized. At first, 2-aminobenzothiazole was converted to the corresponding azoaldehyde derivatives 1 via coupling reaction of its diazonium salt with 2- hydroxybenzaldehyde, which dissolved in sodium hydroxide solution, as coupling reagent. Next, the resulting azoaldehyde derivative 1 was introduced in acid-catalyzed condensation reactions with both 2-amino-5-mercapto-1.3,4-thiadiazole and 2-aminobenzothiazole to give two azoimine derivatives 2 and 3 containing 1,3.4-thiadiazole and benzothiazole moieties, respectively. Later, the resulting azoimines 2 and 3 were introduced in [3+2] cycloaddition reactions with sodium azide in tetrahydrofuran to obtain two new 1,5-disubstituted tetrazoles 4 and 5, respectively.The structures of new synthesized tetrazoles have been confirmed using the spectroscopic means including FT-IR, 1H NMR and Mass. The new synthesized tetrazoles have been tested for their antibacterial activity against two types of bacteria, Staphylococcus aureous (Gram-positive) and Escherichia coli (Gram-negative), The results indicated that both synthesized tetrazoles showed medium activity against Gram-positive bacteria. On the other hand, both tetrazoles showed no effect against Gram-negative bacteria.

A Proposal to Modulate ACS (Case study: Clustering Ionosphere database using FCM)

Soukaena Hassan Hashem

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 205-211

This work trend to strength ACS, which is used as a solution for optimization problems, to make ACS more efficient and strongest to face the most important problems and faults in it is infrastructure, these problems are local optimum and stagnation. The enhancement is done by building proposed algorithm is called Modulated ACS, which is a trend to optimal solution by efficient treatment for local optimum and stagnation. PSO has been exploited as a solution to solve the both problems; that by modulates ACS by PSO parameters to converge the global and local updates. Several experiments are conducted to prove the robustness and strength of proposed Modulated ACS algorithm. The experimental works was done by applying traditional ACS and modulated ACS as an attribute reduction for Ionosphere database which include 351 instances, with Fuzzy C-Mean (FCM) clustering algorithm. The results show that; the modulated ACS introduces optimal time for finding the solutions than the traditional ACS. The modulated ACS reduces 50% of overall time spent by traditional ACS and the precision of clustering with traditional ACS was have 51 outlier instances between two clusters, where the precision of clustering with modulated ACS was have just 13 outlier instances between two clusters.

Using PCR technique and culture to diagnose bull brucellosis in Karbala province

Hussain jawad Kadhum

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 212-216

Present study aimed to isolate brucella from testes of bull, 40 testes samples were collected from Karbala abattoir then withdraw sample from epidedimys after that stained with modified ziehl neelsen, samples were positive for stain were cultured on brucella selective media and tested with PCR. Results showed 8 samples were positive for modified ziehl neelsen(MZN) , 3 samples were positive for culture and 5 samples were positive for PCR. Concluded that PCR is more effective in diagnose bull brucellosis.

Numerical Method of Interpolation By Using a Parametric Curve

Mustafa Abbas Fadhel

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 217-220

In this paper we find new method to interpolation by using parameter polynomials. The problem studied here is the way of determine the consider element that is we can find it from solution equations system of every parameters curves that is we get from interpolation points. There are many studies in this field, the researchers are state the leading methods and formulate programmed examples to show the details of these studies. Compare this method with known methods by test examples and find the merits and drawbacks of each study.

The Effect of Tool Geometry on Strength of Friction Stir Welding

Moneer H. Al-Saadi; Sabah Khammass Hussein; Mursal Luaibi Saad

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 221-235

In this research, attempt has been made to understand the effect of tool shape on the strength of aluminum alloy (AA2024-T3). Seven different tool pin profiles (straight cylindrical, threaded cylindrical, tapered cylindrical, threaded taper, triangular, hexagonal and square) with two different shoulder surfaces (flat and concave) that have been used to fabricate the joint.
The effect of tool geometry on the strength of welded joints was investigated using different mechanical tests including (tensile, bending and microhardness tests). Also, a non-destructive tests including (visual and liquid penetration tests) were achieved. Microstructural characteristics during friction stir weldingprocess were studied and the welding joints were investigated using optical microscope.
The best mechanical properties obtained in this research were observed in the hexagonal pin profile with concave shoulder where the maximum welding efficiencies were (89.4%) and (85.71%) in terms of ultimate tensile strength and bending force respectively. The weakness tensile strength and bending force were found in the straight cylinder pin profile with flat shoulder as compared with the other tool shapes. The hardness values are higher in the weld zone compared to that in base metal. The maximum value of hardness is observed in the nugget zone of welded sample with hexagonal pin and concave shoulder profile. A fine equiaxed grains size is formed along the parent metal grain structure.

Determine the Structural and Optical Properties of ZnO Nanoparticles Prepared by Hydrothermal Method

Dunia K.M.Al-Nasrawy; Mohammed H.K.AL-Mamoori; Ahmed.K.Kodeary

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 236-244

In this work ,zinc oxide nanoparticles(powder) with diameter 12.1 nm was prepared using Solvothermal Method. The structural and optical properties of ZnO nanoparticles was studied by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy AFM, EDS, FTIR, UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy and Flourometer spectrum. X-ray diffraction reveal the formation the purity of prepared phase of ZnO particles with hexagonal wurtzite structure . The energy dispersion scattering ( EDS) examination explains the ZnO nanoparticle is purity. The Atomic Force Microscopy ( AFM) shows the spherical shape of nanoparticles with diameter around 60 nm. The optical absorption spectral study identified the blue shift of the sample in comparison to bulk ZnO in three dimensions . fluorescence spectrum at room temperature confirms the strong UV emission around 397 nm and its indicate that the zinc oxide nanoparticles is a purity and don’t contain on a defects.

Treatment modality outcomes of fracture mandible in child and adult patients.

Suha mohammad sami

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 245-258

The pediatric mandible fracture is a rare occurrence when compared with the number of mandible fractures that occur within the adult population.
Aims. The purpose of this study was to study the treatment outcomes of fracture mandible in child and adult patients.
Patients and methods One hundred forty three patients who sustained mandibular fractures were included in this study one hundred tow (71.33%) were adult patients (sixty five were male and thirty seven patients were female) The general procedure for treating a fractured mandible is first to immobilize the jaw and set the break - "reduction." Often, a surgeon can set the bone simply by manually repositioning it "closed reduction" because it can be done through the skin and does not involve major surgery. Once the bone is set, the jaw must be stabilized and kept stationary for a period of time, to allow the broken segments to grow back together. "fixation," may involve wiring the jaw shut for two to six weeks,
Results . one hundred two (71.33%) were adult patients (sixty five were male and thirty seven patients were female) average age of patients was between 16 -75 years and forty one (28.67%) patients were child age between 3- 12 years ( twenty six child were male and fifteen were female).
Conclusion. Twenty five patients ( 17.48%) were presented with complication post operatively from total number one hundred forty three, other reported that complications occurred in 19.8% of the patients.

