ISSN: 1813-0410

Volume 9, Issue 4

Volume 9, Issue 4, Autumn 2013, Page 1-326

Poetry Language of Occasions by Eastern Arabs in the Second Half of the Seventh Century Hegira

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 74-90

Language is the means used by ahuman being in expressing himself and in communicating with others. In poetry , language has a different function as it is the language of emotions, feelings, and imagination; poets are as different in the schools as they are in the way they look at language – not only in this , but in the way they use the language because their work is influenced by a number of factors like the nature of the society in which they live . Poetry of occasions in the second half of Abbasiyed period is quite different from that of the pervious ages.
This study has unfolded a number of comes out. Expression had a significant role in the making of the language of the poetry of festivals in this period ; and these expressions acquired their importance , connotation and their semantic function from the context . Expressions are recognized by both clarity and simplicity . In spite of this , we find some poets eager to use inherited vocals in some occasions and some of the colloquial and extraneous words were also used by other poets. The reason behind this was the great events represented by invasions that time witnessed .
Structure had its role in the making of the language of this poetry and this structure is the result of accordance of pronunciations with each other ; structure was also characterized by methods of postponement and those were considered significant tools which helped the poets in their attempt to express their feeling and emotions .

Evaluating the Final Tests of Department of History College of Education For Human Sciences in The Light of Bloom’s Taxonomy .

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 91-110

The current research aims to ( calendar Questions final tests for grades ( the first ' second ' third ' fourth ) in the College of Education for Human Sciences - University of Karbala in the light of the levels of Bloom 's field of cognitive ' In order to stand over the inclusion of questions final tests of history to the levels of Bloom 's field of knowledge ' the sample included research on (95) Question of questions of history divided between the classroom four in the Department of History ' and the use of the percentage equation Scott They found out that the level of understanding received the highest frequencies of (49) again by ( 52%) and got the level of knowledge on (26) again by ( 27%) ' while the application level and the calendar on again and one each (1% ) for each level of ' the diversity of questions and did not find researchers any trace of her , except to repeat one was ' confined all of the essay questions ' In the light of the results researchers recommended the need to focus on the higher levels of Bloom's Taxonomy and give great importance and the need to diversify the questions between the objective and essay .

AL – Mutazila School and Its Role in Defending The Islamic Creed during Abbasid Era ( Unsheathed Research )

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 111-121

The main topic of this research is about AL – Mutazila school . This school is considered as one of the main verbal thought in the history of Islam . It has a great role in defending the Islamic creed and facing the foreign thought peacefully during the Abbasid era .
Whate is concluded during this research is that AL– Mutazila school has a great role in developing the religious and philosophical thought in Islam. It finds the intellectual origins to the Islamic creed .
In addition, Those who belong to AL– Mutazila school contribute actively in transporting the Greek heritage and culture in its philosophical and mental side to the Islamic civilization , and this is done by their acquaintance to this culture and representing its mental and philosophical datum .

Habeeb Bin Muthahir Al-Aside and his Role in the Tiff Battle

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 166-178

An examiner of Habeeb Bin Muthahir Al-Assadi 's attitudes during the Taff Battle, finds a lot of situations and exemplars where one can benefit from in this life for they give us much humane attitudes like altruism, sacrifice, and patience. Such traits are typical of Al-Imam Al-Hussain's companions. Hence, we should study such attitudes and compare them to our attitudes in life to see how far we have departed from God' path and the our true religion and our Prophet and his Household (PBUT).
Our study of such attitudes reflect to us a number of lessons which we direly need and through them we add to our heritage a number of lessons and examples where the reader finds pleasure in reading them.

The feminist Production of the Arab East Verse Drama1960 - 2000

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 179-197

Since woman has been one of the forces that shaped the features of the Twentieth Century , her literary production became of great significance . It is noted that woman has not been actively engaged with verse drama if we exclude three attempts by female poets who did not receive their due critical merit like Attiqa Al – Khazraji , Jaleela Ridha , and Wafaa Wajdi let alone that the interest in verse drama after it has settled during the 60s and the 70s of the preceding century , witnessed a recession during the following decades whether in terms of production or criticism versus the other dramatic arts like the novel and the short story . Therefore , the few texts in this domain constituted an important field of study because they reflect a concentrated aspect of one of the genres which shaped the human civilization since the times of the Greeks until the Renaissance.
This laconism of production urged the researcher to delve deep into whys and wherefores of the absence of woman writing within this genre . Woman has encountered many impediments when she wanted to embark on a literary writing mission and particularly the writing for the theater and more specifically verse drama .The paper tried to dig deep into how the image of woman was depicted through two dimensions ; the first is the feminist voices in the play " Baisan and the Seven Doors" by Wafaa Wajdi . The second is feminine representation of ( Baisan) and to be balanced with the patriarchal portrayal of (Ameera) in Salah Abdul – Sabour play (the Princess is waiting) . The paper concluded that the feminine experience conveys feminine experience conveys feminist features of writing distinguishing her from men


Husein Hadi Abbass; Laith Salah Mahdi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 1-10

In this paper, we introduce the notion of a U-BG-BH-algebra as a new class of a BH-algebra. Also we introduce the notion of a U-BG-ideal of U-BG-BH-algebra we state and prove some theorems and examples which determine the relationships between these notions and some types of ideals of a BH-algebra.

Removal of Azo Benzidine Reactive Dye From Aqueous Solution By Adsorption onto ZnO Surface

Wafaa Naser Mohammed Saeed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 11-18

In this study, the adsorption of azo benzidine reactive dye was carried out by using ZnO surface. Various parameters such as pH, adsorbent weight, initial dye concentration and contact time were studied in terms of their effect on the adsorption process. Furthermore, Lagergren’s equation was used to determine adsorption kinetics. It is observed that high removal of dye was obtained at pH=5. Removal of dye was increased by increasing initial dye concentration and contact time. High removal of dye was at the time equivalent of 90 min and reached equilibrium. Increasing of adsorbent weight leads to decrease dye adsorption where 0.1gm was the best weight. For kinetics the reaction onto ZnO followed pseudo-second order Lagergren’s equation.

Study The Effect of Aqueous Extract of Piper nigrum on Some physiological parameters and Histopathological in Female Rabbit Induced Gastric Ulceration by Aspirin

Muna H. AL-Saeed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 19-32

This study was carried out at the animal house of the College of Veterinary Medicine-Basrah University. An attempt was done to induce gastric ulceration by using oral administration of 400 mg/kg B.W. of aspirin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of Piper nigrum (500 mg/kg B.W.) on hematological and biochemical parameters and histopathological examination of liver, stomach in female rabbits induced gastric ulceration. Twenty four female rabbits weighted (1250-1500g) and ages (7m) were divided into 4 equal groups (6 rabbits/group). The aspirin and aqueous extract of Piper nigrum were administered daily for 30 days and blood samples were collected for analyses.
Treatment of rabbits for 30 days with 400 mg/kg B.W. of aspirin caused significant (p<0.05) reductions in RBC,WBC, PCV, Hb, DWBC relative to their respective controls; but caused significant (p<0.05) increments in the activities of AST and ALT relative, creatinin and bilirubin to their respective controls. On the other side aspirin+Piper nigrum extract, Piper nigrum extract groups showed a significant increase in RBC,WBC, PCV, Hb but showed a significant decrease in the glucose, cholesterol and activities of AST and ALT relative. These observations showed that aqueous extract of Piper nigrum possess antiulcer potential.
Aspirin was found to cause stomach erosion, mucosal injury, infiltration of inflammatory cells and an increase in gastric pits depth. In addition to degenerated parietal and chief cells which clearly seen near the muscularis mucosa. While the stomach sections related to animals treated with extract and aspirin (400mg/kg.dose) showed mild mucosal injury, little number of congested blood vessels, mild infiltration of leucocytes in submucosa and no haemorrhage. Also an increase in mucus layer thickness which covers the surface mucosal layer, compared with animals treated with aspirin only.
These findings probably indicates that aspirin have deleterious effect on the blood chemistry of female rabbits. The results of the effect of aqueous extract of Piper nigrum (alone) revealed lack of any effect of treatment with aqueous extract of Piper nigrum(500 mg/kg) was found to inhibit the ulcers induced by aspirin. It prevented the increase of gastric acid secretions, depletion of stomach wall mucus and prevented the histological changes caused by aspirin. It might be related to the stimulation of bioenergetic processes in the gastric epithelium under the influence of Piper.

