ISSN: 1813-0410

Volume 9, Issue 2

Volume 9, Issue 2, Spring 2013, Page 1-330


Balanced structures in Eastern art messages in the eighth century of migration - a study in light stylistic curriculum –

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 97-105

Parallelism is similar or equivalent to buildings or in brief identical meanings of words or phrases based on double technical and linked together and are called then it compared or neutral or balanced , whether in poetry or prose private known prose Almagafi the prose or artwork.
And identification of parallelism in the literary text focus on the structure of the formal and the way drained of meaning, and the adoption of literary language in parallel reverse natural language and out of the way regular communication and through it become the language the finest in terms of shape, sharper and deeper than the point of sense, and better able to create a poetic expression.
Hence the parallel element takes place in the search, as an element of rhythm in oriental art messages during the eighth century of migration.
The form of parallelism stylistically prominent feature of Eastern messages and split into two main parts :
First:parallelism(Grammar-morphological).
Second:contrastive of parallelism

A Glimpse of the Biography of Muhammad Rashid Rida, the Thinker, Reformer, Interpreter, and Journalist

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 106-114

The biography of Muhammad Rashid Rida is one of the bright aspects in the history of the Arab and Islamic nation because of what this person campaign of ideas in the renaissance of Arabs and Muslims, especially in the social aspects.
The research problem was trying to understand the role of Muhammad Rashid Rida as one of the men of Arab renaissance, which affected the renaissance and its impact, and was part of the cultural landscape of the educated Arab elite.
In addition, the research put seven trips to the Muhammad Ali Pasha , along with his curriculumvitae which laterr eversed hispoliticalide as reached after long years of travel between the Arab and Islamic countries which resulted in the idea of promoting the nation and focus on a stand-alone entity for the Arabs and Muslims.

The Impact of SQ3R Strategy in Developing the Critical Thinking of Literary Fifth Grade Girl Students in History Subject

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 131-151

The present study intends to show the impact of SQ3R strategy in developing the critical thinking of literary fifth grade girl students in history subject .
The researcher chose an experimental design of partial control and randomly took Buratha Secondary School as a research sample which consisted of 60 students : 30 students represented the control group and the same number as the experimental one.
The researcher equalized the two groups in some variables such as age , history marks of the previous grade: 2012-2013 , intelligence level , parent's education and critical prethinking .
It was decided that the study materials represented the first three chapters of Modern and Contemporary European History . This book was chosen by the ministry of education in 2012 – 2013 .
The researcher specified 124 behavioural aims for the three chapters, and prepared a lesson plan for the two groups, some of which were shown to experts specialized in Teaching Methods

and Assessment and Evaluation, Psychology and History.
The researcher prepared the critical thinking test of 45 items .She made sure of its validity by showing it to experts and jury , and of its reliability by applying it on a pilot sample of Jumana Secondary school through the use of Pearson's correlation coefficient .The correlation value was 79.0 after correcting it through the Spearman–Brown formula .
The researcher taught the two samples by herself during the experiment period which continued for ten days . After completing the experiment , the researcher applied the critical thinking test on the two samples .
The study arrived to the following finding ; there is a significant difference at 0.05 for the experimental group which studied SQ3R strategy at the expense of the control group which studied according to the traditional method of developing the critical thinking .
On the light of the finding , the researcher arrived to some conclusions . Applying the SQ3R strategy in teaching History had a positive impact in increasing the students' abilities of critical thinking .It also enhances their motivations ,and concentration to the material because it is one of the modern strategies . The researcher recommends the use of SQ3R strategy in teaching followed by asking questions relevant to the lesson presented which by turn develops the students' high thinking level and deepens their understanding of the subject and critical thinking abilities .
The researcher suggests to conduct a similar study on other subjects and different grades .In addition , another experimental study can be done to investigate the influence of this strategy on another variable such as the creative thinking on History subject .

Theimpact of a training program to develop the Emotional intelligence for children aged 6 years in the city of Karbala 2013

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 153-192

Research is divided in to five chapters, the first one is interested with definition of research in which its importance of theory over the care of intelligence sentiment al for children, as well as finding a training program for its development. Its importance applied cleared through of making contemporary education and policy look for ways to improve that process of thinking in order to achieve healthy growth of the child.
We have two questions here:
1- To what level the city of Karbala children, enjoy with emotional intelligence to understand their emotions , perception and management ?
2- To any level the training program can be developed the emotional intelligence for the children of the city of Karbala ?
From these points the researcher selected 2 aimes: *construction of a training program for thedevelopment of emotional intelligence for children aged 6 years to the city of Karbala.
*Identification on the effectiveness of this program.
And according to these aims, he identified nine zero hypotheses,conducted research in the field of human : Children city of Karbala were selected aged (6) years of male and female, the spatial where: kindergarten eligibility ,and temporal when the period from (8/09/2013 –until- 5/11/2013) ,the research was experimental method for two groups(experimental & regular). The researcher discussed the search terms just like "the impact. program. training program.sentiment alIntelligence"
Chapter 2 explained the theoretical framework and it consisted of : Introduction to the concept of emotional intelligence as the mental ability and an aspect of personality, also was presented theories that interpreted as the theory of psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud and the theory of treatment -centered guided ,as well as studying emotional Intelligence for children aged 6 years.Researcher was assisted by seven recent studies, four of them were foreign and the other were Egyptian.
Chapter 3 represented methodology of the research andfield,s procedures ,it consisted of the experimental method and the research community , which amounted ( 495) boy and girl in the civil kindergartens,the identified samples were from Al-takamul& Al- urjowaankindergartens randomly which contained (126) boy and girl . After the test procedures and equipollence ,researcher selected four groups ( experimental andregular)each group included 5 of children. The research dependedon the Egyptian originatorDr.Aweys‘smeasure of emotional intelligence for children (2006) to measure the researcher capacity adopted by the scale and form of the scale ,scale applications ,scale estimates and psychometric characteristics of the original.
As the researcher presented the need for adoption and amendments made the scale of the cartoon‘s character and dimensions of the capacity approved in scale for the application it , and stages has been achieved of honesty rationale for vocabulary and stories which after conversion to the Iraqi dialect and honesty virtual and construction as well. Shows to the researcher the reliability coefficient way to understand agitation (0.39) and self-awareness (0.76) ,grasp the other (0.65),managing emotions (0.71), the researcher prepared the training program in each of the objectives ,activities ,mechanisms and detailing its meetings, as well as he cleared the dates of the scale application and the program in detail then select logical means and statistical used in the search.
Chapter4 search of the resultsby answering the whole hypotheses are presented and discussed them.
Chapter 5 was the conclusions that the searcher reached which were represented in: children in the age of kindergarten in an urgent need to develop their intelligence emotional ,and male children have more emotional intelligence than females according to the results of the training program and training programs used to model ( Mayer and Salovey 1997) which considered useful for the Iraqi general environment and Alkrplaúah especially,Dr. Oweismeasureemotional Intelligence for Children rated the Iraqi environment a useful tool in the measurement and diagnosis ,It was recommended in :Use scale ( emotional Intelligence for Children by Dr. Oweis) rated the Iraqi environment by the researcher ,and giving attention to developemotional intelligence of the female children , used Mayer and Saloveymodel, 1997 as a good measure,and suggested a number of proposals accordingly.
The Search depended ( 41 ) sources distributed in to(28) Arabian, and (14) foreign ,the search also included (14) attached to and detail