Evaluation of Brain Computerized Tomography Scan in Patients with Acute Ischemic stroke

Hayder Kadhum Hassoun; Haider Najim Aubaid; Azhar Abdul-Latief Khalil

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 259-267

Background: Stroke remains one of the leading cause of the death in the world and despite the advance in neuroimaging, computerized tomography (CT) is still widely used in evaluation of patients with ischemic stroke in emergency unit which should be done before giving thrombolytic therapy in the first 3-4.5 hour of stroke onset .Aim of this study is to evaluate early brain CT findings among ischemic stroke which is of great help in deciding early stroke management. Patients and methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was done at Middle Euphrates Neuroscience center; AL-Sadder Medical City at Annajaf city – Iraq, in the period from may 2012 to December 2014. A total of 108 patients whom clinically diagnosed as stroke were referred for CT scan of brain within 48 hours of the stroke onset. Twelve patients with intracranial hemorrhages were excluded and the remaining 96 patients were studied for early brain CT findings. Results: The prevalence of ischemic infarction was 85%, with slight male predominance (male: female ratio=1.25:1) and most affected patients with ischemic type were in range of 60-69 years. The sensitivity of CT scan in detection of the ischemic changes increased linearly with time from onset of stroke. The prevalence of the hyperacute signs of middle cerebral artery infarction (insular- ribbon sign and hypodense basal ganglia) in acute ischemic stroke were seen in 33.3%, no case reported to show hyper dense middle cerebral artery sign in our study. Conclusion: CT remains the initial imaging modality of choice for the early diagnosis and management of acute stroke especially in making the diagnosis within the therapeutic window for thrombolytic therapy where the time is crucial for detectability. Specific signs of hyperacute infarction should be carefully scrutinized for early detection.

On a sub branch of element in a BE-algebra

Hayder Abbas Dahham

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 268-275

In this paper, we introduce a new notion that we call a sub branch of element R(a) in a BE-algebra, and we link this notion with notions filter and ideal of BE- algebra, We give some properties of R(a) and we study properties of R(a) in implication algebra, self distributive BE-algebra and transitive BE-algebra.

Ab initio calculations: a significant route to identify the transition states, entrance and exit channel complexes, and activation energies

Aula Mahdi A.ALHindawi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 276-283

Ab initio calculations have been used to identify the potential energy minimum of the entrance and exit channel complexes and transition state structure in the hydrogen abstraction reaction of CH4 with OH radical, as well as activation energy and reaction enthalpy were computed. MP2/6-31G** and HF/6-31G** levels have been used to optimized geometries and harmonic vibrational frequencies. The product complex is at a lower energy level than reactant complex (-304193.2414 KJMOL vs -304144.0172 KJ/MOL) at MP2 level, so the exit channel complex is more stable than entrance complex. The activation barrier is 45.9161 KJ/MOL and the enthalpy change is -49.2242 KJ/MOL at MP2 level.

Drb-Sets And Associated Separation Axioms

Amer Kh. Abed Al-shypany; hazim ghdhaib kalt

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 284-292

The purpose of the present paper is to introduce and investigate new classes of Separation Axioms called Associated Separation Axioms by using the concepts of rb-open and Drb-sets. Several characterizations and fundamental properties concerning Drb-sets and Associated Separation Axioms are obtained. Furthermore, the relationships between this Associated Separation Axioms and other types of Separation Axioms are also discussed

Structural and Optical Properties of SnO2:MgO Thin Films Preparing by Pulse Laser Deposition Technique at 423K

BatoolGabarAbead; MajedH.Dwech; KadhemA.Aadim

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 293-302

Transparent conducting magnesium oxide-doped tin oxide(SnO2:MgO) films have been deposited on glass substrates by pulsed laser deposition.structural, and optical, properties of these films have beeninvestigated. The films crystallize in a tetragonal structure and X-ray diffractionmeasurements have shown that the polycrystalline SnO2 films .The optical properties of the SnO2:MgO films have been investigated as a function of MgO-doping level and substrate deposition temperature ,average optical transmittance of( 82%) in the visible range, and optical band-gap of (3.45eV) were obtained for (423K) SnO2:MgO films.

Theoretical Study of the Effect of Substituting Nitrogen Atom in Tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ), Using Density Functional Theory

Adil Jalel Najim; Hayder Jasim Musa; Hayder fahim Saber

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 303-311

The optimized geometrical structures and the electronic properties of the Tetracyanoquinodimethane molecule (TCNQ) and its derivative have been calculated using density functional theory with (B3LYP) and 6-31G** level. The aim of this work is to determine the effects of substituting the nitrogen atom in mentioned molecule with trivalent atoms (phosphorus P and arsenic As). The results show that the both HOMO and LUMO energy decrease whenever the trivalent atom substitute instead of nitrogen atom. The energy gap decrease when replace nitrogen atom with trivalent atom. With respect to electron affinity then any nitrogen atom has been replaced with trivalent atom, the formed molecule will has more positive electron affinity, this new molecule will be a good electron acceptor.

Study conceptual design of biometrics technology in door lock security system.


journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 312-328

Biometric lock is a lock that uses fingerprint to grant genuine user an access to a building, an office, or a libratory. This device solve major problem faced by the conventional lock or electronic combination lock, by adding electronic technology as well as biological technology together, user is the key to the lock. So users do not have to memorize combination as it is in the electronic combination lock, or carry the key along all the time. However with these device users simply need to place their finger on the fingerprint module and the device itself will determine whether to give or deny the access. This project is divided into three parts, which are hardware design, software design, and prototype design. The hardware design includes the electronics circuits used to enrol, identify, and delete fingerprint to the fingerprint module, LCD that gives command to the user. Software design includes the development of the source code that enables the 8051 to control and interface with all hardware mentioned above

Translating Reiteration In Hemingway’s: “The Sun Also Rises” into Arabic:

Mohammed Abdullah Al-Mallah; Kawkab Salim Mohammed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 1-10

Reiteration is a stylistic phenomenon used in order to achieve rhetorical functions and an influential strategy of dramatization in literary works. Due to the cultural and linguistic divergences between English and Arabic, translating literary texts involves many problems. Is it to depart from literal translation or to deviate? Translators then must be aware of how to employ translation strategies to tackle such problems. Due to differences in stylistic preferences for the type of cohesive markers in the two languages, the present paper claims that cohesive features in Arabic reflect a great tendency for clarity and explicitness than English. What is favored in the use of particular cohesive devices in the source language might not be in the target one

Semantic mastery Sentences descriptor of the Holy Qur’an

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 1-23

أسعى في هذه الدراسة للكشف عن التمكن الدلالي في تركيب الجملة الواصفة للقرآن الكريم ، وأثرها في بناء النص؛ في اختيار الألفاظ و التراكيب في ضوء دراسة تطبيقية على النص القرآني . وللكشف عن التمكن الدلالي فقد جاء البحث في مدخل وثلاثة مطالب ، وقد عرض الباحث في المدخل الجوانب النظرية وآراء العلماء فيها، وفي المطلب الأول وقف الباحث على التمكن الدلالي في التغاير في بنية اللفظة في النص القرآني ، وربطه بدلالاته التي يوحي بها، وفي المطلب الثاني وقف على اختيار الألفاظ داخل التركيب النحوي وملائمته للمعنى والسياق وفي المطلب الثالث رصد البنى التركيبية وتحولات الجملة ، من مثل: الحذف و التقديم والتأخير، وغيرها ؛ لمعرفة مدى شيوعها في النص، وتعاضدها في تشكيل بنائه .