Rock slope Stability Assessment for Rock Cliffs at Tar Al-Sayyed Area (Karbala Governorate Middle of Iraq)

S. N. Al-Saadi; R. M. AL-Hussainy; J. H. A. Al-Zubaydi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 33-52

Tar Al-Sayyed area (a tourist area), locates in the west of Karbala Governorate- Middle of Iraq, it is characterized by a rock cliff with abundance of naturally-forming caves locally known as Al-Tar caves. Field studies revealed the abundance of rock slope failures, the dominant types are rock fall, secondary toppling, and local disintegration followed almost by rolling.
Slope stability assessment was carried out by stereographic projection. Secondary toppling mechanisms (generally due to the effects of differential weathering and or erosion, and undercutting) include multidirectional toppling, tension crack toppling and toppling & slumping mechanisms. Some treatment measures are proposed to stabilize the slopes and protect the visitors in the area.


Ali Swailem

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 54-61

Thyroid gland differs from other endocrinal organs in it s heaviness and early working in embryonic period (1).The main reason for intense interest of thyroid research is the outbreak of thyroid cancer after disaster of Chernobel nuclear energy plant leaks in 1986(2). Most common clinical findings in the thyroid gland is different pictures of neck swellings which defined as :-
Any disorders of growth of thyroid cells changes into a swelling in thyroid.
Nodule—means knot or knob
Benign nodules can be caused by
2-Colloid nodules
4-Infectious nodules
5-Lymphocytic nodules
6-Hyperplastic nodules.
7-Thyroiditis .
8-Congenital anomalies.
Malignant nodules are classified as
1-Differentiated tumors
a-Papillary adenocarcinoma b-Follicular adenocarcinoma
2-Medullary carcinoma
3-Undifferentiated tumors like : anaplastic
a-Lymphoma b-sarcoma c-squamous cell carcinoma
d-mucoepithelial carcinoma e-Metastatic tumors. (3)
FNAC plays an important role in diagnosis of thyroid nodules.
AIMS OF STUDY:- To test suitability of fine needle aspiration cytology & avoid morbidity and complications of unwise thyroid operative decisions.
This study was carried out in Al-Hussein Teaching Hospital in Karbala city during the period from 1st January 2011 to 31st December 2012=2years. ( 120 ) patients were included in this study; designed as a prospective study. This is the first study carried out in IRAQ in this field.
The results studied were compared with pathological and importance of FNAC was checked by finding of Sensitivity(83.3%), Specificity(95.3), Positive Predictive Value=PPV(78.1%) and Negative Predictive Value=NPV(48.6%)Accuracy ratio=95% . Out of 120 patients FNAC showed 98 patients as benign and 22 patients as malignant while pathological examination revealed 96 patients had benign and 24 patients had malignant lesions . FNAC was able to correctly diagnose (94/98) as benign lesions while (4/98) cases of benign lesions appeared to be malignant on pathological examination (False negative) . Out of (24) cases which appeared to be malignant on pathological examination. FNAC confirmed 22 cases while (2/24) benign lesion was misdiagnosed as malignant (False positive).
This study showed a sensitivity of( 83.3 )%, specificity( 95.3%)and accuracy ratio=95% of FNAC in diagnosis of thyroid cancer in thyroid swelling lesions.
Key words:- FNAC , Biopsy, Thyroid nodules .

An Investigation on Body Condition Score and biochemical Profile in Crossbred Dairy Cows Suffering from milk fever

Amjed T. Mohsen; Kadhim H. Abbas; Mohammed A. A. Molaghi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 62-66

The knowledge of body condition score and biochemical profile are useful in diagnosing and prevention of various pathological and metabolic disorders and importance for animal health which can adversely affect on reproductive performance of cows. Healthy parturient cows (n=10) and 10 parturient cows with milk fever and no signs of other diseases were included in the present study at AL-Hamza quarter farms at a period lasted from November 2012 to March 2013,This study was conducted to estimate the though body condition score , biochemical profile in all animals of study such minerals ( Calcium, magnesium and Phosphors) some enzymes ( ALP , GPT and GOT) and some of metabolic indicators as ( Glucose , Cholestrol , Triglycerids and Creatinine phosphate ) . the results revealed that the values of body condition score in milk fever group showed no significant differences compared with normal calving group. biochemical profile which include Creatinine , triglyseide , uric acid , cholestrol and GPT also showed nonsignificant differences between normal groups . while Ca, P, Mg, ALP, urea, bilirubin , glucose , GOT in milk fever group showed significant differences if compared with normal group.

On I-Ring Family(IR-F)

Hussein Abed Al Hussein Abbas

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 67-71

In this research we introduce at the first time (as we know), the concept of I-ring family. Also we introduce the concept of each of ( sub family of I-ring family, , principalI-ring family and quotient family of I-ring family),H-connected,H-Hausdorffas well as a homomorphism , open and continuous morphism of I-ring families with some properties and examples about these concepts.


Nabaa Shakir Hadi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 72-80

This paper, estimated Hilla Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) generation rate for five years period (from year 2012 to year 2016). This Period is estimated as a minimum duration of landfill site operation time. Geographic Information System (GIS) technique are used to prepare digital map of Hilla city to determine all of Hilla district areas and its geographic distribution. Population forecasting is interpolated to find urban population size of each district and its population density. Depending on economic studies of population wealth variation of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), the individual waste generation in Hilla districts is 183923 ton /year. A value of 0.93 kg / capita /day is concluded for the year 2012 and may increase with a 4% per year to reach 1.06 kg / capita /day in year 2016. Comparison between the obtained estimation with other studies for other countries, puts Iraq in class of middle income countries.

Characterization of Borel Soft Lattices

Zeinab Hassan Abood; DhuhaAbdulameerKadhim

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 81-85

Soft set theory was introduced by Molodtsov in 1999 as a general mathematical for dealing with problems that contain uncertainty. In this paper, we define the concept of a soft latticeσ-algebra, measurable soft lattice, open soft sub lattice, open soft lattice, product Borel soft lattice and study their related properties.

Prevalence of Cytomegalovirus among pregnant women relation to congenital abnormalities in embryos and children in Wasit province

Rasha Noori Al-shammary; Mahdi Abdraba Al-Shuwaili; a Mahdi Al-Musawi; Raja; Zena Jehad Wally; Ihsan; F.H.AL-Jawhary; Hamieda Edan Salmanand; Hameed Rida Abed; HASSAN MAKTUFF JABER; ZAMAN SAHB MAHDI; Esam M. Mohamed; Hussen Ali Noor; Abbas Ahmed Ali; Khawla J.Tahir; alaa mohammed; FADHIL K. FULIFUL; Rasha Najah Mirzah; Zeid Hassan Abood; Murtadha Mohammed Hussein; AL-Bazii; S.J; AL-Bazii

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 86-91

Serological examination to detect CMV virus and ultrasound examination to known congenital anomalies in embryos among aborted and pregnant women blood sample of 750 and children blood sample of 36 was carried out in Al – karama hospital and AL-Zahra hospital of Wasit province from January to July 2012. Overall prevalence of CMV (positive cases) was 345 (43.9%). Prevalence of virus increased in age (23-29) and there were highly significantly (P


The effect of adding(Rose marinusofficinalis)and(thymus vulgaris)to broilersdiet on immuneresponse and some physiological parameters of broilers

Mahdi Abdraba Al-Shuwaili

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 92-97

This experiment was conducted on 200 unsexed Hubbard Flex chicks of one day old for 42 days. Chicks were randomly divided into 5 groups (40 chick pergroup) and each group consists of two replicates (20 chick pergroup). A grinded leaf of Rosemary and Thyme was supplemented to the ration in different combinations and percentages to investigate their effect on some physiological and immunological characters. Group 1 fed with regulate ration without any supplementation as control group. Group 2, 3, 4 and 5 were fed with the supplementation of 0.25% mixture of Rosemary and Thyme, 0.50% mixture of Rosemary and Thyme, 0.25% of Thyme and 0.50% of Rosemary respectively. No significant effect was found for all groups in antibody titer against NDV and internal organ’sweight; No significant effect was found for all groups in blood pictures (WBCs, RBCs, Hb and PCV).