Condolences in English

Emad Muhammed; Shaimaa

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1-10

The main function of language is as communication medium . Language allows people to say things to each other and to express their communicative needs .In the interaction setting , people make use of language variation .This interaction causes them to use certain utterances which are used for specific goals or purposes . A condolence utterance is one of these utterances. Condolences are one of the communicative speech acts. They are expressions which are designed to convey one's sympathy on the occasion of someone's death . Losing someone close is a very painful experience. One can never really underestimate the power that words hold. In times of grief, especially, they provide utmost comfort. It is always comforting for the bereaved to hear kind words from his relatives or friends. So , condolences are very important.
The present study is an attempt to make a linguistic presentation to the concept of condolences in English . This study aims at describing condolences from a semantic and a pragmatic point of view. Moreover, this study is intended to show the grammatical structures of condolences.
The first part of this study is devoted to the theoretical framework of condolences. It involves six sections . Section one deals with the concept of condolences. Section two shows the categories of condolences. Section three tackles the description of condolences from a semantic point of view while section four tackles it from a pragmatic point of view . Section five explains how condolences can be explicit whereas section six shows how they can be implicit. The second part of the study provides the practical analysis of condolences in certain messages sent to offer condolences about the death of different people. Finally, the conclusion sums up the results of the study.

Clinical Use of Estradiol benzoate to Inhibit the Aggressive Behavior in Closed Breeder Calves

Gassan Hamdan Jameel; Mohammed Saad Al-Muslehi; Omer Jasim Katwan; Abdul-Wahab Abdul-Razaq Ijbara

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1-6

A present study was carried out to investigate the effects of Estradiol benzoate on aggressive behavior in male calves through studying the testosterone and estrogen hormones. Twenty calves were randomly divided into two groups (ten in each group) and treated as follows: calves in the first group considered as control without treated, whereas the calves in the 2nd group were injected Estradiol benzoate (0.03 mg/Kg) subcutaneously on the first day of experiment and termed as estradiol treated group, blood samples were collected on day 14 and day 28 of the experiment for measuring the hormones. Results revealed a significant increase (P≤0.05) in testosterone hormone of estradiol treated group as compared with the control group at day 14, whereas testosterone significantly decreased (P≤0.05) in of estradiol treated group when compared with the control at day 28. Furthermore, within group there was a significant (P≤0.05) decrease in testosterone at day 28 as compared with day 14. Moreover, estrogen hormone significantly increased (P≤0.05) in the estradiol treated group at all periods of experiment when compared with the control group. On conclusion it seems likely that subcutaneous injection of calves with (0.03mg/Kg) of Estradiol benzoate caused obvious decrease of testosterone and consequently inhibition of aggression in calves.

Dynamic least significant bit technique for video steganography

Wafaa hasan alwan

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 7-16

Video Steganography deals with hiding secret data or information within a video. In this paper, a modified or dynamic based least significant bit (LSB) technique has been proposed to hide movie in movie. A dynamic LSB is a spatial domain technique where the secret information such as images, or video is embedded in the LSB of the cover movie (i.e frames) by selecting number of bits to be embedded. The idea of the proposed method is take away the least significant pixels from one image (frame) which is in cover movie and uses them to store most significant pixels of second image (frame) which is in hidden movie. The hidden image’s (frame’s) values are stored in the result frame’s least significant bits so they don’t add greatly to the resulting combined video(movie). The proposed method is analyzed in terms of both Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) compared to the original cover video with stegano video as well as the Mean Square Error (MSE) measured between the original and steganographic files averaged over all video frames.

Effect of Position and Inclination Angle of Cutoff Wall on Seepage Control in the Foundation of Dam Structure

Imad Habeeb Obead

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 17-32

The present work presents finite element model which formulated to analyze the two- dimensional steady state seepage of water through the foundation of dam structure in the presence of inclined cutoff as seepage control device. A computer program using FORTRAN 90 language developed to determine the pressure head at nodal points, the exit gradients and the seepage discharge behind inclined cutoff walls. The results were presented by performing a parametric study for various design parameter. In this work the inclination angle()of cutoff changed (from =30 to =150), with inclined cutoff located upstream , mid distance, and downstream parts along the floor length of the dam structure respectively. The applicability of the model were examined with relevant existing approximations from literature, results demonstrate that installing cutoff in upstream part of dam structure with =60consistent with analytical solution(AE=5.11 %), while installing cutoff in mid distance of dam length agree well (AE=2.03%, for =105), the case of cutoff installed in the downstream part of dam structure strongly convenient(AE=0.2% for =30). The average value for coefficient of determination R2 for above the range of inclination angles which corresponding the various positions of cutoff wall was (0.9918,0.9713 and 0.9949) respectively, which indicates good agreement with previous studies and many of the factors studied.

Effect of dietary supplementation of crushed seed of Celery (Apium graveolens) on Blood traits & Some Immunological parameters of broiler roosters (Hubbard flex).

Sura Safi Obeais AL-Kafajii

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 33-39

Targeted research study the effect of adding crushed seed of Celery (Apium graveolens) on blood traits & some immunological parameters of broiler roosters (Hubbard flex). Thirty roosters, Twenty-sex weeks age, were randomly divided into three equal groups. First group (control) fed on the standard provender along the experimental period (7 weeks), second & third groups (T1& T2) fed on standard provender supplemented with 2.5 & 5 kg/ton, respectively. At the end of experiment, blood samples were obtained from wing vein for estimation of white blood cells counts, differential leukocytes counts, phagocytic activity for neutrophils and monocytes. Total protein, globulin, Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) enzymes, IgG, IgA & IgM concentrations in blood serum were calculated. The result showed that crushed seed of Celery (Apium graveolens) supplementation in the two treated groups caused a significant increase (P<0.05) in white blood cells counts, Lymphocytes, Monocytes & Phagocytic activity when compared with control group. At the same time, the result of total protein & globulin showed a significant increase (P<0.05) in two treated groups compared with control. The result of (AST, ALT &ALP) enzymes showed a significant decrease (P<0.05) in two treated groups compared with control. At the same time, the result of IgG & IgA concentrations showed a significant increase (P<0.05) in the both T1 and T2 groups compared with control.

study the optimum conditions of synthesis AgNP by chemical reduction method

Bahaa T.Chiad; Natheera.A.Ali; Zainab.S. Sadik; Sarmed. S.AL-Awadi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 40-46

In this paper, silver nanoparticles had been prepared by chemical reduction method. Many tests had been done to it such as UV-Visible spectrophotometer, XRD, AFM&SEM test. finally an attempt had been done to get the optimum condition to control the grain size of silver Nanoparticles by variation the heating period and other parameters which has an effect in silver Nanoparticles synthesis process. in this method we can get a silver nanoparticles in the size range from 52 to 97 nm.