Fielding study elections for Sacred karbala governorate for two periods (2009 and 2013) (study in political geography)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 24-36

Mae daearyddiaeth etholiad yn gangen oganghennau cyfoeso earyddiaeth wleidyddol, sydd yn astudio dimensiwn gofodolo ymddygiad pleidleiswyr yn y broses bleidleisio, mae hefyd yn ddiddordeb mewn astudio elfennau daearyddol yr etholiadau, trwy astudio ffactorau daearyddol sy'n dylanwadu ar batrymau yr etholiad, a nodweddion daearyddol o'r ardaloedd etholiadol sy'n effeithio ar y patrwm etholiadol, ac mae llawer Yr hyn yn galw etholiadau, "Dadansoddiad Gofodol yr etholiadau," sy'n anelu at ymchwilio i effaith lleoliad daearyddol aryl pleidleisio daearyddol.
Yn seiliedig ar ddadansoddi data astudiaeth maes ar y rhaglen ystadegol i brofi (X2 Chi-sgwâr), a brofodd bodolaeth gwahaniaethau unigol rhwng y sampl yr astudiaeth ac yn y patrwm pleidleisio a'r blaid wleidyddol Islamaidd annibynnol, er bod gostyngiad sylweddol yn teimlad pleidleisiwr tuag at yr un lliw rhestrau rhyddfrydol a seciwlar yn ardal yr astudiaeth.
Mae'r astudiaeth maes hefyd yn dangos bod dosbarthiady gorsafoedd pleidleisio ar gyfer y flwyddyn (2013) yn llai cyfiawnder a aeddfedu yny flwyddyn etholiad 2009, felly diagnosed yr astudiaeth foldy resort Gynghrair cyfiawnder a democratiaeth mwy o restrau yn rheolaidd any dosbarthiad eu lleisiau ary lefel daleithiol yn ardal yr astudiaether gwaethaf gostyngiad yn y gyfran o eulleisiau

Visionary conformation in the language of poetry Paper Bishr ibn Mu'tamir model

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 37-44

After a search subject of the study and survey details through analysis and conclusion and induction researcher reached the following results:
Newspaper for humans bin Umrah but did not check for now, but it is uncertain in the heritage of the Arabs and to mention that when the three of ancient Arab scholars were: bigeye and the son of Cyrene lithe and dad Hilal military. Within the folds of their books were not autonomous.
If humans bin pilgrim is its author was a poet has relinquished his. If the vision of cash can be drawn from this newspaper features ancient text in spite of the poetic vision of recent studies. After that show the applicability of cash on their platforms newspaper.
The application of modern theory on the old version of applications has produced a measure of the importance .az poetic vision that can be collected in three issues of the newspaper are (product receiving text).
The former (product): Located under the influence of factors (emotion) that whenever they had a strong effect in the creation of a more poetic vision f (time) to amend the sponsor mood and frame of mind of the poet arrived at the vision of a more serious. And (talent), without which the special features of lacking any vision Eptgaha poet in poetic text.
The text is able to broadcast a clear vision of poetry through its factors that make up your (language) and how to build it right pattern. And (Music hair) Altnghimi its impact filtering and Anekaya mind of impurities. As well as (s) through which aesthetic Tertsm own artistic vision of the poet lines.
And it comes as the recipient is dedicated to the emission of poetic vision, according to its nature as a recipient (years) or a special

Graphic in hair Alkhliei ( deceased in the seventh century )

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 45-58

This research deals with the study of the graphic in the hair Alkhliei, Mtardha for patterns and how to employ them - from the presence of the poet - within different contexts, service to the meaning of who wants to reveal it, through the included special connotations, reflecting the mood and emotions emotional, going through, as well as the , they disclose the extent of the ability of the poet and his skill in the art wordplay and abstract meanings and redrafting, the richest earned semantics, and giving it the elegance and beauty. This study has worked on the statement of those patterns and their effectiveness in poetic coloring textile and ship different connotations, and a variety of expressive gestures, and after definition aspects of the poet's life and literary stature.

The nature of the penal responsibility of the editor in chief

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 59-70

The Origin of the penal responsibility is not based only on personal fault, with consideration of the personality principle that ensures all the constitutions and laws are recognized. Each person holds responsibility for their own action. which is referred in this topic which values the legislature or the judiciary of this responsibility based on the occurrence of the act or an omission for the criminal act in the abstract.

As a result of this act, the perpetrator is considered responsible of this act, other people are also held responsible for the act even with an indirect mistake. and this refers to the extent of correlation, which must happen between emerging penal responsibility and personal fault of the official and the case with most often in the area of responsibility for the actions of another, and the criminal law holds no place for such incident in the case of assuming responsibility. For this reason, questions arise about the basis of the responsibility of the editor on chief, whether the criminal acts are committed by his followers. Are there any responsibilities that relate to the personal fault or is an exceptional case approved by the legislature and considered a departure from the general rules in criminal law
Judging by the importance of the subject and the difference in opinions of the judiciary and jurisprudence, we have decided to study this issue through two chapters: the first being the identification of the various penal responsibilities of the chief editor. And the position of the judiciary from this responsibility being the second chapter.

Parties of Addressing in Seyyab,s Poetry

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 71-81

This study attempts to tackle the personal pronouns as a part of the technical aspects that integrate structurally and semantically. The pronouns such as I is a vocabulary item that does not necessarily refer to or represent the poet, himself.
The first person singular pronoun is actually used within the discourse.
Hence, the researcher tries to trace the relationship a mong the singular persons, pronouns ; namely,I,you,and in the works of the poet in question by applying Jaccopson,s theory concerning of the function of language. At the same time,have is an attempt to see which of these functions is dominating, while focusing on the dramatic use of the pronouns referred to above to create a dramatic dialog rather than on keeping the individual as the focus of interest.

Types of elites in society United States Of American: Case Study

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 82-102

Elite is a group of individuals who possess certain properties not owned by contrast, other individuals, and includes community turn a group of elites who lead institutions, whether including political, economic or military or social , either talking about the elite leaders in power, it can be said that the political elite, which is individuals who own sources and tools of political influence in the process of policy-making and making key decisions in the community group, and includes the leaders of both formal and informal institutions, and there are a few groups of individuals constitute the political elite, exert a major role in this area, and applies the concept of elite, many of the institutions that form the structure of the state, for the popular base , we find that the party elites, which is the group of individuals with the specific aim of taking power by getting the popular base support in the elections, including the promotion of their party and the vision provided by the State Administration for the next stage, and falls within the framework of the leaders active military elites who have an active role in the countries that abound in military coups or exposed to external threats, or which institutions structures originally built according to the military base, by the arrival of the generals to the ladder of political power, and helps in the management of the affairs of state and organized a group of staff who are called bureaucrats, as the elite bureaucracy have a key role in state institutions management, as well as the social role played by other elites, such as economic, social, religious and educated elites, economic elites play a key role in countries with market and the principle of the capitalist economy, where the elites who owns the money heads and factories, be a partner in the decision within the corridors of legislatures making, and the religious elites, will become more effective and power of

religious elites as much as strengthen the faith of religious individuals and religiosity, As far as the political system imposes a general religious instruction given by way of, and increased the role of the elite men of religion in society and power, we do not hide the role of the educated elites who differed analyzes thinkers about their role, and some of them put the intellectual elite as employees with the dominant group, and on the contrary, in some communities become intellectuals as close as they are to the ruling elite.