The effect of using Detery Isolate as a separating medium on the transverse strength of cold–cure acrylic resin under different curing pressure

a Mahdi Al-Musawi; Raja

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 98-103

Objectives :The present investigation was undertaken to determine the effect of using Detery Isolate (homemade cold mold seal) as a separating medium on the transverse strength of cold –cure acrylic resin material under different curing pressure.
Methodology : One hundred identical cold–cure acrylic resin specimen were made and grouped according to curing process, type of separating medium and the amount of pressure applied during processing (30psi, 50psi, 70psi and 90psi).
Results: The differences in curing process and pressure applied had considerably different effect on the transverse strength of cold-cure acrylic resin. And there was a significant improvement in transverse strength at high pressure (70psi and 90psi). While there was no significant differences between Detery Isolate and cold mold seal separating media among the tested group.
Conclusion: The result suggested that the transverse strength of cold-cure acrylic resin improved by polymerization type and pressure applied and there is no side effect of using Detery Isolate as a separating medium on the transverse strength of cold cure acrylic resin

The effect of using Olive Oil as a separating medium on the tensile strength of processed cold and heat –cure acrylic Denture base materials (A comparative study)

Zena Jehad Wally

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 104-107

Objective :study the effect of olive oil separating medium on the tensile strength of cold and heat processed acrylic denture base materials and compared with those processed with cold mold seal separating medium.
Materials and methods:Fourty sample were prepared from heat-cure acrylic resin and cold-cure acrylic resin denture base. The study includes 4 groups of samples depending on the type of processing and type of separating medium that are used in curing process. Each group of them contains 10 samples (3-3).
Results: The results showed that there is no significant differences have been observed between olive oil and cold mold seal samples in respect to tensile strength of heat or cold cure acrylic denture base materials, while there is a significant difference between heat and cold- cure specimens regarding tensile strength.

Effect of Lead acetate on the mycelial growth of some fungi isolated from the soil of Thi- Qar governorate fields – Iraq

Ihsan; F.H.AL-Jawhary

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 108-116

Four fungi were isolated from the rhizosphere of Viccia faba located in the fields of Thi- Qar governorate for estimated their variable resistance to toxic Lead acetate at the different concentration( 50,100 , 250 , 500 ) ppm . These fungi were
Aspergillus niger , Rhizopus stolinifer , Trichoderma harzianum and Fusarium solani .
The results were showed that the Lead acetate was inhibited the growth of these fungi with all concentrations of Lead acetate on solid media compared with control , but in the broth media the results revealed that Lead acetate act to decrease the dry weight of R.stolinifer T. harzianum and F.solani at all concentrations except R. stolinifer which increase in 250 ppm as compared with control . At the same time the results showed that the dry weight of A. niger was increased with all concentrations of Lead acetate addition .

Ion-Pair Formation of Tetramethylammonium bromid in Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose-WaterMixtures from Conductivity Measurements

Hamieda Edan Salmanand; Hameed Rida Abed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 117-124

The equivalent conductivity (Λ) at different concentrations of (CH3)4NBr Tetrametylammonium bromide (TMAB) solution in hdroxypropylmethylcellulose(HP MC)-water mixtures at 25˚C has been determined from direct conductance measurements. The association constant (Ka) for ion-pair formation and the equivalent conductivity of the electrolyte at infinite dilution (Λە) in the different mixtures component by a least square method with an appropriate computer programme using Shedlovsky method. Density, viscosity and dielectric constant, have been measured for all the solvent mixtures at 25˚C.Walden products (W) have been calculated from the (Λە) and the viscosities (ηᵒ) of the HPMC-water mixtures.

Measurment of Radon concentration in the ceramics samples using SSNTD(LR115 II )


journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 125-128

In this work,we have measured the concentration of radon gas in nine ceramics samples from different origins by using of long-term measurement of radon decay products with solid state nuclear track detectors which alpha particles that emitted from radon gas was detected using (LR115II) nuclear track detector. The obtained results show that, the highest average radon gas concentration in ceramics samples was found in Chinese (Porclain )sample, which was (16.88 Bq/m3) ,while the lowest one was found in (U.M.A) (Porclain) sample, and found to be ( 6.732 Bq/m3) .

Numerical Analysis of MHD Mixed Convection and Fluid Flow in an Enclosure including a Heat Conducting Horizontal semi Circular Cylinders.

Esam M. Mohamed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 129-148

In the present work a numerical study for the effect of magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) mixed convection flow in a vertical lid-driven square enclosure including a horizontal heat conducting semi circular cylinders on the upper and lower surfaces with Joule heating has been performed. The horizontal walls are partially insulated. The right vertical wall was maintained at uniform temperature higher than the left moving wall.
The transport equations along with appropriate boundary conditions are first transformed into non-dimensional form. The resulting non-linear system of partial differential equations are solved numerically employing the finite element formulation based on the Galerkin's method.
The computation is carried out for a wide range of relevant parameters. Parametric studies of the fluid flow and heat transfer are performed for the effects of variation of magnetic parameter (Hartmann number Ha), Joule heating parameter (J), Richardson number (Ri) and Reynolds number (Re). Results are presented for the above parameters effects on the contours of streamlines and isotherms. Besides, the heat transfer rate in terms of the local and average Nusselt number (Nu & Nuav.) at the hot wall and average temperature of the fluid in the enclosure are offered for the mentioned parametric values. A two-dimensional laminar viscous non-compressible fluid flow was considered. The results indicated that the Hartmann number (Ha), Richardson number (Ri) and Reynolds number (Re) have strong influence on the streamlines and isotherms. On the other hand, Joule heating parameter (J) has little effect on the streamlines patterns, but a significant effect on isotherms is observed. Finally, the obtained results demonstrate that the mentioned parameters have significant effect on the local and average Nusselt number at the hot wall and the average temperature of the fluid in the enclosure. The validity of the current numerical code used is ascertained by comparing the results with previously published results under the same conditions.


Hussen Ali Noor

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 149-157

The electron paramagnetic resonance(EPR) method is successfully used for diagnostics of the material properties and of the processes involving unpaired electrons. The paper presents an analysis of new potentialities in the development of the EPR method, as applied to the pyrolytic decomposition processes of carbon-containing materials, and of peculiarities in the paramagnetic properties formation of a pyrolysis product.
A considerable widening of the scope of EPR spectroscopy both in research and in the applied problems solving has been observed since the development of compact specialized EPR analyzers, characterized by high metrological potentialities due to the abandoned functional redundancy of the conventional multi-purpose EPR spectrometers and owing to the use of modern microwave elements, microwave engineering as a whole, and a new structure of the basic analyzer units.

The interaction of heigh frequency electromagnetic field with the electrons of atom using relativistic quantum mechanics.