The quantum mechanical study of some of nitrone compounds Using density function theory(DFT , B3LYP/6-31G)

Jaafar .H.Ali; Neda. A . Jassim

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 47-64

The study involves the application of quantum mechanical calculations using density function theory (DFT) with B3LYP/6-31G on a number of nitrone compounds that containing substitutes (OCH3 , CH 3, NO2 , OH , Br , Cl) for the purpose of calculation the equilibrium geometries, energies of HOMO , LUMO orbital , ionization energies , electronic densities , the vibrational modes .
The effect of substitutes on stability of each studied molecule is investigated . The standard thermodynamic functions ( U0 , H0 , S0 ,G0 ,A0 ) and Ultraviolet spectra for all substituted nitrone molecules were also investigated.These compounds are compared with the nonsubstituted nitrone compound .

QUANTUM CHEMICAL STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF ALKYL GROUPS AND THEIR POSTION IN THIOPHENE FUSED RINGS ON GEOMETRY AND SOME PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

H. Ali; Jaafar; Manal. A. Mohammad

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 56-90

The quantum mechanical calculations method by using the PM3 method were carried out for 28 compounds of thiophene fused ring containing from one to seven rings including Alkyl- groups[- CH3 , -C10H21] in addition to the unsubstituted group for four position of ring.
This study includes the equilibrium geometries[Bonds length and the bond Angles] and some of physical properties[ total energy, dipole moments , energies of HOMO and LUMO and the difference between them, ionization energy ,charges and the electron densities and finally the standard thermodynamics functions [U0,H0,S0,G0,A0]for all molecules . These compounds are compared with 28 the corresponding hydrocarbon compound.

QUANTUM CHEMICAL STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF ALKYL GROUPS AND THEIR POSTION IN THIOPHENE FUSED RINGS ON GEOMETRY AND SOME PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

H. Ali; Jaafar; Manal. A. Mohammad

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 65-90

The quantum mechanical calculations method by using the PM3 method were carried out for 28 compounds of thiophene fused ring containing from one to seven rings including Alkyl- groups[- CH3 , -C10H21] in addition to the unsubstituted group for four position of ring.
This study includes the equilibrium geometries[Bonds length and the bond Angles] and some of physical properties[ total energy, dipole moments , energies of HOMO and LUMO and the difference between them, ionization energy ,charges and the electron densities and finally the standard thermodynamics functions [U0,H0,S0,G0,A0]for all molecules . These compounds are compared with 28 the corresponding hydrocarbon compound

Compute Fermi hole and theExpectation values for Li-atom Using DZ, SZ, Muilt-ZateData

Entessar Farhan Selman

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 91-98

In this paperthe partitioning method has been used for the atomic system consist of three-electrons (Li-atom), Hartree-Fock energy for Li-atom have been calculated using the Hartree-Fock wave functions of Clementi and Rotti by a single orbital "Single Zate" and "Double Zate", also it calculated using Hatree-Fock wave functions for Mulit-Zate by Sarsa et al, these wave functions were found to give rather inaccurate values to DZ for Clementi and Rotti, but indicating some " exact" total Hartree-Fock energy as a functions of the Single-Zate and 7-term. The expectation values of 〈r_1^k 〉, 〈r_12^k 〉 ,Δr1, Δr12, D(r1),f(r12),〈V_ee 〉, 〈V_en 〉, 〈V〉, 〈E〉 and Fermi hole considered by DZ, SZ, muilt-Zate. The differences between intra-and inter-shell correlation estimation using the different wave functions is made

Study the Effect of Carbonated Beverages On Dental Fillings

Dhifaf Mohammed Al-Obaidi; Aliaa Sa; doon Al- Farajy; Fatin Fadheel Saffu

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 99-103

The objective of the current study was to investigate the release of Ag and Hg ions from filing. Four commercial fillings were used in the experiments, all fillings samples, disc with diameters of 10 mm and thickness 3mm were used, made by the manufacturer.
Four samples of carbonated beverages (Pepsi, Seven – up, Merinda, and Sinalco) were used for each tested filling and tasted with times.
The ion release from above tasted filling in the above mentioned carbonated beverages was measured over 4 time intervals, i.e. after 0, 1 , 24 hours and 7 days respectively.
Carbonated beverages were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results show that Ag and Hg filling released great amounts of Ag and Hg ions in all four carbonated beverages so that on the very first time of measurement these amounts exceeded the approved daily dietary intake of this elements. Gradually, the amount of the released Ag and Hg ions increased with great variability in all carbonated beverages.

A Comparison for Some of the Estimators of Rayleigh Distribution with Simulation

Yahya Mahdi Al Mayali; Shaibani; IrtifaaAbulKadhumAl

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 104-112

In this paper , we use some statistical estimation methods to estimate the an unknown parameter of Rayleigh distribution to Know which is the best (the method that has less error).Bytaking maximum likelihood estimation , Bayes estimation , shrinkage estimation , and Bayesian shrinkage estimation . After then we applied the results in simulation study to compare these results , and obtain which method is the best .

Compactly ω-closed set and compactly ω-k-closed set

Habeeb Kareem Abdullah; Zainab Mhudy Hamza

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 113-118

In this paper ,we introduce definition of compactly ω-closed set and obtain some fundamental properties for this concept . Moreover, we also study the definition of compactly ω-k-closed set and prove some results which are relate to this subject . Also ,we give the relation between these concepts .

Evaluation of Liver function in sera of patients with Epilepsy

Sura Ahmed Al-Emami; Dalia Mohammed Redaa; Haider Ridha Mohammed Saeed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 119-125

Background: patients with epilepsy on antiepileptic drug therapy deserve special consideration for the adverse effect on hepatic functions. Aim:the present study aims to evaluate the hepatotoxicity by drugs of patients with epilepsy through determination of liver function tests such as total protein, albumin, bilirubin, cholesterol, and liver enzymes (alkaline phosphatase, and amino transferases). Subjects: twenty four patients with epilepsy were studied and compared with twenty six healthy individuals. Results: significant elevation of liver enzymes activity{(ALP (p˂0.001), SGPT(p˂0.01),SGOT(p˂0.001)}, protein(p˂0.01) , albumin (p˂0.01), bilirubin(p˂0.001) and cholesterol(p˂0.05) concentrations were observed in the sera of patients with epilepsy in comparison with that of the control group. Also a significant positive correlation between the specific activity of alkaline phosphatase and albumin concentration was found in the present study in the sera of patients with epilepsy.