AL-Hakim Biamrillah AL-Masri's Manuscript in lndustry (A study and verication)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 103-114

This paper deals with the achievement of manuscript dating back to the days of AL Fatimi Caliph ruling by order of Allah Mansour bin Nizar T 411 H Which classify thesis in apparent title It is interested in the industry and its name
( message in industry ) the real field that Philosophy and It has made it as will form to one of his son ( It is apparent in Allah Abu Al-Hussein Ali Bin Mansour about self-discipline and adaptation of body and soul each other and which he described as the three Staff's , the ruling has strained himself so much in his will that the use of the Chemistry science and mixing elements was intended without doubt the difficulty of access to the self-discipline
We have divided our work on this introduction and four sections and a conclusion, The first section deals with: A Study in the ruling Author Biography by order Allah AL Fatemi . The second section was devoted to the description of the manuscript and its importance , The third section came to stand on method of the manuscript owner , The fourth section is dedicated to offer the curriculum that follow us to achieve Manuscript , The fifth and last section is the text investigator that divided Metn and the margin,Metn interest in copy text as mention about author , The margin is to clarify ambiguities, and pointing to the errors and mistakes incoming On a manuscript

The reasons for the different Arabic linguists in the protest by talking Sharif Study the budget in the Arabic language and the Hadith Sciences

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 138-155

This included research in the modern definition and invoked in terms of legitimacy, and the importance of it in Islamic jurisprudence, and the sayings of Sayers linguists not to be invoked, and Sayers protest, and mentioned evidence Alvrgin, then we had a comparison between the protest Sharia talking and scholars of Arab linguists, and we have identified th e agreement and disagreeme t sites and thus finished to the conclusion that included some new views Perhaps God opens the door to students from APOP mercy in the establishment of a new section in the scientifically compared in law and language study.

Posting the freedom of the market and the impact of the state in directing economic activity

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 156-165

It was one of the first corners of the market balance is the enjoyment by members of the Islamic state to exercise economic freedom in general in various activities, leaving the persons acting in aspects of behavior permissible fair unconditionally by the state, thus becoming the market of Islamic competitive market for free in the era of the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) are in full agreement with the rules of Islam, and in the Rashidi age in relative terms, freedom of trade and freedom of entry and exit from the market, were not the issue of the multifaceted nature of economic activities of agriculture, trade or craft or to engage in various economic transactions of a speculative or company and other images trade only in markets, but there were several pictures include dealing with non-Muslims in Medina and beyond.
The impact of state policy for the balance of the market is intervention to save ensure Astmraiyh establishment of economic freedom, working on the principle of do no harm and inquire about market conditions and steer the economy in which, query and control in terms of timing and in terms of the party that assumed, and also in terms of their nature.

The political situation in Mauritania through Iraqi documents 1979-1982

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 168-188

The importance of research as an attempt to shed light on one aspect of the Mauritanian history in a specified period. Therefore, the current study searched the political situation in Mauritania through Iraqi documents 1979-1982. In addition, the value of the information contained in the search comes the fact that the documents used in it have not been published. It's also came from a neutral party (Iraq). The study searched most of the events in Mauritania, but what he singled out the problem of Western Sahara. This study tried to detect the most important developments that prevailed in Mauritania interior, as well as focusing on a converted coup against Mohamed Khouna Ould Haidalla 1981, and the movement of Arabization and social reforms and their impact on the internal and external relations of Mauritania.

Market balance policy in the Arab-Islamic state until the end of the era Rashidi year 41 AH / 661 AD (Encourage production and increase supply in the market model)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 189-199

Given the Arab Islamic State great care and great interest in the market, it did not state policy limited to the induction and persuasion and encouragement, but put him a set of controls economic legitimacy, Activity working at the market control, and came State control to adjust the path of each of begging him himself and contrary to Islamic economic laws, was Prophet (may Allah bless him and his family) undertakes markets monitoring and accounting, raised up the controls Shara, and prevent the sale of ignorance and usury, he raised up its basis and achieved a draw balance was trafficking and speculation in which supply and demand and trading healthy cash pastures labor market, so the cost-plus basis on the social benefit base became the whole society partner in the trading markets, provided the legitimate rules.
It was an important pillar for the balance of the market is the economic policy of the State to reconcile between supply and demand to ensure market balance, worked on the management and control of supply and demand in the goods and labor, money and money markets, has been planning for this policy in the four axes four are: Labour controls, price competition full (Freedom Full), monitoring and intervention of the Islamic state to ensure the safety of the achievement of these controls, and thus built the Prophet (Allah bless him and his family) Islamic markets on the basis of the theory of the normal price, which accepted determine that price by supply and demand factors interaction so that if the price rises to lack of livelihood or frequent creation is the increase Adel.
It was to encourage production and increase supply in the markets of the main tasks of the policy of the Islamic state, which is organizing humanitarian activities in the areas of production and subsequent distribution and exchange, and included the state's role in influencing the work item, is to provide the necessary opportunities to work, and the prohibition of the issue and deny to live on handouts for those who do not it deserves and this was it fallen into disuse in the principle of the Prophet's era and most of the covenants Rashidi era.
And it influenced the market balance policy for economic development in various fields: agricultural, animal, industrial, commercial, and labor market, as well as in the balance of the standard of living of the Islamic community, by encouraging, and supporting agricultural development, and animal, and industrial and labor market, and secured reduce sufficiently, and raise the level of Living to the general members of the Islamic State.
The economic policy of the State to balance the market in multiple stages, starting from the fair legislation and through economic liberty through to reconcile supply and demand to get economic development in various agricultural fields, and livestock, industrial, commercial, and labor market, as well as in the balance of the standard of living of the Islamic community.
Economic system the attention of the trade balance and fairness to the question of the distribution of the money earned and income from elemental joint production in its composition, namely labor and capital, Vguenn Islamic economics and business rules in advance to determine wages came impetus to unfairness and a boost to the conflict, as well as included Islamic border rules that determine the profits in the company between control labor and capital that have information on a particular Kraba share or one-third and the like, and has taken capital bases in the two images of the production process, namely the financial capital, and capital in kind - also offers - The return of each is different in nature from the other, bringing profit is the only

formula to return capital cash that gets as a result of the participation of labor in the production process in, for example, held speculation, and became the capital in kind return on one of two forms, either receiving as a result of the contribution in the production process as in leasing such Almsacap in the trees, and speculation in land and payment of evidence for those who are working on meeting sharing in the output according to the agreement.
Codification of Islamic economics to balance Islamic market has led the accountability of the distribution link high level of production and the multiplication of the revolution in all aspects of agricultural, animal, industrial and commercial production, and has had a significant social impact on the balance of the labor market and reduce unemployment, as well as gave a positive balance the standard of living and achieve sufficiency of Islamic society shadow
The role of the Islamic state's economic policy was not limited to just the encouragement and carrots only, but included human give practical rules to increase production, with an indication of how desirable for the increase, the linking Islam with economic Btcheraath wise between production distribution between the multiplication of wealth and resources and increase production, as long as accompanied by verses and hadiths honorable between justice and sustainable architecture, between oppression and human destruction and corruption Urbanism, note that the launch of architecture enters in which all members of the agriculture, industry and trade and working and living, and the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and his family) shows people all that good work good for man of absolute worship, was policy stimulus to production a significant impact on the market balance on the one hand, and in the increase of production on the other hand and economic development, urged the Koran, the great apostle and earning good muslim, and he had a deep impact in supplying the Islamic economics significantly.