Abbas Ahmed Ali

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 158-174

when electromagnetic wave interact with electron of an atom the electron can be translat between two discrete levels The initial and final state belongs to discrete eigin values. But if the frequency of the incident wave is large enough to free the electron, the final state will be belongs to continuous spectrum.
There are two cases. If the frequency is very high in such a way that the free electron emit's from the atom have very high speed and can be compared with the velocity of light in this case we must use Dirac equation and we must find the cross-section of interaction of the electromagnetic wave with the electron and use Dirac-eq to find the final wave function of electron .i.e we must use relativistic quantum –mechanics to do that. In the case that the frequency of the electromagnetic wave is small we can use classical quantum mechanics where many scientist's did that and find result's agree with experiment's

Design device to measure the speed of objects

Khawla J.Tahir; alaa mohammed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 175-183

Speed measurements are very important in many applications, Speed objects measuring device measure the quicken moving objects by using two lasers transit with 60 cm distance and give the time of objects passing through the two lasers and then calculate the speed by use the equation(3), wide diffusion in very different fields is due not only to the high sensitivity and reliability of laser techniques, but also to availability expenditure optical components, high quality and low-cost laser. Laser sources have been already successfully applied.



journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 184-191

This paper analyzes the effect of water vapor on the accuracy of thermal images in blessed Karbala city. The distribution of water in the atmosphere varies strongly with time, location and height, which makes it difficult to model. The amounts of water vapor which are used in this research depending on the experimental data from Iraq Meteorological Organization and Seismology. The IR transmission is considered a very important parameter that has to be taken in account in thermal imaging. FORTRAN Program of an empirical expression for atmospheric attenuation as a function of wavelength and visible range in case of dust is used in this work .The IR transmissions at different extents(100,200,300,400,500,600,700,800,900m) and different concentrations of water vapor (59.1, 97 .4,167, 222.7, 310.7, 395.4, 432.9, 388.7, 300.2 mm at months JAN., FEB., MAR., APR.,MAY., JUN., JUL., AUG., SEP., respectively for 2013 year) on 3-5 μm bands are calculated .The results show that at high concentration of water vapor and long distance the thermal images vanish, also at low concentration and long distance the image does not recognized.

On Near Complex Hadamard Matrices

Rasha Najah Mirzah

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 192-198

In this paper we have introduced a matrix with special condition, and called it "near complex Hadamard matrix" and we have studied some basic properties of this matrix, also we have found two types of this matrix and conclude some relationships between them.

Synthesis of new 1,3- oxazepine - 4,7- dione derivatives containing azo group and 1,3,4- thiadiazole moiety and preliminary evaluation of their antibacterial activity

Zeid Hassan Abood; Murtadha Mohammed Hussein

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 199-227

In this work new 1,3-oxazepine-4,7-dione derivatives containing azo group and 1,3,4-thiadiazole moiety have been synthesized. At first, the primary aromatic amine 2-Amino-5-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole was converted to the corresponding azoaldehyde derivative containing 1,3,4-thiadiazole moiety 1 via coupling reaction between its diazonium salt and alkaline solution of 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde as coupling reagent. Next , the resulting azoaldehyde derivative 1 was respectively introduced in acid-catalyzed condensation reactions with the primary aromatic amines (3-nitroaniline, 4-methoxyaniline, 2,4- dimethylaniline, 4- hydroxyaniline) in absolute ethanol to give four new azoimine derivatives containing1,3,4-thiadiazole moiety 2a-d respectively . Later , treatment of the resulting azoimine derivatives 2a-d with each maleic and Phthalic anhydrides under the same cycloaddition reaction conditions afforded eight new 1,2-disubstituted-1,3-oxazepine -4,7-dione derivatives 3a-d and 4a-d respectively.
The structures of all synthesized oxazepine derivatives 3a-d and 4a-d were confirmed by (C.H.N.S.) elementary micro analysis and the spectral methods including FT-IR and 1H NMR for most derivatives (3a, 3b, 3d, 4a, 4c and 4d) . The synthesized oxazepine compounds (3a, 3b, 3c and 4b) were tested for their antibacterial activity against two pathogenic strains of bacteria, Staphylococcus aureous (Gram - positive) and Escherichia coli (Gram - negative). The results revealed that the tested oxazepine derivatives showed inhibition activity against Gram - positive bacteria is relatively higher than that of Gram - negative.

Histological and physiological study about effect of chronic x-ray exposure on male rabbit brain

AL-Bazii; S.J; AL-Bazii

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 228-234

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of x-ray exposure on some physiological parameters and pathological lesions in the brain on male rabbits .
Twenty male rabbits were randomly divided into two groups (10/group) control(C) and group exposed to 100kilorad (Cx) .After three months was showed there was a significant increase(p<0.05) in the Malondialdehyde (MDA)level and Ach esterase activity , significant decrease (p<0.05) in reduced glutathione (GSH) level in brain tissue and a significant increase (p<0.05) in MDA , glucose ,total cholesterol(TC) ,triacyglyserol (TAG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) in the serum and a significant decrease (p<0.05) in high density lipoprotein (HDL) and protein concentration in the serum group which exposed to x-ray compare with the control group .
The microscopical examination was shown in the Cx group brain tissue characterized by necrosis and congestion compare with control group . In conclusion , the 100kilorad x-ray exposure in male rabbits showed increase in the oxidative stress markers and Ach esterase activity in brain tissue and serum ,pathological lesions in the brain tissue of male rabbits .

Effect of dietary supplementation of crushed seed of Apium graveolens on Some Physiological parameters in Broiler breeder (Hubbard flex).

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 1-9

The present study has been aimed to determine the positive effects that can be detected by Apium graveolens seed on some physiological parameters in broiler breeder roosters (Hubbard flex). Thirty roosters, Twenty-sex weeks age, were randomly divided into three equal groups. First group (control) fed on the standard provender along the experimental period (7 weeks), second group (T1& T2) fed on standard provender supplemented with 2.5 & 5 Kg/Ton of fed, respectively. At the end of experiment, blood samples were obtained from wing vein for estimation of glucose, total cholesterol, total protein, LH, FSH, and Testosterone concentrations in blood serum. Then, roosters were sacrificed and the testes and Epididymis obtained for histological measurement. The result revealed that Apium graveolens seed supplementation in the two treated groups caused a significant increase (P<0.05) in body weight, weight, width & height of testes when compared with control group. On the other hand, serum concentration of glucose and cholesterol showed a significant decrease (P<0.05) in the two treated groups compared with control. The result of total protein showed a significant increase (P<0.05) in two treated groups compared with control. At the same time, the result of sex hormones, revealed a significant increase (P<0.05) in Luetinizing, Follicle stimulating & Testosterone hormones concentration in the both T1 and T2 groups compared with control.

Effect of dietary supplementation of crushed seed of Apium graveolens on Some Physiological parameters in Broiler breeder (Hubbard flex).

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 1-9

The present study has been aimed to determine the positive effects that can be detected by Apium graveolens seed on some physiological parameters in broiler breeder roosters (Hubbard flex). Thirty roosters, Twenty-sex weeks age, were randomly divided into three equal groups. First group (control) fed on the standard provender along the experimental period (7 weeks), second group (T1& T2) fed on standard provender supplemented with 2.5 & 5 Kg/Ton of fed, respectively. At the end of experiment, blood samples were obtained from wing vein for estimation of glucose, total cholesterol, total protein, LH, FSH, and Testosterone concentrations in blood serum. Then, roosters were sacrificed and the testes and Epididymis obtained for histological measurement. The result revealed that Apium graveolens seed supplementation in the two treated groups caused a significant increase (P<0.05) in body weight, weight, width & height of testes when compared with control group. On the other hand, serum concentration of glucose and cholesterol showed a significant decrease (P<0.05) in the two treated groups compared with control. The result of total protein showed a significant increase (P<0.05) in two treated groups compared with control. At the same time, the result of sex hormones, revealed a significant increase (P<0.05) in Luetinizing, Follicle stimulating & Testosterone hormones concentration in the both T1 and T2 groups compared with control.