EVALUTION OF INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE IN PLAQUE PSORIASIS

Fadhil A. Al-Zeeady; Muhsin A. Al-Dhalimi; Mahdi M. AL-Sahlawee

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 126-134

Background: To evalute the state of some biochemical markers in sera of plaque psoriatic patients .
Aim : The aim of this study is to investigate the levels of inflammatory
markers(leptin,adiponectin,CRP,TNF-alpha,IL-6 and IL-10) in plaque psoriatic and control groups and their relationship with the clinical severity of psoriasis.
Patients and Methods:The study was conducted on sixty patients with plaque psoriasis and thirty apparently healthy individuals were taken as control group.The sera obtained from the blood were used to determine the level of leptin,adiponectin, TNF-alpha, IL-6,IL-10 and CRP concentrations in both groups by enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) method. Also determine the Correlation of the inflammatory markers with The Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) was determined.
Results and Discussion: The results of the present study showed a significant increase(P> 0.05) in leptin, TNF-alpha, IL-6 and CRP concentration, and a significant decrease (P> 0.05) in adiponectin and IL-10 in sera of plaque psoriasis group compared with those of the control group.Also,the results of linear regression analysis showed a significant positive correlation of leptin(r = 0.81, p<0.05),TNF-alpha (r=0.74, p<0.05), IL-6 (r = 0.75, p < 0.05 ) and CRP (r = 0.79, p < 0.05) . Also ,show a significant decrease in correlation of adiponectin (r= - 0.43, p<0.05) and IL-10 (r= -0.74, p<0.05) with the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI).
Conclusion: There is a significant increase in levels of inflammation markers and significant decrease in markers of anti-inflammation in plaque psoriasis as compared to non psoriatic control group.Also ,we correlated them with the clinical severity of psoriasis.

Investigation on Performance development of the Second harmonic generation(SHG) with LiNbO3 application

Luma Hafedh Abed Oneiza; R.Sh.Alnayli; Adnan Falh Hassan

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 135-144

Investigation to approach the ideal conditions to optimized the performance of the single pure crystal LiNbO3 which has dimension (7.5×7.5 ×10) mm 3 as proposal element model for the Second Harmonics Generation (SHG) with semiconductor laser in the spectral wave length around 1.064 μm have been the main goals for this paper . The dependences' of depth efficiency conversion, under the best condition of the matching for this sample crystal are theoretically analytically treatments and evaluated .The comparison are strongly agreed with the more earlier researchers calculations [1[,[2] but slightly different with some researcher measurements which were owing to experiment errors .The main results are very satisfied to applied this proposal model as optimum controlling element for SHG at 1.064 µm

Effect of Ageing Time on Adhesive Wear of AL Alloy AA6061-T6

Malik Niama Hawas

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 145-152

In this study the effect of artificial aging time on adhesive wear of AA(6061-T6) aluminum alloy was investigated for the specimens groups (A , B , C and D)which manufactured in the dimensions of ( 20*10)mm according to ASTM, heat treatment was implemented to specimens groups( B , C and D) which include solution zing at temperature of 5000 C for (1 hour) then quenching in water and artificial aging for (1,3,5 ,hr.) at 1800C The resulting phases after each heat treatment was tested by x –ray diffraction and microstructure was also examined to understand the nature of structure then hardness test was implemented
Adhesive wear test have been conducted on aluminum alloy AA 6061 T6 at variable (time ,loads, and sliding speed ) using pin on disc method. The results showed that increasing of aging time increases hardness then decreasing wear rate.

Determination of ciprofloxacin -HCl in pharmaceutical formulations by continuous flow injection analysis via turbidimetric (T180o) and scattered light effect at two opposite position (2N90o ) using Ayah 4SW-3D-T180 -2N90 -Solar - CFI Analyser

Nagam S. Turkey; Ahmed F. Khudhair

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 153-169

A simple and highly sensitive method for the determination of ciprofloxacin in pure and pharmaceutical preparation were developed by coupling the continuous flow injection analysis via turbidimetric (T180o) and scattered light effect at two opposite position (2N90o). Where it is based upon the formation of a yellowish –white precipitate for ion pair compound by using potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) in aqueous medium. The precipitate is measured via the attenuation of incident light and it’s scattering in two opposite directions. Chemical and physical parameters were studied. The linearity of ciprofloxacin is ranged from 1 to 20 mmol.L-1, with correlation coefficient r=0.9927, limit of detection (LOD) 0.55 mmol.L-1(3SB)(S/N=3) for n=15 and the relative standard deviation for 4 mmol.L-1 ciprofloxacin solution is lower than 2% (n=6). Three pharmaceutical drugs were used as an application for the determination of ciprofloxacin. A comparisons were made between the newly developed method of analysis with the official method ( uv-vis-spectrophotometry ) of analysis using the standard addition method. It shows that there was no significant difference via the use of t- test at α=0.05(95% confidence) between the two methods. Therefore the newly developed method can be used of as an alternative method for the analysis of ciprofloxacin.

Extending Public Switched Telephone Networks Billing Services Using VoIP Applications

Saif Ali Abed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 170-179

Public switched telephone networks (PSTN) has been used for decades to provide the telephony service but more and more subscribers are migrating to the modern mobile networks and the Internet. Subscribers are abounding PSTN, use it as a secondary communication option or a media to access the internet, though, legacy PSTN are expected to continue for many years before the complete extinction or total transformation to a pure broadband internet. PSTN operators are under continues pressure to provide new services and billing options rapidly and at low development costs and a possible solution is introduced here. This paper introduces Asterisk, the voice over internet protocol (VoIP) server, and the Personal Home Page(PHP) programing language as a billing service platform to be used in PSTN or any telephony system that can provide the database level access to PHP. The proposed design defines a way to interact with the PSTN database directly using the Asterisk VoIP server as call processor triggers a PHP program to perform the required calculations or transactions for every call.
A system design and call flow diagrams has been presented thenimplemented using Asterisk , MySQL Database management system and PHP among other open source tools. Multiple performance tests have been carried out to highlight the performance bottlenecks and the applicability of the system as well.

Assessment of Criteria Importance for Sustainable Buildings

Angham E. Al-Saffar; Hussein Ali Mohammed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 180-203

This research aims to highlight and demonstrate the role of sustainability and its criteria in the construction sector, and determine the weights of these criteria in the Iraqi construction environment. For the purpose of achieving the objective of this research, data have been collected from the literature and references that deal with the issue of sustainability, personal interviews with specialists, as well as the field questionnaire, and finally the use of analytical hierarchal process (AHP) software to assess the sustainability criteria for green buildings.
The results of the data analysis of the sample questionnaire show that the highest importance (priority) is given to the criterion of resourceful energy, and less importance is given to the criterion of construction duration; the remaining percentages are distributed to the other criteria.