Social Reform Project at the thought of concealed Imam Musa al-Sadr

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 200-214

The character of Imam Moussa al-Sadr and one of the reformist religious figures who Ahtv our world the Arab-Muslim, was to Tnzirath echoes and wide not only on a theoretical level, but on a practical level, too, was not a competent range or a particular region or state without the other, but was a general and comprehensive for each anytime, anywhere, even seized in thinkers and theorists of other religions analysis, study and application, came reform effort Social this in the minor glitches Arab nation Western wave tried brushed off track intellectual and religious decree, a period in which grew a group of anti what Aatacht the Arab societies of the rules drawn clearly religious currents Muslim community model in his shadow, and here it was necessary to Arab societies watch out strongly to that risk, and addressed through a group of reformers who Tnoawa between cultural reform intellectual, religious, ideological, including Mr. Musa al-Sadr in Lebanon, which came out a reformist project through which he installed the basic rules set the pace for the religious and ethnic diversity of Arab societies, was the inception of Lebanon did not attend a message to this small country, but make it a "comprehensive" can put clear its processors each diverse communities and stand in the attempts by the Islamic social rupture grade

Barley crop in the light of the ancient cuneiform sources

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 215-225

The people of Mesopotamia depended on agriculture after that they settled in agricultural settlements, as it provided them with strength food as well as industry and commerce that promoted economy of the society. Among the crops, which were grown, is primarily barley that has had economic importance or in economic transactions, as it became a means to bargain for prices and valuation. At that, time there was no official currency issued by the state. Accordingly, the importance of the barley was the subject of this research, which highlights the most prominent element in Mesopotamia.

The three direct circles of the Iranian vital domain

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 226-238

This research paper deals with three parties that represent the direct circles of the Iranian vital domain. Theses circles are : the Arab world, which is located in the West of Asia, central Asia and the South of Caucasia and Afghanistan. Theses circles were called direct because they are neighboring countries to Iran and have joint borders with it. In the first circle we talked about the Arab Gulf , Iraq , and Yemen and their positions in the Iranian strategy . In the second circle, we discussed the influence on Iran in central Asia. Finely we examined the mechanism of the Iranian intervention in the political situation in Afghanistan

Location and position of Iraq between the US economy requirements, and conditions of the new world order

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 239-253

The study its analysis and position the state and thus its position in the active state of the political geography studies, where Sense strengths of its location and the underlying position and ready and weaknesses and its impact on the national security of the state.
Iraq faces a fierce attack goal disintegration and hit the national security an internal, regional and global challenges that came with the new world order and the US requirements for hazardous areas geopolitical and re-maps of the region and the importance of Iraq's site was a key to get into what has been planning to him. Find in a four-Investigation-1 site and the subject of Iraq in the international balance of 2-location, position, and the terms of the new international system 3-Iraqi oil and the requirements of the construction of the US economy 4. Iraq and the US vision for the Middle East...

Strategic implications for the nuclear framework agreement between Iran and the (5 +1) A prospective study

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 254-278

Iran's nuclear program is one of the more exciting to files crises in the region, and has further strained the relationship between the United States and Iran, as well as last relationship Gulf countries. After the failure of rounds long and complex negotiations between the negotiating parties emerged from those negotiations to reach a framework agreement in the Swiss city of Lausanne in April 2/2015. This agreement will hopefully form the basis final agreement in June / 2015. A lot of international attitudes and reactions have been raised about this agreement, and the most prominent of these attitudes, the Israeli position and the Gulf as well as the Russian attitude in general, what caused this Agreement from a strategic exposure to the security of the Gulf and the threat to Israel's security. The study addressed to all those international situations and factors that led to the maturation of the agreement and convinced the US administration at this particular time, the study also focused on the US and Iranian objectives of this Agreement and gains both parties and the future of the Framework Agreement in the light of the challenges faced by this Agreement in the light of the Israeli rejection, as counting on the next US administration and the US Congress in the torpedo this agreement.

A study of some chemical and qualitative aspects of frozen bovine meat imported in the markets of Al-Diwaniya city

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 1-5

The study was conducted on the frozen bovine meat imported from India for some brands in the markets of Al-Diwaniya city to identify their suitability for human consumption and efficiency frozen storage included four types of different brands imported for some Iraqi companies it (Alkafel, Karbala alafia, Almurad, Altaib) and shown the results of chemical tests in all samples have shown that there are significant differences at the level of probability (P <0.01) in the percentage of total moisture, which was higher than permitted level, there was also a significant difference in the ratios of fat and total protein as fat ratio decreased from normal proportions in all samples. The protein content ratio was within normal limits in brands (Alkafel and Karbala alafia) more over no significant differences were recorded in the ratios of ash and carbohydrates which remained within the permissible limits in all brands , the study on qualitative testing showed high rate of thawing loss in samples of frozen meat especially in the brand Altaib which reached 8.09% , either meat myoglobin dye concentrations were relatively low in all samples. The total volatile nitrogen , the percentage of free fatty acids , pH value, thiobarbituric acid were found within the allowable limits.

The effect of chronic exposure to X-ray on some blood parameters and P53 gene on the heart in female albino rats

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 6-15

The present study was conducted to investigate the chronic effect of X-ray on the heart. Randomly divided 30 female albino rats into three groups (10 animals / group ) for a period of two consecutive months , considered the first group (T1) as a group control and the second group (T2) exposed to X-rays (80 KV) within one meter / day for a month as well as is the case for the third group (T3) were subjected to a period of two months , After collecting blood samples before and after the experiment was observed significant decrease (0.05> P) in RBC, PCV, Hb and platelet, and high moral (0.05> P) in WBC in the exposed group for a month T2 and the group exposed for two months T3 compared with the control group T1, As for changes in sick textile Heart observed incidence of alienation in the epithelial cell layer and crash cartilage glass and congestion hematoma in rats exposed group for a month T2 and for two months T2 compared with the control group T1, as genetic study indicated increased gene expression for gene P53 to the fabric of the lung in animals exposed for month and T2 Group exposed for two months T3 compared with the control group T1.
Inferred from the current study that chronic exposure to x-rays lead to get changes in the standards and the presence of Doll satisfactory effects in heart tissue as well as an increase in the P53 gene expression of cardiac tissue .

Effected of gibberellin and salicylic acid on some growth parameters and nutrient content of Maize plant

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 16-25

This experiment was conducted in biology department/ college of Education for girls at Kuffa – University to study the effect different concentration of Gibberellin (50,75,100) MG/L and Salicylic acid (10,20.30,)MG/ L Inaddition to control and their interaction on vegetative growth , nutrient content of (Zea mays L.) genetic structure (5012)The design of experiment was (R.C.B.D) RandomizedComplete Block Design in a factorial arrangement in four replication and the L.S D=0.05 was utilized as a method of mean separation whenever treatment effect was evident.Results showed :the use Gibberellin in (100 Mg/L) or Salicylic acid (30 Mg / L) in creased in number of leaves and area ,stem diameter , percentage of dry meter of shoot and root and total chlorophyll content the highest percentage nitrogen and phosphorous was at the (100 Mg/L) Gibberellin ,while the concentration of(50 Mg/L) Gibberellin give high percentage of phosphorus and the concentration of (30Mg/L) Salicylic acid caused high percentage of nitrogen ,phosphorous and potassium the interaction between Gibberellin and Salicylic acid reveald significant effect on most of vegetative criterion studed the combination of concentration from Gibberellin and Salicylic acid.