S4 mono nuclear and thier complexes with some metal ions , synthesis and physical studies.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 35-53

The tetradentate (S4) ligand have been synthesized through the refluxed of 2-amino-1,3,4- thiadiazole -5- thiol with dibromoethane in presence anhydrous sodium carbonate. The metal complexes of this ligand was curried out by the direct reaction of metal salts with ligand .
The prepared complexes and ligand were characterized by FT - IR ,UV-Vis ,NMR , Mass Spectroscopies and C.H.N.S elementary analysis. In addition to the motor conductivity and magnetic successpitibilty. Stability constant and mole ratio was carried out of prepared complexes. The thermodynamic parameters ΔH , ΔG , ΔS were measured. The spectroscopic studies and magnetic moments measurements showed the octahedral geometry around the Co, Cu and tetrahedrul geometry around Nickel ion.

The study of life and behavioral effect pheromone assembly in the Periplanet americana(L.)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 54-61

The work has been shown the distribution of three species of cockroachs in Karbalaa provience. They were Periplanet americana. Blattella germanica, and Supella supellectilum. Periplaneta americana is speared in Fariha , Hindia, center of Karbala, Al Husseiniya and AL-Horr as 68%,85% , 80% , 86%, 91% respectively.The results were that the effected adult and reconstruction old nymph was 2 g feces / 25 ml hexane, however, the optimum way to attract reconstruction of early nymph is by 2.5 g feces / 25 ml hexane. The percentage of attraction for adults and early and old stage of nymphs from the feces extract each as 93.3%, 63.3%, 86.6%, respectively.
Additionally, the results were determined the effectiveness of pheromone material and found out that it can be effective without proper storage. The attractions rates did not differ between the first day and fifteenth, where it was 18.3, 16.6, respectively, and that the moral decline occurred after the fifteenth day. However, the effectiveness of pheromone extract with proper storage continued for 105 days.In addition, the results indicated that all the insect pheromone launches the roles effectively attracts all gathered whimsical at different rates and the proportions of the adult combination and reconstruction late nymph convergent where indicated no significant differences between them compared to the early ages nymph.Furthermore, the shelter test results demonstrated that the Periplanet americana prefers to gather in shelters made of wood (opposite) compared to other shelters made from wood (fiber), plastic, metal and cardboard.

Study of some biochemistry parameters for the smokers and non smokers patients of angina pectoris diseases

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 62-66

This study is carried out in AL- Hussainy general hospital/ Kerbala.(41) volunteers of angina pectoris classified into two groups according to age, the first includes (31- 60) year and the second (61- 89) year , from smokers and unsmokers. From the control groups (28) healthy persons were chosen. They divide into two groups according to the age: smokers and non- smokers.In there search the level of lipid profile is evaluated and it contains cholesterol, Lipoprotein (HDL, LDL), Triglycendes.
The study comes up with the following results :-
1- A significant increase in the Level (p<0.01) in the active chemical evidence value chol., TG, LDL for the smoker patients and non- smokers that they have the illness with Ap.
2- A significant increase of (p<0.01) for the Level chol.-TG- LDL for the patients with (Ap)from smokers and non-smokers and in higher rate for the second age group from first age group.
3-A significant decrease of the Level( p<0.01) in the active chemical evidence value HDL for smokers and non smokers patients with Ap.

Some integrated aspects in controlling early blight disease of Tomato plants

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 67-74

The present this study was carried out in 2012 at the College of Agriculture ,Kerbala,Iraq to estimate tomato early blight disease and to test the efficacy of some methods for controlling it. Isolates of the pathogenic fungus Alternaria solani were obtained and their pathogenicity was tested. The effect of two isolates of plant – growth promoting bacteria, Enterobacter cloacae , Pseudomonas fluorescens, the biological fungicide EMI on the disease persentage and intensity was tested as well .The isolates of A. solani were collected from plants bearing disease symptoms in different regions of Baghdad,Kerbala and Babylon provinces . The pathogenesity of 12 isolates of A. solani showed different levels of infection on raddish seed . The germination rates of these seed infacted by these isolates varied from 15% to 80% compared with 90% in control treatment. According to this test , the most infective isolate was given the symbol As5 and then used later in all following experiments. The results of antagonism test showed high effect of P. fluorescens and E. cloacae isolates against A.solani in acultural medium of potato dextrose agar (PDA) . The rates of fungus growth inhibition caused by these isolates reached 83% and 56% , respectively these isolates were used at the concentration of 1x610 . The use of P. fluorescens , E. cloacae , EMI and Beltanol causded increase in tomato seed germination rates after two weeks under protetive culture condition . The use of P. fluorescens and E.cloacae caused significant reduction in percentage disease infection in tomato seedling after 45 days of planting . these percentages reached 13.33%and 6.66% in those treatments ,respectively compared with 93.33% in treatment of pathogenic fungus. The infection intensity rates of the disease reach 6.56%,4.42% and 39.21% in the aforementioned treatments , respectively . The use of the biological fungicide EMI reduced the disease infection percentage in tomato seedlings whereas the use of the synthetic fungicide Beltanol resulted in complete inhibition of the disease pathogen


journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 75-84

This study was carried out fish common carp Cyprinus carpio at Al-Furat Fish Company to applied of intensive production program for product 12 million larvae of fish common carp during one production season with out using of temperature control system.
The result of this study showed that each breeders batch need 6-10 days in the hatchery and259 female weighing 973kg. in 8 batch can give 184 kg. of eggs and at least 54 million of larvae , The production of eggs from these breeders attained 19.97% (by out of unresponder female) or 199.7gm eggs/1kg of female live weight, which need 245.17 Degree/hours to spawn after the second injection of hormones and the eggs of Common Carp need 59.43-72.28 degree/day for hatching .

The infectivity of larval stage of sheep sarcocystis in final host in Karbala governate .

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 85-91

The samples of sarcocystis collected from esophagus sheepsof Karbalaa slaughterous. Through the period that extended from the first December to first September 2012 L 2013 . Diagnosis of the infection of micro cysts of sarcocystis by using pepsin digestion method in (384) slaughter sheep's.
In this study the doges were used as a final host, the doges were infected with microcyst , and after 48 h the first groups are sacrified & diagnosis meal mate & female gametes in the intestinal section & after 14 day diagnoses of the sporocyst infesses of second groups was performed then finally were one the second group was sacrified and diagnosed gametocytes and sporocysts in the intestinal section.

Evaluation the effect of Conmix (SP1B) Superplasticizer on Physical Properties performance of Cement Paste and Mortar

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 92-103

The research aim is to study effect of Conmix (SP1B) SuperPlasticizer at its addition to cement mortar with ratios of 1%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5%, 3% and 3.5% of cement weight on its properties like compressive and tensile strength, workability and study the ability of cement decreasing in mortar. There are (202) samples have been tested, (16) samples for reference cement paste standard consistency and reference mortar compressive and tensile strength. (6) Samples for the mixed cement paste setting time, (72) samples for the mixed mortar compressive & tensile strengths as per the above addition ratios. The rest are (108) mixed mortar samples for the above compressive and tensile samples as per the above addition ratios but with reducing cement by ratios of 5%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 10% of its weight in mortar. Results showed that the best SuperPlasticizer addition ratio in mortar is(2.5%) of cement weight for the compressive strength increasing by (45.51%) and tensile by (15.71%) more than their reference mortar strength, decreasing water weight of reference mortar by(0.5%) for each (1%) addition and the setting time is not affected. The best decreasing cement ratio in cement mortar is(35%)of its weight in reference mortar with addition ratio (2.5%) and gave acceptable compressive& tensile strength by the specifications with good workability and less total cost by (11.29%) of reference mortar according to economic feasibility study for it.