Synthesis and Characterization of the Complexes of Some 2-methyl-4-iso propylidene oxazol-5-one. Transition Metals with

ShethaF.Al-Zobaydiy; AsmaaK.Ayal; Shaimaa R. Bakir; sanaa H. Salh

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 204-214

Complexes of Cr(III),Mn(II),Fe(III), Co(II) and Cu(II)) with 2-methyl-4-aceto-5-oxazolone have been synthesized and characterized by Metal content, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility, and FT- IR ,Uv-vis spectroscopic techniques . the complexes of Mn(II) and Co(II) exhibit the composition[ M L2 X2], where some complexes exhibit the composition [ M L2(H2O)2 X2] M =Cr(III), Fe(III) and Cu (II) , L =2-methyl-4-aceto-5-oxazolone and X=C1. The metal coordinate with nitrogen atom C=N group of the ligand. The N donor ligand acts as a monodentate ligand in all complexes. The spectral analysis indicate tetrahedral geometry for Mn(II),Co(II), complexes while octahedral geometry for the Cr(III), Fe(III) and Cu (II) complexes. The Structure geometries of these compounds were also suggested in gas phase by using theoretical treatment , using Hyper chem.-6 program through the molecular mechanics and semi-empirical calculations .The heat of formation(∆Hfo) and binding energy(∆Eb) for the free ligands and its metal complexes were calculated by PM3 method.

Secondary shielding for the control booth of the fluoroscopy room at AL –Hussaine teaching hospital of kerbala city,Iraq.

Header S.Jaafer; Abdullah A.Rasheed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 215-222

X-ray rooms should be designed to provide flexibleand efficient working areas for different typesof imaging procedure. The adequacy of shielding depends on the material and thickness used for this purpose.This work therefore studies the secondary shieldingfor the control booth of the fluoroscopy room. By considering the fluoroscopy room design and the radiographic devices profiles used , the clinical total workload per week and total workload per patient have been computed and its distribution according to the most widely used voltages has been determined by recording the actual clinical technical values of maximum ,average and minimum mAs and the corresponding values of kilovolt peak for 113patients over threemonths. As a diagnostic x-ray radiation shielding reference, the National Council on Radiation Protectionand Measurements report No.147 (NCRP report No.147) and XRAYBARR computer program have been used to compute the secondarybarrier thicknesses of the control boothof the fluoroscopy room forlead and glass. It is found that the total workload per week of NCRP report No.147 is about 4.5 times that of calculated for average state and about 7 times that of calculated workload for busy state. The shielding status of control both was quite sufficient ,and about 1 mm of lead was used to shield the front wall and lead glass was used in the shielding of observation window.

Study of blood parameter in women infected with Trichomonas vaginalis parasite

Basima Sh. Al Gazali; Maysoon K. A .Al-Hadraawy; Haqi A .A .Al-fatlway

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 223-227

The study was conducted on 450 out patients and 30 healthy women, whom have visited the department of infertility at Al-Sadder medical city, Al-Zahra Hospital in Najaf Province during the period from January till August, 2012. The infection with T.vaginalis in clinical suspected women determined by using the wet amount microscope,ratio and infected women numbers by wet mount microscope were 49 and 10.88% respectively.
The results showed significant decrease (P<0.05) in RBCs count,level of Hb, PCV, MCV, and MCHC inT.vaginalis infection patients in comparison to healthy control group.

Bacterial contamination of mobile phones,study in Babylon hospitals

Hayder Hamzah. Altaee; Shaimaa O. Hasson; Shrooq F. Hassan

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 228-234

this study was done by collecting (120) samples by using sterile swabs with sterile distal water were passed on the hand set and the buttons of mobile phones in Babylon maternity and children and al-hashemia hospitals in March 2011, the inoculated in nutrient, blood agar and EMB agar. growth was observed in (21) samples corresponding to (17.5%). The most frequent bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus in 10 (47.6%) followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis in 4(19%), Streptococcus pyogenes in 2(9.5%) and Micrococcus spp. and Bacillus subtilius in 1(4.7%) to each one and gram negative bacteria which represented by E.coli in 3(14.2%). the mobile phone consider as pathogenic bacterial agent of disease transmitter. The most effected antimicrobial on all bacterial isolates growth were Novobiocin and Cephalexin with complete resistant of S. aureus to oxacillin.

Effect of Different Levels of Plants (Thymus vulgaris and Ziziphus spina_christi) on Semen Diluents for Awassi Ram.

Fakhir Magtoof Al-Zubaidy; Amal Faisal Lafta Al-Abedy; Hayder Mohammed Hassan Al-Malaly

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 235-238

Male infertility presents a particularly vexing clinical problem. Clinically infertility can be defined as the inability of a couple trying to conceive to do so within one year. Medicinal plants are increasingly recognized worldwide as an alternative source of efficacious and inexpensive medications to synthetic chemo-therapeutic compound. Various medicinal plant extracts have been tested for their activity both in male and female animal models. This work was performed to evaluate the effects of hot water extracts of two plants (Thymus vulgaris and Ziziphus spina_christi on Awassi ram sperm activity. Three different concentrations of the two plants were used (0.001, 0.05, and 0.5 mg), and the activity of the sperm were evaluated at the time: 0, 24, 48, 72 hours of experiment. Results showed a significant decrease in sperm activity associated with the treatment by the concentrations 0.005 and 0.01 mg of Ziziphus, and 0.01 mg of Thymus vulgaris. Effect of time also showed a significant decrease in sperm activity with the progression of time. The 0.001of Thymus vulgaris is the only concentration that showed a significant increase in sperm activity.

Shadow Detection and Removal in Video Sequence using Color-Based Method

yahoo.com; Zainab M. Hussain zainab; hussain; Ali Ataeemah Jebur

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 239-257

Moving shadow elimination is an important step in many applications of computer vision such as tracking, surveillance system, traffic monitoring etc. In this paper, a new method which combining two color spaces (HSV and YCbCr) with background modelling will be proposed to detect and remove cast shadow .The proposed shadow detection and removal method is implemented in indoor and outdoor with humans, vehicles, and motorcycles moving objects in different times and environments including various weather and lighting conditions, such as periods of sun, sunset, rainy, noisy ,and darkness and different light sources. The results shows that the proposed system gives a high performance measures as compared with another shadow detection methods and its able to cope with different environments

Chemical and biological evaluation of water well as effected by some heavy metals at Al- Taji North of Baghdad City –Iraq

Nadia K. Bashar Al- Quraeshi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 258-264

This investigation was conducted to study chemical and biological properties
(Al , Zn, NO3, K, , Ag , Cr and Cd ppm C% , PH , Salt g/l and the biological properties such as COD and BOD) ppm of water 8 water well during winter and summer seasons , 2012 at Al- Taji North of Baghdad City –Iraq.
The result indicated that the Chemical and biological properties of water at 8 water wells values of July , 2012 were higher ( more polluted ) than the values of January 2012. The salt had a significant different relation at 0.05 level with PH ( r = -0.655 ) , C% ( r = 0.649 ), Al( r = 0.592 ) , COD( r = 0.721 ) and BOD( r = 0.728 ) between the above properties in January,and July well water of 2012.
It was noted that the surrounding environment and climate affected water quality.
Key words water well , contamination , biological properties Baghdad city- Iraq.

SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME (7-HYDROXY-4-METHYL-2H-CHROMEN-2-ONE) DERIVATIVES

Suad J. Lafta; Suzanne J. Abass

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 265-276

The titled compound C1 (Coumarin) was prepared through the thermal cyclization of resorcinol and ethylacetoacetate in presence of sulfuric acid. Compound C1 (Coumarin) was treated with acetic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to obtain acetate group in the yielding compound (compound C2). Compound C2 was brominated to obtain compound C3 which treated with 2-aminobenzothiazole in ethanol to obtain compound C4.Compound C1 was treated with POCl3 to replace OH group by Cl atom and obtain compound C5 which was treated with 2-aminobenzothiazole in a nucleophilic aromatic substitution to obtain compound C6. Compound C1 was treated with thiosemicarbazide in ethanol to obtain compound C7 which was treated with aqueous NaOH to obtain triazole derivative (compound C8). The later compound was treated with 2-aminobenzothiazole to obtain compound C9 . Compound C1 was treated with 2-aminobenzothiazole in ratio 2:1 in presence of anhydrous ZnCl2 in ethanol to obtain compound C10 .

Saltiness effect on the ability of conocarpus charcoal for adsorption of some ketonic compounds from their aqueous solution.

Kisma H. Alniami; Noori Y. Salman; HussanA. Juda

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 277-286

In this study a UV visible spectrophotometric technique was applied to study the adsorption isotherms of acetophenone, 2-aminoactophenone, 3-amino acetophenone, 4-aminoacetophenone, 4-chloro acetophenone, 4-methy acetophenone , 2-hydroxyl acetophenone, and 4-hydroxy acetophenone in aqueous solutions using conocarpus charcoal as selective adsorbent. The efficiency degree of the adsorption on the conocarpus charcoal in the natural form was investigated.The salting effect on the adsorbed amount of acetophenone and their derivativecompoundswas also investigated.The adsorption isotherms of the acetophenone and their derivative compounds in this study are marked by similar to S model according to Gills classification. The adsorption on the surface of charcoal obey Freundlich equation rather than other equations, since the adsorption is physical chemistry.In this study X-ray diffracted spectroscopy XRD technique was also applied to this study.The results shows that the adsorption of acetophenonedervitaves compounds increase as the amount of salt increased

Fabricating and characterizing of ZnO nanostructure solar cells

Wisam J. Aziz

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 287-292

Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film on crystalline silicon (c-Si) substrate has been deposited by RF sputtering method to use it for fabricating a solar cell. Structural properties of ZnO films studied using high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) analysis of the films which show that the films have polycrystalline nature with orientation (002). Small crystallite size of prepared films was calculated using Scherrir formula that indicates our films are within Nano scale. In addition, optical properties have been done via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) which used to describe the surface morphology and Photoluminescence (PL) measurements which revealed that the energy bandgap of prepared films were in the UV emission at 380 nm. Finally, thickness of the films was measured with Filmetric (F-20). Our findings were the fabricated ZnO films are successful in simple and low cost method with high quality and unexpected nanostructure behavior. Good current-voltage behavior with high conversion efficiency of 14.5 % has been obtained.

PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF BROILERS (Ross 308) DIET SUPPLEMENTED WITH THYME, GARLIC AND COMBINATION.

Ali Ridha Abid

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 293-301

This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding Thyme leaves and garlic powder and combination on the productive performance of broilers. A total of 80 day-old (Ross 308) chicks were used in the experiment. Birds were partitioned into four experimental treatments (Trt) of 20 birds in each. Each treatment was composed of 2 replicates with 10 birds in each.The first and second treatments were supplemented with Thyme leaves and Garlic at the rate of 1% respectively. the third treatment was supplemented with combination of Thyme leaves and Garlic at the rate of 1% for each . the fourth treatment as control group which did not receive any thing but basal diet .
The results showed that using these medicinal plants had significant effects on performance . There were high significant(p<0.05)effects among the treatments on live body weight ,weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio over the entire trial. The heavest body weight and body weight gain was observed in the third Treatment and the lightest group was observed in control treatment. The highest amount of feed intake was observed in supplementary treatments but the lowest one was observed in control group . the best feed conversion ratio observed in third treatment which supplemented with combination of Thyme and garlic .In conclusion, supplementation of thyme and garlic as feed additives at levels of 1% in the present study improved productive performance of broiler chicks and we can used as alternative of antibiotics.

DIAGNOSIS OF THYROID NODULES USING FNA

Ali Swailem

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 302-310

BACKGROUND :- Thyroid gland differs from other endocrinal organs in it s heaviness and early working in embryonic period (1).The main reason for intense interest of thyroid research is the outbreak of thyroid cancer after disaster of Chernobel nuclear energy plant leaks in 1986(2). Most common clinical findings in the thyroid gland is different pictures of neck swellings which defined as Any disorders of growth of thyroid cells changes into a swelling in thyroid. Nodule—means knot or knob. Benign nodules can be caused by
1-Adenomas
2-Colloid nodules
3-Cysts
4-Infectious nodules
5-Lymphocytic nodules
6-Hyperplastic nodules.
7-Thyroiditis .
8-Congenital anomalies.
Malignant nodules are classified as
1-Differentiated tumors
a-Papillary adenocarcinoma b-Follicular adenocarcinoma
2-Medullary carcinoma
3-Undifferentiated tumors like : anaplastic
4-Others :- a-Lymphoma b-sarcoma c-squamous cell carcino ma d-Metastatic tumors. (3)
FNAC plays an important role in diagnosis of thyroid nodules.
AIMS OF STUDY:- To test suitability of fine needle aspiration cytology & avoid morbidity and complications of unwise thyroid operative decisions.
PATIENTS MATERIALS& METHODS:- This study was carried out in Al-Hussein Teaching Hospital in Karbala city during the period from 1st January 2011 to 31st December 2012=2years. ( 120 ) patients were included in this study; designed as a prospective study.
RESULTS :-The results studied were compared with pathological and importance of FNAC was tested byfinding of
Sensitivity(83.3%),Specificity(95.3)PositivePredictiveValue=PPV(78.1%) and Negative Predictive Value=NPV(48.6%)Accuracy ratio=95% . Out of 120 patients FNAC showed 98 patients as benign and 22 patients as malignant while pathological examination revealed 96 patients had benign and 24 patients had malignant lesions . FNAC was able to correctly diagnose (94/98) as benign lesions while (4/98) cases of benign lesions appeared to be malignant on pathological examination (False negative) . Out of (24) cases which appeared to be malignant on pathological examination. FNAC confirmed 22 cases while (2/24) benign lesion was misdiagnosed as malignant (False positive).
Conclusions:- This study showed a sensitivity of( 83.3 )%, specificity( 95.3%)and accuracy ratio=95% of FNAC in diagnosis of thyroid cancer in thyroid swelling lesions.

Effect of Carbonated Beverages On Dental Fillings From Release Of Ag & Hg Ions

Dhifaf Mohammed Al-Obaidi; Aliaa Sa; doon Al- Farajy; Fatin Fadheel Saffu

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 311-315

The objective of the current study was to investigate the release of Ag and Hg ions from filing. Four commercial fillings were used in the experiments, all fillings samples, disc with diameters of 10 mm and thickness 3mm were used, made by the manufacturer.Four samples of carbonated beverages (Pepsi, Seven – up, Merinda, and Sinalco) were used for each tested filling and tasted with times.
The ion release from above tasted filling in the above mentioned carbonated beverages was measured over 4 time intervals, i.e. after 0, 1 , 24 hours and 7 days respectively. Carbonated beverages were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results show that Ag and Hg filling released great amounts of Ag and Hg ions in all four carbonated beverages so that on the very first time of measurement these amounts exceeded the approved daily dietary intake of this elements. Gradually, the amount of the released Ag and Hg ions increased with great variability in all carbonated beverages.