The Knowledge Needs for the Agricultural Employees in the Salty soil management at AL Najaf –Al Ashraf Province

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 26-32

The research aimed to determine the level of knowledge needs of agricultural employees in the management of salty soils in the province of Najaf, and identify the level of knowledge needs of agricultural employees in every field of management of salty soils represented by (irrigation, drainage and reclamation), and recognize the importance of each field of management of salty soils. The data collected from a randomly sample by 50 % of employees in the agricultural departments of extension tasks (Directorate of Agriculture & Extension Center) in the province of Najaf – 125 Agricultural employees – 63 Respondents.
To achieve the research purposes, the researcher developed a quadruple measure to measure the level of knowledge for agricultural employees, be of the level of ( great need, medium need, few need, do not need), the highest grade in the scale are (96) less degree are (0), and the scale included (32) Items distributed on three main aspects (irrigation, drainage and reclamation).
The results showed that the average of knowledge needs for the general respondents in the management of salty soils is (76.66 Degree), the degree of knowledge needs of (52.3 % of respondents) within the large level of need, the results show there is a great need by the respondents in each fields of management of salty soils accounted for as follows: (52.3 % in the field of irrigation) and (44.4 % at drainage), (61.9 % in the field of reclamation) , the priorities of knowledge needs of respondents were at the field of reclamation which is first ranked in the degree of need for knowledge, and the field of irrigation came in second place, while the drainage last ranked in the degree of need for knowledge.
The research concluded that the general need for knowledge for agricultural employees in the concepts of the management of salty soils were large, so the majority of the staff in the management of agricultural salty soils their need for knowledge designated as a great need.
The researcher recommends the need to establish more programs, extension activities, and specialized courses in the field of management of salty soils in the province, involving all agricultural employees, with the necessity to follow-up these courses and recognizes the talented, give them bonuses to encourage them and prompt others to do their best.

Synthesis , characterization new ligand from secondary ammines type N2O2 and this complexes with some transitions ions

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 33-50

The work included the synthesis and characterisation of the new Ligand from secondary ammines type (N2O2) with general formula[(C19H24N2O2)].Also the work covers the reaction of some metal ions with ligands complexes have general formula: [M (L)]Cl2 , M =[Fe+2, Co+2, Ni+2and Cu+2].All compounds have been characterised as needed by spectroscopic methods [FTIR,UV–Vis.], elemental analysis (C.H.N), m.p and molar conductivity measurements.The IR spectra of prepared complexes showed some charges in the band shape and density compared with those of the free ligand, new bands have been also observed which may indicate that thecoordination between the metal ions and ligand are exist.The C.H.N result shows the corresponding between the actual and calculated values.From the above data the proposed geometry around Cu+2 is square planner while (Fe+2,Co+2,Ni+2) ions with the ligand is tetrahedral.The supported studies by magnetic measurements the value of magnetic moments of Cu(II) complex shows diamagnetic properties, other complexes Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), show paramagnetic properties.The conductivity measurements showed that, All complexes are electrolyte with (1:2).

The effect of foliar spray leaves with Gibberellic acid and seaweed extract on some physiological characteristics of seedlings olive (Olea europaea L. ) cultivar khudheiry

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 51-59

This experiment was conducted in accordance with randomized complete block design(R.C.B.D) in the Department of horticulture , College of agriculture , University of Karbala during the season of 2010 to study the effect of foliar spray with three levels of Gibberellic acid (0 , 150 and 200 mg.L-1) and three levels of seaweed extract (0 , 10 and 20 ml.L-1) of olive seedling , cultivar khudairi . The seedling were sprayed at three interval in first day of April , may and June and they were also sprayed with urea 0.2 % one day before each of the three dates of spraying . Results that were collected in mid-October show that Gibberellic acid in (200 mg.L-1) increased the dry weight of vegetative and leaf area compared to treatment compared , The seaweed extract in concentration (20 ml.L-1) significantly increased the dry weight of total number of vegetative branches and leaves of the (a) chlorophyll content , Interactions of concentration (200 mg.L-1) of Gibberellic acid and seaweed extract concentrate (20 ml.L-1) increased the steam diameter. The interaction between concentration
(150 mg.L-1) Gibberellic acid and (20 ml.L-1) seaweed extract increased significantly the number of branches on all other interaction

Effect of Spraying garlic extract and whey in the vegetative growth characters of pomegranate seedling (Punica granatum L.)varieties (Salimi)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 60-65

The experiment was conducted in the lath house, College of Agriculture / University of Karbala during the growing season of 2014 on seedling Pomegranate cv. Salimi. The seedling were Sprayed by garlic extract in three concentrations (0, 4 and 8 ml . l-1) and whey also three concentrations (0, 50 and 75%) for five periods starting from 03/15/2014 until 15/07/2014. Randomized complete Block Design (R.C.B.D) was used with three replicates and (5 Seedling) for each replicates.
The result indicated that spraying of seedling with treatment singular and together caused a significant increasing in the (height of seedling ,stem diameter , leaf area , chlorophyll content in leaves , fresh and dry weight of shoot system). The treatment of (8 ml . l-1 garlic + 75% whey) gave the highest rate of those characteristics compared to the control treatment .

Effect of Ethanol Extract of Root Glycyrrhiza glabra plant on some physiological standards in males white rats treatedwith mutagen (Mitomycin-C)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 66-72

Seventy five white males rats were used in the present study , these animals randomly divided into five groups (15animals per group) the first group was negative control agaved with water second group was positive control dosage oraly with mitomycin – c at 2mg/kg of body weghit for one-month , the third group dosaged with plant extract at 500 mg/kg of body weight two-weeks treatment before the mutagen and for one- month , the fourth group dosaged oraly with plant extract at 500 mg/kg of weight body with mutagen for one- month , the fifth group dosaged oraly with plant extract at 500 mg/kg of weight body two weeks after the treatment mutagen and for one- month , Blood was collected inorder to investigate measured hormones (Te) , (T3) , (T4) , (LH) the results show significant decrease (P>0.05) in hormones for to positive control compared with negative control while standards of liver's enzymes (AST) , (ALT) , (ALP) the results shows significant increase (P< 0.05) in both enzymes AST , ALP while show significant decrease (P> 0.05) in the ALT enzymes while when the interaction between 500 mg/kg of plant extract and mg/kg of MMC was making in three forms of treatment of extract (before , with , after) mutagen MMC to standards hormones, the results show significant decrease (P> 0.05) in both T3 , T4 hormones when treatment with extract (before) mutagen while led to significant increase (P< 0.05) in Te , LH hormones while when treatment by the extract (with) the mutagen leds to significant decrease (P> 0.05) in T3 , Te , LH hormone and occurred significant increase (P< 0.05) in T4 hormones , while treatment (after) the mutagen recorded (P> 0,05) in all hormones while show significant decrease (P< 0.05) in ALP , ALT enzymez also result recorded significant increase (P<0.05) in AST enzymes in used treatments

Relationship of some hormonal and Ionic Constituents of ovarian follicular fluid with size of the follicle in local cows

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 73-78

The purpose of this study was to examine the hormonal and ionic constituents of ovarian follicular fluid in relation to follicle size in local cows. The study was conducted at laboratories of department of animal technical production/ Al-Musaib technical collage, from September 2014 to February 2015. The ovaries were collected (120) ovaries from (60) non-pregnant cows which slaughtered at abattoir of province of Karbala. The ovaries were transported to the laboratory within 2hours post slaughter. Follicular fluid was aspirated from small (3-5mm), medium (6-10mm) and large (11-20mm) follicles, and stored at -5 Cº for further analysis. The follicular fluid samples were analyzed using commercial kits. The results show that the follicular progesterone and estradiol hormones concentration were significantly increased (P<0.05) with increase of follicular size. The difference in concentration of sodium between small and large follicles was non-significant, while was significantly higher (P<0.05) in large follicles. The difference in concentration of magnesium among three categories of follicles were non-significant. The results of the present of the study also indicated the concentration of calcium was significantly higher with increased of follicular size, while reverse the concentration of potassium was significantly lower (P<0.05) with enlargement of follicular size.