Effect of Increasing sulphate content in sand on concrete compressive strength

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 104-115

The research is studied the increasing of sulphate problem in fine aggregate of concrete and trying to create the solution for some of high sulphate content out of Iraqi standard specification No. 45 – 1984 through study behavior the two concrete mixes 1:1.5:3 & 1:2:4 by vol. with different proportion additions( 0.5,1,1.5,2)% for sulphate in sand for two mixes to know the negative effect for these additions. The two mixes were produced Concrete with lower ( -15.4,-21.7 )% compression consequently by increasing 2% sulphate in 28 days age in comparison with same referential mixes without sulphate . Adding different proportion additions ( 3 – 26 )% cement and( 1,1.5,2,3)% plasticizer from weight of cement to both of mixes to cure this reduction in compressive strength and to know the effect of each them on compression of high sulphate content concrete . The results shows that the large positive effect was happening in compressive strength with high sulphate content up to 2% which is approach to compression of referential mixture 1:1.5:3 and that effect is less in mix 1:2:4 . The different proportion additions of ( 1,1.5,2,3)% plasticizer from weight of cement to both of mixes gave slightly positive effect on reduction of compressive strength particularly in mix1:2:4 for the compressive strength percent is (-12.3,-17.3) % less than referential mixes in comparison with 1:1.5:3 & 1:2:4 consequently with 2% sulphate and 3% plasticizer content .

Production of antibiotic penicillin from local isolate fungi Penicillium chrysogenum

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 116-124

We can collect isolate of fungus Penicillium chrysogenum from air an able to produce antibiotic the activity of these compound were examined against two kinds bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Escherchia coli , Results revealed that the activity of this antibiotic appeared highly inhibition against S.aureus but its appearance low effect of E.coli growth where the average diameter of inhibitory areas reached 1mm . Many techniques were used in this study for purifird compound diagnosis , Results revealed that antibiotic was completely similar to the penicillin

Detection of Neisseria meningitidis in blood samples by PCR technique and bacterial Culture

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 125-133

The Meningitis of important disease and controversial attention as it gives some conditions as a result of culture negative in spite of the presence of symptoms and clinical inflammatory response was due to the treatment pre- antibiotic , so it was chosen this study to shed light on identifying diagnostic accuracy and clinical benefit of the methods used to detect for Neisseria meningitidis bacteria in samples of blood .
Included the current study, 50 cases of suspicious infected with meningitis or septicemia from both sex and by age from 40 day to 14 year outpatient hospital Karbala education for children and Hussein Hospital of education and who have been diagnosed clinically by specialist doctors at the hospital since collected samples of blood were withdrawn for the same people under study and admitted to the emergency unit or intensive care unit (ICU) or transitional diseases unit. blood samples were cultured in traditional media, as well as the DNA was extracted from bacterial samples of blood for the purpose of detecting the presence of the ctrA gene using a technique the PCR.
The study results showed that the routine culture method gave the bacteriological test result negative rate of 0.0% for blood samples while when using the PCR technique was the number of cases diagnosed to the presence of bacterial gene 15 cases ( 30.0 % ) of the total blood samples . well as the results showed high incidence of bacterial meningitis disease caused by N. meningitidis among males than females , with total cases of the presence in the blood sample of male patients by the way of PCR were nine cases ( 16.1% ) and females six cases ( 13.6% ), In light of the presented results of the study conclude that the PCR technique is the way to the most useful in the detection of bacteria in blood samples of patients with meningitis cases questionable.

Extrication and Identification of some flavonid compounds from grape seeds Shada Sodda, Bedha Vitis vinifera L. and waste of grape juice by chromatographic liquid high-performance (HPLC)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 156-162

Four Flavonid compound have been extracted from the seeds of two different species of grapes named( Shadaa Sodda and Bedha) and waste of grape juice, the leaves were hydrolyzed to break the glycosides linking of the Flavonid glycosides by Soxhelt (Petroleum ether) at temperatures from 60 to 80 m for a period of 6 hours, followed by extracting the powder to the device for 8 hours by a mixture of solvents consisting of methanol: water: acetic acid (0.5:9.5:90), and diagnosed in the extracts as Catechin and λ- procatechin in black grape seed, and Epicatechin in white grape seed,and Catechol in the waste of grape juice, using the technique chromatographic liquid high-performance, (HPLC) , used a column separate from the type of O.D.S and the volume of minutes 10 mm (Mm) (250 mm x 2 mm) , Mobile phase is bytanol: acetic acid: water (374:1:11) h / h , a Flow rote1.5 ml / min, Temperature 30 m, and the wave length) the user is 280 nano-meter of the detector.


journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 163-172

A field study was conducted during2010-2011at Sheak Saad region/Wasit governorate, Iraq,to evaluate the individual and combined effect of different herbicides in weed control in wheat cultivar IPA99.The experiment was laid out in RCBD with 3 replicates.The experiment comprised of9treatments with herbicides and a weedy check.The herbicidal treatments were applied at post emergence the herbicide were the post-emergence application of2.4-D(1L per ha) , Granstar 75 DF ( 10 and 15g per ha ) , Topik ( 400ml per ha) alone or combine as mixed or sequently . Data were recorded on weed density m- 2 at physiological maturity, weed control percentage, plant height, number of tiller ,number of spikes , number of seed per spike , length of spike, biological yield (Kg ha- 1) and grain yield (Kg ha-1 ).
Result showed that all herbicide treatments had significant effect in weed density and weed control percentage compared with control. High effect in weed density were recorded in combined treatments herbicides by percentage control 87 to 95 %, compared with herbicides alone applied which were recorded less effect in weed density by percentage control 56 to 75% . Weed control by using Granstar 75 DF 15gha-1+ Topik 400mlha-1 was a recorded best number of tillers, number of spikes and high grains yield( 1147 Kgha) and the percentage increasing was 52% to grains yield. However, not significant effect in yield and yield component were observed when using herbicide alone does not to Topik treatment alone, compared with control. Therefore it can be concluded that the application of Granstar 75 DF 15gha-1 + Topik 400mlha-1 was the most efficient herbicide in term of weed control and the positive consequences on grain yield and yield components of wheat compared with other treatments.

Bioassay of the Beauveria bassiana(Bals.)Vuill fungi on the Fig moth Ephestia Cautella (Walk. ((Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in vitro

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 190-196

A bioassay for three different concentrations (1X102, 1X104, 1X106) spore/ml. of the water suspension of the Beauveria bassiana (Bals.)Vuill fungi spores on the eggs, 1st. and last instars, pupas and the adults of fig moth Ephestia Cautella (Walk.) in vitro. Monitoring the treated eggs and the hatching larvae lasted 5 days and showed that he least hatching percentage was 29.8% at 1X106 spore/ml. and the mortality of larvae peaked to 21.5% with the concentration 1X106 spore/ml. after 3 days. The rest of larvae were monitored till pupation and adult. Mortality of the 1st. instar peaked at 73.14% after 7 days of the 1X106) spore/ml. treatment but it's minimum was 2.4% one day after the 1X102 spore/ml. treatment application.
1X106 spore/ml. Treatment showed the highest effect on the 4th. Instar after 3 days of treatment so mortality was 76.5% , least pupation percentage 69.8% and the least emerge of adults was 64.2%.
For pupa treatments, also the concentration 1X106 spore/ml. treatment showed the least emerge of adults 7 days after treatment with 16.22% and the highest effect in the adults mortality was 68.22% 7 days later too.
Maximum mortality for adults was 68.22 seven days post treatment with 1X106 spore/ml.. Minimum adult mortality was 4.33 for the treatment with 1X104 spore/ml. one day after treatment.