Effect of Carbonated Beverages On Dental Fillings From Release Of Ag & Hg Ions

Dhifaf Mohammed Al-Obaidi; Aliaa Sa; doon Al- Farajy; Fatin Fadheel Saffu

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 311-315

The objective of the current study was to investigate the release of Ag and Hg ions from filing. Four commercial fillings were used in the experiments, all fillings samples, disc with diameters of 10 mm and thickness 3mm were used, made by the manufacturer.Four samples of carbonated beverages (Pepsi, Seven – up, Merinda, and Sinalco) were used for each tested filling and tasted with times.
The ion release from above tasted filling in the above mentioned carbonated beverages was measured over 4 time intervals, i.e. after 0, 1 , 24 hours and 7 days respectively. Carbonated beverages were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results show that Ag and Hg filling released great amounts of Ag and Hg ions in all four carbonated beverages so that on the very first time of measurement these amounts exceeded the approved daily dietary intake of this elements. Gradually, the amount of the released Ag and Hg ions increased with great variability in all carbonated beverages.

Toxicity from plastic drinking bottles, review study

Abdulwadood Mahmood

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 316-320

Bisphenol-A (BPA), is a chemical used for the production of industrial epoxies, polycarbonate plastics, fungicides, flame-retardants, antioxidants, and other products. First synthesized in 1891, in
the last few years, concerns about this chemical leaching into our food supply through canned goods and plastic containers have increased as scientists have begun linking BPA to serious health risks.
BPA is used to produce almost all of our disposable drinking bottles from water to soft drinks and juice. They are labeled ‘do not reuse’ as once you open the lid and consume the contents, they begin to break down. If you rinse these bottles out and refill them, BPA will leach into the contents
gradually and over time, as the plastic deteriorates, more BPA will leach into the contents. If you leave a polycarbonate bottle in the car to warm, the levels of BPA that leach into the contents are even higher.
BPA is associated with a number of health problems and diseases that are on the rise in the U.S. population, including breast and prostate cancer and infertility. BPA is a potent hormone disruptor. It can impair the reproductive organs and have adverse effects on breast tissue and prostate development. It is clear that BPA exposure can pose health risks to babies first which they are more vulnerable, and to humans in general, but the important question is, should we be worried enough to change our consumption habits?

Removal of Azo Dye Reactive Black 5 By Adsorption onto ZnO and CaO

Wafaa Naser Mohammed Saeed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 321-330

In this study, the adsorption of reactive black 5 dye was carried out by
using various surfaces, namely ZnO and CaO. The validity of the adsorption was evaluated by using UV Spectrophotometry through the determination the amount of adsorbed dye. Various parameters such as pH, adsorbent weight, initial dye concentration and contact time were studied in terms of their effect on the reaction progress. Furthermore, Lagergren’s equation was used to determine adsorption kinetics. It is observed that high removal of dye was obtained at pH=5. Removal of dye was increased by increasing initial dye concentration and contact time. High removal of dye was at the time equivalent of 70 min and reached equilibrium. Increasing of adsorbent weight leads to decrease dye adsorption where 0.1gm was the best weight. For kinetics the reaction onto CaO followed pseudo-first order Lagergren’s equation while the reaction onto ZnO followed pseudo-second order Lagergren’s equation and the adsorbed amount onto CaO surface was more than that of ZnO surface.

The effect of adding of Iraqi probiotics to the ration in some productive traits of male white Chinese geese

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1-7

The experiment was conducted in the Poultry farm College of Agriculture / Al-Mothanna University for the period from 28th of February 2013 to 15th of March 2013 to study the effect of adding of Iraqi probiotics to the ration in some productive traits of male white Chinese geese. The birds distributed to three treatments and the birds in each treatment (3 birds ) distributed to three replicates. The treatments were as follows : T1 (Control group) without supplementation of locally probiotics , T2 locally probiotics was added 100 gm to 100 kg of deits, T3 locally probiotics was added 200 gm to 100 kg.
Weight birds a week from the first week until the sixth week of the experiment of age as well as the calculated rates of increase weighted weekly feed consumption and efficiency of feed conversion every weekend and also calculated dressing percentage of the birds.
The results of the study indicated that the addition of bio-enhanced feed the Iraqi led to a significant rise (P ≤ 0.05) in the rate of body weight, gain weight increase weekly, feed conversion efficiency, dressing percentage with and without internal organs compared to the control treatment.

The effect of irradiation and the depositing substrate temperature on the optical properties of (CuInSeTe) thin films

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 8-15

In this research; The effect of irradiation by gamma radiation (0.66 MeV) and the substrate temperature on the optical properties such as (reflectance ,absorption coefficient , extinction coefficient ,refractive index , real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant) have been studied. These thin films were deposited by the thermal evaporation under vacuum technique on the glass substrates heated at different substrate temperature (Ts=Room Temperature,100 oC,150oC).The study showed that; changing substrate temperature and irradiation process were caused change the optical properties for the prepared thin films.

Extraction and partial Purification of Proanthocyanidins from Grape (Vitis vinifera ) and Date (Phoenix dactylifera ) seeds and determination some of their Biological activities

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 33-43

The current study included the extraction of total phenols, tannins and proanthocyanidins from grape (Vitis vinifera) and date (Phoenix dactylifera) seeds using different extraction conditions. The temperatures (25 and 30)Cᵒ were the best degree in extraction of total phenols ,tannins and proanthocyanidins from date and grape seeds, respectively. While extraction time12 hours and shaking speed (50) rpm were the best in extraction the studied compounds from both extracts,except the best extraction of tannins from grape seeds was at 100 rpm ,and 6 hrs were best for extraction tannins and phenols from grape seeds. Acetone was chosed as the best solvent than others which used in the study in extraction total phenols ,tannins and proanthocyanidins from grape and date seeds . Acetone 70% was found to be the best when determined the best concentration of solvent in extraction the studied compounds from both extracts.

Effect of Some Agricultural Media and pH on the Growth of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Oxalic Acid Production.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 44-49

Series of Lab. experiments were conducted in the lab. of higher studies , Biol . Dept. Coll. of Edu.for pure Science , Kerbala'. Univ. Numbers of nutritional media were used represented by Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) , Czapek Dox Agar(CDA), Oat Agar and Sabrouaud Dextrose Agar (SDA). Series of pH values were applied namely 5.0,5.5,6.0,6.5,7.0 and 7.5 .Results revealed that higher growth of the fungi was obtained from PDA and CDA, the best pH value was 7.0 . The highest percentage of oxalic acid was obtained from SDA after 7 days of incubation at 20 ± 20 C with pH 7.