Find semi- empirical relationship to calculate the electronic stopping power of Carbon and Oxygen ions in some organic compounds

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 79-90

In this research find semi-empirical relationships to calculate the electronic stopping power of charged (Carbon ions and Oxygen ions) interacting with organic compounds : -
[Polypropylene (C3H6), Polycarbonate (C16H14O3), Mylar (C10H8O4), Polyvinylalcohol (C2H4O), Polyoxymethylene (CH2O), Polyacrylonitrile (C3H3N), Polyvinylpyrrolidone (C6 H9 NO), Polyvinylacetate (C4H6O2), Kapton (C22 H10 N2 O5) , Bakelite (C44 H36 O6)] using the ratio 〈□(Z_2/A_2 )〉, within range of energy [0.01-1000] MeV, and by comparing the obtained results with the results of the SRIM 2012 program for the same projectiles in these compounds have shown good agreement with the results of the SRIM 2012.

Study of some of the physiological and anatomical parameters of spinach(Spinaciaoleracea) and chard (Beta vulgaris var. icla) leaves by using Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 91-100

An experiment was conducted in faculty of Education for Girls/Kufa University during the year of 2013 to determine the effect of Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) in (150,100,50,0)ppm concentrations and addition methods( seed soaking and plants spray) and their combinations treatment between them on some of the physiological and anatomical sides of spinach and chard leaves.
The results revealed that (NAA) in all concentrations caused significant increase(p<0.05) in all physiological and anatomical parameters ,such as leaf area ,chlorophyll content,leaf numbers, stomata length and width, compared with control treatment .
The plants treated by soaking and spray methods in (100ppm) concentration gave the highest rates in most studied parameters.

Prediction of growth and milk composition of Awassi sheep from Hemoglobin type

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 101-104

This study was carried out at the farm of sheep/Department of Animal Production /Al-Musaib (50 km south Baghdad), on 30 Awassi ewes, over period from 1/1/2015 until 31/3/2015, The aim of this investigation to defend (limited of percentage) of hemoglobin type of Awassi ewes and effect this parameter (Hb type) in growth and milk composition. The percentage of hemoglobin type in sample of awassi ewes were 53.33% for B hemoglobin and 3.33% for A hemoglobin, significant variance(P≤0.01) between this percentage. Significant effect of hemoglobin type in almost study traits. Conclusion from results in this study necessary applied of the study on a large sample from ewes and record of reproductive traits and resistance of difference diseases in selection for advantage of performance of Iraqi sheep.

Effect the Foliar application of potassium in the growth yeild five Varieties of wheat Triticum aestivum L

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 105-114

A field experiment was conducted at the experimental farm of College of Agriculture / University of Karbala in Al- Hussania –Karbala province during winter season of 2013-2014. A split plot arrangement within Randomized Complete Block Design with three replicates was used. The aim of this experiment was to investigate the response of five wheat cultivars assigned in the subplots (Sali ,Al-Tahady, Al-Adnania, Al-fateh,and Al-Iraq) to three potassium levels (0 , 2000 , 4000 mg K.L-1) assigned in the main plots. The following Characteristics were studied plant height, number of tillers/m2، and the protein in the grains، biomass yield,and grain yield
Results could be summarized as following:
1- The results showed that the Cultivars affected significantly the studied characteristics where Sali gave the highest values for plant height where Al-fateh Cultivars gave higher values for the number of spikes in square meter, concentration of protein in grains Iraq Cultivars achieved higher grain yield , While Al-Adnani cultivar gave the highest values of the concentration of yield
2– The level of 4000 mg K.L-1 gave the highest values for all Characteristics, while the level of 0 mg K. L-1 (control treatment) gave the least values of studied characteristics
3- The interactions showed different effects on the studied characteristics, The best interaction was between AL- Iraq cultivar with the level of 4000mg K.L-1 giving the highest rate of grain yield at a rate of 6670 kg /H-1. Al-Adnania also achieved better interactions with 4000 mg K.L-1of the biomass 1382 kg. H -1

Effect of Magnetically Treated Water Quality on Germination of Three WheatCultivars (Triticum aestivum L.)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 115-124

An experiment was conducted in afield belong to the Technical Institute of Kufa, during the period from 7/12/2012 till 4/1/2013 determine the effect of irrigation water quality and its intensity of magnetically treated of bread wheat three cultivars (Triticumaestivum L.) on some germination parameters (germination percentage, germination coefficient and germination index) and early vegetative growth (Radicaleand plumule length) four weeks after sowing.
The experiment was designed as Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) and split split – plots arrangement with three replication.The experiment included studying three factors; irrigation water quality (river water or well water) were put as Main plot, wheat bread cultivars. (IPAA-99, Rashid and Tamuze-2) Sub-plot and magnetic treatment of water with four intensities (0 Control, 750, 1500 and 3000 gauss) Sub-sub-plot. Revised Least Significant Difference (RLSD) at 0.05 probability was used to compare means.
Results showed that most of germination studied parameters and early vegetative growth were superior for river water compared to well water. Rashid cultivar gave the highest means for the studied parameters compared to the other cultivars. 750 gauss produced the highest germination parameters means. Whereas, 1500 and 3000 gauss treatments gave the highest means for early vegetative growth in radicale and plumule lengths.
It could be concluded that using magnetically technique of irrigation water resulted in speedy and increasing germination parameters and then increasing growth besides, improving soil characteristics due to depletion 0f its salinity.
Keywords: Water, Magnetic treatment, Germination, Wheat.

The Anatomical response accompanied with Zn role in removing B toxicity in different plant B tolerant.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 125-134

An laboratory experiment was conducted to study the anatomical changes accompanied with Zn in removing B toxicity in different plant species that are different in their tolerance to B toxicity namely : mung bean (sensitive) , cucumber (moderately tolerant) and tomato (tolerant). Results were revealed that: boron toxicity caused changes in tissue measurements in leaves of mung bean, cucumber and tomato cuttings. It owere rgit caused decline of leaves thicknes, midrib, spongy layer, bundle length. In addition to an increases of palisade layer thickens , bundle width in mung bean and cucumber, and an increase of all the above parameters in Tomato leaves cutting. The toxic level of boron reduced the thickens of the hypocotyls ,cortex as wells vascular bundle number in mung bean and cucumber. Although, the measurements of vascular bundle increased in mung bean decreased in cucumber, whereas in tomato all the above measurements were increased. On the other hand, Zn supplied was improved the anatomical characteristics for leaves and basal part of cuttings. This means that Zn was lowering the reverse effect due to boron stress in anatomical structures of these plant spp.

The seasonal occurrence of Three aphids Acrythosiphon pisum (Har.) ,Therioaphis maculate (Buc.) and Aphis fabae (Sco.) in correlation of Coccinella septempunctata L. and C. undecimpunctata L.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 135-141

The seasonal occurrence of three species of aphids pea aphid Acrythosiphon pisum , the spotted alfalfa aphid Therioaphis maculate and the black bean aphid Aphis fabae was studied in Alfalfa field located in Agriculture college Abu – Ghraib . The study was conducted throughout one year period started from March 2012 to March 2013 , In correlation to seasonal occurrence of two coccinlids ; Coccinella septempunctata and C. undecimpunctata .The results indicated that the pea aphid and spotted alfalfa aphid occurred during all the year months in fluctuated population densities, three peaks of population densities were recorded for both species, started at the beginning of Spring, Summer and Autumn seasons, while the black bean aphid had only two peaks in both Spring and Autumn seasons, then this species migrated to bean , beet and other plant . The population density of spotted alfalfa aphid formed about ( 35 % ) of total densities of three studied species of aphids , while the population densities of pea aphid and the black bean aphid formed 34.6 % and 30.4 % , respectively . The two species of coccinellids mentioned above also occurred over all months of the year in fluctuated densities and reached their peaks in mid of April and continued in moderate density until the end of May then increased in Autumn. The population densities of the three species of aphids coincide with that of coccinelliids. The C.undecimpunctata population density was most dominant (59.2 % ) than that of C. septempunctata coccinelid 40.8 % .