Using agricultural waste residue (Rice Bran) as a efficient surface in removing colorful water polluters with Fast Green and comparing its adsorption to pure cellulose surface

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 197-206

This woke include used simple behaviors to remove organic colors which has low –cost locally available by coreless agriculture remains (Rice bran) and comparative with adsorption on (pure cellulose). In my previous research, two colors of basic dyes (Methylene Blue) (M.B),(Neutral Red) (N.R) were removed from aqueous solution on rice bran surface. In another work we comparing adsorption of( Safranine O) (S.O) in (Rice bran) and (pure cellulose). In this work, comparative study was accrued about colors removal of (Fast Green) dye on rice bran and pure cellulose surface. adsorption process were occurred at different temperatures (25 ,35 ,45 ,55 ) Cº in order to measure the thermodynamic parametersΔ) H,º ΔGº,ΔSº). The Adsorption were repeated at different acidity of solution PH= (3, 7, 10) at constant temperature (25) Cº. Study results showed good adsorption capacity for rice bran against fast green compare pure cellulose . Adsorption isotherms of fast green dye obeyed ( Frindlish) adsorption isotherms indicating the homogeneity of pure cellulose and rice bran. From the thermodynamic parameter values showed adsorption of pure cellulose and rice bran is exothermic process the adsorption enhanced decrees by increasing Temperature. It can be concluded from the results of the present study that the process of adsorption of fast green dye on pure cellulose and rice bran may be used effectively to remove the dye from aqueous medium.

Screening of local fungal isolates and optimization environmental conditions for kojic acid production from Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 207-214

Thirty one fungal isolates belong to the two genera Aspergillus and Penicillium. The two local fungal isolates Aspergillus fumigatus24 and A.flavus29 were chosen as the most efficient two isolates for kojic acid(KA) producrion. The environmental conditions for kojic acid production from Aspergillus fumigatus24 and A.flavus29 were studied and the results showed that incubation in static conditions at (35 and 30)̊C for (18 and 20)days gave the highest production of (KA), respectively

The effect of using different feeding period on broiler performance

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 221-226

This study was conducted to compaire the effect of different periodical feeding on broiler performance. 1746 of Ross broiler chicks were randomly distributed in the treatment with three replicates per treatment, using the complete randomized design (CRD) as follows:
1-The first treatment (control) divided periodically as fallowing;
2-The second treatment (control) divided periodically as fallowing;
3- The third treatment (control) divided periodically as fallowing;
The chicks were fed for the three period and the first period and all treatment as the fallowing;
1-The first period22.2 % protein,2921 kcal/kg
2- The second period20.4 % protein,3021 kcal/kg
3- The third period19 % protein,3074 kcal/kg
Results showed that the periodical feeding system for treat 3 significantly improved the body weight , weight gain , conversion efficiency, feed intact, index production , maturity ratio ,percentage of carcass cuts, and carcass yield in all treatment (P<0.05).


journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 232-237

A field study was conducted during winter season in 2011-2012 at Field Crop Department - Agriculture College - Kerbala University , to evaluate the response of wheat to application of iron and magnetized wateron wheat plant (var.Tahadi). Theexperiment was laid out in R.C.B.D with split plot arrangement with 3 replicates.The main plots included three levels of magnetize water strength( 0( normal water), 1500, and 3000) Gauss while the subplots included three levels of iron concentration (0, 50 and 100) mg.L-1. Datarecorded were plant height, number of tillers ,number of spikes , number of seeds per spike , length of spike, weight of 1000 grain and grain yield (Kg. ha-1 ).
Results showed a significanteffect ofmagnetized water at 1500 GS gave the highest number of tillers,number of spikes, and grain yield (Kg ha-1 )and its recorded 677 tillers,654 spikes, 12.83 cm, 63.62 grain and 7451 Kg ha-1 compared with 544 tillers, 531spikes,11.94 cm, 60.38grain and 5223 Kg ha-1 with normal water respectively, while magnetized water at 3000 GS gave significantly affected in weight of 1000 grain only. Iron concentration applied at 50 mg was significant on number of tillers, number of spikes, length of spike and number of grains per spike, while the concentration at 100 mg was significant in plant height only. Interaction was significant in plant height, number of grainsweight of 1000 grains and grain yield (Kg ha-1 ).

Effect of using Abate (temephose) in some Bological characters on water flea Daphnia magna

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 238-247

This study aimed to determine the effect of the insecticide Abate in some Biological characters on water flea Daphnia magna. Using a series of concentrations namely (0.25 – 0.5 – 0.75 – 1- 1.25) µg/L the experiments carried on different environmental conditions (absent of oxygen , present of oxygen , addition of some suspension particles),in order to study the effect of these particles on the studying characters . The results indicated that the mortality percentage has a positive relationship with the utilizing concentrations , the LC50 for Abate on Daphnia magna was 0.99 µg/L but when the suspension particles were used this value raised to (1.19 – 1.16) for bentonite and clay as sequence at a period of continuous exposure. The results of Abate treatment at a period of chronic exposure on some reproduction indicators ( number of broods for each female and the juveniles number rate for each brood). And the results showed that using of this insecticide leaded to significant reduce in both parameters on all cases of treatments (absent of oxygen , present of oxygen , addition of some suspension particles) . as well as these results effected on life tables of Daphnia magna because it cased reduced in the values of net replacement rate (RO) and the intrinsic rate of increase (rm).

Effect of adding seed black (Nigella sativa) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris( powders on the microbial content in the alimentary canal and some of carcass features for two hybrids of broiler chicks

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 248-252

An experiment was conducted at poultry research station of karbala Agricultural foundation during the period of 03/04/2014-22/05/2014 to identify the effect of adding black seeds (Nigella sativa) and thyme (Vulgaris vulgaris) on the microbial content and some of carcass features , for two different hybrids (Ross and Cobb) of broiler chicks.
This experiment was carried out, using completely randomized design and as a factorial experiment, on 120 broiler chicks of each of the un-sexed hybrids mentioned above,distributed to 24 cages (1×1.5 m2/ cag).Six nutrition treatments each containing two replicates (10) were used.
For each hybrid, black seed and thyme powders were added individually or mixed with the main diet to obtain the final ratio of 10 g./ kg.
Results showed that no significant differences were found between the nutrition treatments and the studied features as well as the interaction between the boiler chick species and the nutrition treatments

The Effect of the Foliar Fertilizer''Algidex''on Vegetative Growth of Some Wheat Cultivars Triticum aestivum L.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 277-288

The study was conducted at Al – Bargah district ( 30 Km ) North East Kerbala city during 2012-2013 from October, 30th 2012 till April ,5th 2013. The aim was to study the effect of the foliar fertilizer ''Algidex '' Wheat cultivars and their.Interaction on vegetive and reproductive stages. Factorial experiement within Completely Rondomized Design(C.R.D) was adopted . the 1st facter was four cultivars of Wheat nomely: Iraq, IPA- 95, Al –Fateh and Sham 6,and the 2nd facter was four concentrations of the foliar fertilizer '' Algidex '' at ( 0 , 2 , 4 and 6) m l . l-1 with 6 replicates. Seeds were sown on 30-11-2012 in a plastic pots filled with 7 kg soil in a rate of 20 seeds thinned to 10 seedlings per pot after the germination . The tolal experimental units were 96 . The foliar application was carried out twice the first time was at the tillering stage on 12-1-2013 and the second time was at the flowering stage. Data were statistically analyzed, means were compared by using L.S.D at 0.05 probalility level . Results revealed that, Al-Fateh cultivar gave the highest values of plant's height, no.of tillers , leaves no. leaf area , dry weight of shoots during the vegetative growth stage, values were 61.7 cm, 3.3 tillers,9.5 leaves , 385.6 cm2 ,1.73 g , respectively. Whereas, the cultivar Sham 6 gave 52.5 cm, 2.4 tillers,8.6 leaves, 212.1 cm2, 1.42 g, for plant's height, no .of tillers, no . of leaves , leaf area , shoot dry weight respectively. While the other cultivars came in between .During the reproductive stage , the cultivar Al –Fateh was also the best giving the heighest values of no. of tillers, leaf area , shoot's dry weight, their corresponding values were 4.8 tillers, 361.2 cm2, 3.98g.Sham 6 cultivar gave lower values of plant's height, no.of tillers ,no. of leaves.The values were 68.2 cm , 3.7 tillers, 14.1 leaves, respectively. Foliar fertilization showed significant effect on the studied traits where 4 ml . l-1 gave the heighest values - during the vegetative stag e . of no . of tillers , shoot dry weight , giving 3.1 tillers , 1.69 g , respectively . Meanwhile , 0 ml .l-1 , treatment gave lower values of plant's height , no.of tillers , no.of leaves , leaf area , , shoot dry weight , giving 55.5cm, 2.5 tillers,7.6 leaves, 175.1 cm 2, 1.37 g respectively, other two cultivars came in between. The same trened was found during the reproductive stage where 4 ml . l-1 of Algidex gave the heighest values of plant's height ,, shoot dry weight , : 74.6 cm, 3.73 g , respectively. On the other hand ,the concentration (0 ml .l -1) gave the lowest values of the following characteristics ; plant's height , no.of tillers , no. of leaves , shoot's dry weight, giving 67.8 cm , 3.3 tillers , 13.8 leaves , 2.48 g respectively . Other two concentrations i.e. 2 and 6 ml .l -1 came in between . However, 6 ml .l-1 treatment was more effective than o and 2 ml.l-1 , treatment. The interaction between the cultivar and Algidex concentration significantly affected studied characteristics during vegetative and reproductive stages.

The role of zinc and boron in growth of chickpea plant Cicer arietinum L.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 289-295

Pots experiment was conducted in the wooden canopy in the botanical garden of Biology Department , College of Education for pure Science, Baghdad University during the growing season 2013 to evaluate the effect of foliar spraying with zinc 0,50,75 mg. L-¹ and boron 0, 25, 50, 75 mg. L-¹ and their interactions on some growth parameters of chickpea plant as relative growth rate, No. of flowers.pot-¹, concentration of nitrogen, phosphrous and calcium. Means were compared by using (LSD) least significant difference test according to the design of the experiment, Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications .
Results revealed that foliar spraying with zinc and boron gave a significant effect on the growth parameters of the plant, The interaction between them was significant and the treatment 75 mg . L -¹ zinc and 75 mg .L-¹ boron gave the best values for the relative growth rate and No. of flowers. pot-¹ , but the treatment of 75 mg .L -¹ zinc and 50 mg 1.L-¹ boron gave the best values for the macronutrients.

Effect of Levels of Phosphors and Zinc on Vegetative Growth of Wheat plant (Triticum aestivum L.)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 296-300

Plastic pots experiment was performed in greenhouse with Random Complete Block Design(RCBD) with three replications by using wheat plant (Triticum aestivum L.). Increase levels of phosphors fertilizer at a level of (0,150,300kg/ha.) as di-ammonium phosphate and zinc fertilizer at a level of (0,5,10kg/ha.) as zinc sulfate were added. Plant samples(vegetative part) were collected after 46days of germination. Plant height, leaf area, dry weight, concentration of organic materials (chlorophyll, protein and carbohydrate) and concentration of some elements (N,P,K) were determined.
Results showed that the application of phosphors fertilizer caused a significant increase in all parameters mentioned above, but zinc sulfate application caused a significant increase in some of them. The interaction between two fertilizers was significant and the highest value of all studied parameters were found at treatment (300kgP/ha.+5kgZn/ha.).
Key words : Wheat , Phosphor , Zinc .

Preparation and Study of Some Optical Properties for the Polystyrene before and after the Addition of the Methyl Blue Material with Various Rates

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 301-307

In this paper, samples of the polystyrene material have been prepared in the form of discs with a diameter of (3cm) and its thickness of (0.384 cm) and added blue material with various weight rates and they are (pure, 10%, 15%).
some optical properties of the polystyrene were studied which was prepared before and after adding the Methyl blue material.
Through the checking of samples by the absorption and transmission in the range of wave lengths (250-1000)nm by using (UV- Spectrophotometer) and results the absorption coefficient and the optical energy gap were calculated to indirectly transfer the allowed, the forbidden, and the extinct coefficient . Thus ,we come to the conclusion that the values of the absorption Coefficient and the extinction Coefficient for the prepared samples hare increased with the increase of the added rate of the methyl blue whereas the values of the optical energy gap regarding the allowed and prevented indirect transfer hare decreased with the increase of the added rate of the methyl blue .


journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 308-318

A field experiment was conducted in the Al-Mishkhab Rice Research Station at Najaf governorate during two rice seasons 2009 and 2010 to study the response of two rice varieties(Anber33 and Jasmine) for certain foliar organic fertilizers (Agriful Antisal, Agriful, Tecamin Raiz, Tecno Kel) and its effect on yield and yield components in comparison with recommended chemical fertilizer. These fertilizers were added by spread method onto plant and soil used the different amounts and time for each fertilizer. The experiment designed used RCBD. The results revealed asignificant superiority of Agriful fertilizer in vegetative growth(Plant high, sterility percentage, weight of dry matter), and yield and yield components(Panicle number, spikelet number per panicle, 1000 grain weight, grain yield) of two rice varieties and seasons.

Knowledge of Sheep Breeders in Veterinary Care Field in Karbala Province

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 319-326

Targeted search was conducted to determine the level of knowledge for educators in the field of veterinary care for sheep in the province of Karbala , and to determine the level of knowledge of educators in each axis of the axes of veterinary care for sheep , as well as to identify the relationship cognitive level of educators in all of the independent variables namely ,age, educational attainment, experience, and participate in the training courses related to veterinary care for sheep . To achieve the objectives of the research, a test was prepared t and consisting of two parts included the first part of the factors independent of the aforementioned , the second part included a measure of knowledge for educators in each axis of the axes of veterinary care for sheep and consisting of thirty-six paragraph which were distributed among five axes: 1.axis culling disease - carrier animals 2. axis Disposal of dead animals 3. axis control of internal parasites ( Deworming ) 4.axis control of external parasites (Dipping) 5.axis of cleansing and disinfection. Higher degree reached 32 and the minimum degree of 15 .Data were collected in July and August of 2013 by resolution and in a way a personal interview with a stratified random sample proportional breeders of sheep by 10% and by 50 respondents. The average degrees of cognitive level pan respondents in the field of veterinary care for sheep was 24.26 degrees, and 74% of the respondents were degrees of knowledge within the cognitive level average, results also showed the presence of cognitive level average of the respondents in each axis of the axes of veterinary care for sheep , as accounted for as follows : Axis culling animals carrying the disease 54% , the hub of Disposing of dead animals 54% , hub control of internal parasites of 62%, axis control of external parasites ( Dipping ) 52 %, disinfection and sterilization axis 62%. It was found a correlation significant at the level of 0.05 between the cognitive level of respondents and each of the independent variables (age, experience) and the relationship of non- correlation between the level of knowledge and all of the independent variables ( achievement , participation in training courses related to the care of veterinary sheep ) So researcher recommends that the role of agricultural extension should be activated this role in the rural areas , as well as increased support of the Ministry of Agriculture for educators through the provision of animal feed and veterinary medicines and vaccines to support them from losing their flocks because of the drought years that get repeated in the last decade.