The effect of apple cider vinegar on humans who have diabetic and high lipid profile

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 142-148

Yellow ripe apple were used to produced natural apple cider of the way home. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of apple cider vinegar (ACV) containing people drinking water ( 10 ml (ACV) in 100 ml water ) on people who have high lipid and diabetic. This study was conducted on 50 people of both sexes for period 8 weeks, divided into 23 men and 20 women have high lipid and diabetic 4 men and 3 women have not any problem with high lipid and diabetic ( control group) Was measured sugar, cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the blood. The results showed decreased levels of cholesterol ,triglyceride and sugar in people who have high lipid and diabetic levels when compared with normal people ( control pattern).

Application of Parabolic Diffusion Equation … to Determine the Rate and Capacity of Potassium Release in Soil

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 149-160

The Objective of this study is to identify the application of mathematical models to describe the chemical behavior of potassium release in some Iraqi Soils and to justify the applicability of these equations to the kinetics of release in soil.
To achieve this purpose, the soil samples from (12) sites were collected and they differ in their chemical, physical and mineralogical properties. In order to describe the potassium status in these soils, the total potassium content and its' fraction, rate of k release and some kinetics parameters were determined.
The potassium release in the studied soils has been mathematically described, using some kinetics models and equations. The parabolic diffusion equation was used to describe the potassium release process in all soils involved in the experiment and it was found that it is the best kinetics equations in this study.

Effect of salicylic acid and irrigation intervals on hormonal content of leaves for five maize cultivars ( Zea mays L).

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 161-181

This study was carried out during spring and fall growing seasons of 2013 in Alfayadah district –Alhindiya Kerbala governorate to study the effect of different concentration of SA, two periods of irrigation as well as their interaction on some morphological, physiological, water relationship ,concentrations of some hormones in leaves of maize plants. Maize cultivars treatments were Almaha , Buhooth ,Fajer ,Baghdad and Local .Factorial experiment within randomized complete block design ( R.C.B.D) was adopted (5*2*5) for SA, irrigation period and cultivars respectively with three replicates. Means were compared using LSD at 0.05 probability level . The 1st addition of SA was a foliar at 4-5 true leaves stage and the 2nd addition was one month after the 1st one (50%of male flowering ), Results revealed that plants hormones were significantily influenced by SA where higher concentrations of increased of IAA, GA3 & Cyt. during spring season at 200 mg/L SA giving 25 &132.52% & 101.36% respectively. Increasing the irrigation intervals, increased IAA by 8.68%,52.38% & 66.67% during the spring season . The percent increase of ABA was 18.04% during the spring season while it decreased by 16.17% during fall season.


journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 182-192

A field trail was conducted at farm of Agric. Coll. in Abu-Graib during two seasons, Autumn season, 2013 and Spring seasom,2014. The goal was to compare the efficiency of two selection methods by honeycomb and selection under normal density on yield and its components in maize. RCBD was used by factorial arrangement with three replicates in conducting the trail. Selection was made at first season according to selection index (No. of grains per ear) on four inbred lines, F2 hybrids and two synthetic varieties (Talar and Rabeeh). At the second season, comparison trail between selected genotypes was conducted to determine their best performance on yield and its components in maize. Results of statistical analysis of comparison trail indicated that synthetic varieties were superior in 300 grains weight and total grain yield amount to 66.33gm and 6149 kg.ha-1. Inbred lines gave lowest mean in plant height as compared with hybrids and synthetic varieties. Inbred line ZM7 gave lowest plant height and days to maturity reached to 171.67cm and 96days, respectively. Therefore, weak performance of this inbred line reflected on its low yielding ability. Hybrids (P2 x P3) F3 and (P3 x P4) F3 were highest in No. of grains per ear and No. of ears per plant reached to 385.8 and 1.648ears.plant-1, respectively. There were significant differences between two selection methods in some traits. Honeycomb selection was the best in No. of grains per ear, grain weight and total grain yield while there was no significant differences between two selection methods in days to anthesis, days to maturity and ears per plant. The

Study the effect of plant extracts of the seeds of quince cydonia ablonga L. and mulberry leaves morus alba L. White and leaves Sidr Zizyphus spina - christi L. in the level of blood sugar to healthy male rats in induced diabetic rats.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 193-198

This study was designed to study the effects of watery extracts of cydoniaoblonga L. seeds , Morusalba L. leaves and zizyphusspina – Christi L. on reduction of glucose , cholesterol , triglycerides levels in Alloxan – induced Diabetic Rats , and non – diabetic Rats , Compared with the effect insulin . The all aqueous solutions used in the present study exhibited a significant in blood glucose content .
The result suggests that the watery of cydoniaoblouga L. seeds leads to reduce blood cholesterol and triglycerides levels in the blood , while the extracts of zizyphusspina – Christi L. leaves induced significant reduction in triglycerides levels only . The aqueous solution for Morus alba L. leaves never showed changing in cholesterol and a triglycerides levels in induced diabetic rats .

The effect of chronic exposure to X-ray on blood parameter , hormones and female reproductive system of albino rats

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 199-209

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic exposure of X-Ray on reproductive system in albino female rats . Twenty four adult of female rats were divided randomly into three groups (8 animals / groups), the first group considered as control group (G1) , Second group (G2) was exposed to X-Ray (80kv), along one meter/ daily for whole one month as well as the third group (G3) that had the same productive of (G2) but for two months, blood samples ovary were collected from the three groups , after the determined period . Significant decrease ( P <0.05) in the number of (W.B.C , RBC, PTL) and in level and Hb concentration in the blood serum of exposed animals in G2 and G3 as compared with G1. and Significant decrease ( P <0.05) in the number of (W.B.C , RBC, PTL) and in Hb level in G3 compared with G2. Significant decrease (P <0.05) in the concentration of Estrogen hormone (E2), Progestrone hormone in the blood serum of exposed animals of G2 and G3 as compared with G1. and no significant effect of X-Ray in Follicle stimulating ( FSH ) and Luteinizing hormone ( LH) in the blood serum of exposed animals of G2 and G3 as compared with G1. The results of histological section of ovary exposed animals for one month G2 ,to appear as blood congestion and inflammatory cells , comparing with control group G1 . while there was clear histological changes in rats exposed for two month G3 include the occurrence of destruction in Overian follicles, that lost their , degeneration , fat density and inflammatory cells in addition late effect of radiation injury include nicrosis and fibrosis, comparing with control group G1. As conclusion from the study that the chronic exposure of X-Ray radiation causes harmful effect on some blood and hormones parameters and ovary , tissue in female white rats.

Measurements of Light Intensity in Classroom for Institute of Medical Technology / Baghdad

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 210-213

Lighting is to provide sufficient light allows good vision and eye exhausts, lighting a close relationship with the human sense of sight , because the eye is perfectly adapted to the light which is surrounded by type, our aims to measure the intensity of the lighting inside the classroom, according to safety limits , In order to help students of comfortable vision, and protect them from strain eye , was calculated lighting intensity levels in a number of classrooms , taking into account the season and the number of students . the results were that 96% of the sample is not up to the limit internationally (500 Lux) in classrooms and that 100% of the students are not the league checkup eyes and does not have a mechanism in the preparation of the intensity of light in all the sample schools.