Influence of parity , type of services and some blood biochemical characteristics on productive and reproductive performance of Holstein Friesian cows

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 59-66

The study was conducted at Al-Faihaa station( 50 km north of Babil),the station had a herd of Holstein Friesian cows, and included 200 records of 40 cows ,over period lasted from 2011 till 2012, 80 viewer (2 samples/cow) for every characters from blood parameters belonged to same cow for five months (August to December) 2012 to predicting of number of production and reproduction traits through number of blood parameters after study effect of fixed factors on traits [birth weight (BW), weaning weight (WW) and services per conception (SPC)] .The over all means of BW ,WW 29.17 and 76.63 kg respectively and average of SPC reach to 1.12 service. parity had significant effect on productive traits .The dams after third calving record best BW and WW .Type of services was significant (P<0.05) on BW and surpassed to natural service while WW had no effect by type of services .the results showed was lower SPC on third calving .The type of services had significant effect ( P<0.05) on SPC and trend of the artificial services cows .Regreesion coefficient of BW was positive and highly significant( P<0.01) with level of blood glucose .Regression coefficient of BW and WW were positive and highly significant(P<0.01) With level of blood glucose Regression coefficient of SPC was negative and significant ( P<0.05) with level glucose and FSH hormone and positive and highly significant (P<0.01) with prolactin hormone.

Derivation of numerically method for evaluating tripleintegrals with Continuous Integrands andForm of Error (Correction Terms)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 67-76

The main aim of this search is to derivation numerically method to find the values of the triple integrals, Its integrands continuous in region of the integrals and to find the general form of the errors (correction terms ) We have also introduced one theorem to find the correction errors bounds with respect to the triple integral , we applied the new formula to calculate the triple integral and found this method ( method , it is composition method of applying Romberg accelration method on the obtained values of applying Simpson’s rule on the three dimension , and when the number of subintervals of interval of interior integral equal to the number of subintervals of interval of middle integral and equal to the number of subintervals of exterior integral when is the distances between the coordinates on the - axis , is the distances between the coordinates on the - axis and is the distances between the coordinates on the - axis ) , we can depend on it to calculate the triple integrals and give higher accuracy in the results by few subintervals and time less than the request timethat researchers Dayaa [5] and Eghaar[6] needed to it .

RESPONSE OF TWO CUCUMBER HYBRIDS DIFFERENT TYPES OF FERTILIZERS AND IRTIGATION MAGNETIZED UNDER PROTECTED AFRICULTURE

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 77-88

This research was conducted during season fall 2012 and spring season 2013 in plastic house at the Horticulture College of Agriculture – University of Anbar , study extent response two Hybrids of cucumber (Saif and Ryan) to Different types of fertilizer and magnetized Irrigation. Applied according to split split plot design. The results showed that the hybrid Rayn loudest number leaves The value reached 27.6 lleaf. plant‾¹ and higher leaf areathe value reached 110.8 dcm². plant‾¹ for fall season. Treatment chemical fertilizer significantly the highest number of leaves the value reached 27.1 and 32.3 leaf. plant‾¹ and highes average dry weight of plant was 174.2 and 186.2 gm. plant‾¹ for the spring and fall season respectively the results showed that the magnetic water was superior in yield one plant the value reached4.59 Kg . plant‾¹ for fall season

RESPONSE FIVE INDUSTRIAL VARIATES 0F CORN OF PLANTING DATES ON GRWOTH , YIELD ANDQUALITY.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 89-104

This experiment was conducted during the fall season of 2011 and spring season of 2012 in a field in Sadat AL-Hendia , 25 Km at the East North of Babylon to study the effect ofplantingdates ( 10July , 25July and 10August.) as well as (1March ,10 March, 20March ) in grwoth and yield of five synthetic variates( 5018 , 5012 , Rabea , Bohooth 106 and Maha)of corn.In the fall season of 2011 and spring season 0f 2012 respectivaly in a split plot in RCBD with three replications ,the main plots were the genotypes while planting times represent the sub-plot .Result can be summarized as follow .
There is an obvious significant difference among CVS regarding growth, yield and quality The synthetic varietiesbohooth 106 took longer time from emergence to full bloom and from emergence to physiological maturity for both seasons . Same Cv gave the highest means of plant hight , raw number /ear , seed number / ear , grain yield ( 9.49 and 8.34 ton / ha )and Oil content (8.15 and 8.70%) and for both seasons ,
Planting dates had a significant impact on most characters studied . planting on July 25th took least period from emergence to full bloom grain yield (9.89 tonha) .The date10August gave the highest means of plant high , leave area and oil percent. on the other hand 20 st march gave least days number from emergence to female blooming and from the later date to the physiologicalst maturity march1st gave the highest grain yield (8.07)tonhaand and oil content (7.09%) .

Biological Control of Cowpea Seeds Rot and Damping- off Disease Caused by Rhizoctonia solani

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 105-110

The results of this study showed that the bacteria Bacillus subtilis has high ability against fungus Rhizoctonia solani on (PSA) medium which the rate of inhibition was for mycelium 64.7% after five days of incubation. The results showed that all methods of added various bacteria have had a significant increase in the percentage of cowpeas seed germination existence pathogenic fungus as led seed treatment the bacteria significant increase in the percentage of germination of 85% and was the qualified while achieved soil treatment the bacteria week ago of Agriculture and treatment of the soil before planting directly germination rate of 72.5% and 60% respectively. compared to the pathogenic fungus treatment only and that the percentage of germination was 37.5%.
The results also showed that all the treatments used have achieved a significant reduction in the rate and severity of infection compared to the treatment of pathogenic fungus alone and that the rate and severity of infection of 100% and 70% respectively. As achieved seed treatment bacteria reduction significantly in proportion and severity was 30% and 14.12% respectively has excelled this treatment to treat the soil before a week of agriculture and the treatment of soil before planting directly and that the percentage of infection to 40% and 58% and the severity of infection 17.5% and 30 %, respectively.

Relationship some biochemical and Ionic composition of follicular fluid with ovarian follicular size in local she-camels (Camelus dromedarius)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 123-128

This project was designed to study some metabolites and ionic composition of ovarian follicular fluid and to relate possible changes in composition to follicular size.
Ovaries were collected (120ovary) from 60 adult females camels (5-10 yr. old) slaughtered at slaughterhouse of province of Karbala in breeding season (winter). The ovaries were transported to the laboratory within 2 hours post slaughter. The follicular fluid was aspirated from small follicles (4-9mm) and large follicle (10-20mm).
The follicular fluid was stored at -4 Cº prior to assay. Follicular fluid samples were analyzed for metabolites composition (glucose, total protein and cholesterol), and ionic composition (sodium, calcium and potassium). The results showed that the mean glucose and cholesterol concentration were increased significantly (P<0.05) with increased of follicular size, while the mean total protein concentration decreased significantly with inlargement of follicular size. Likewise, the mean sodium and calcium ions concentration increased significantly with changes of follicular size, while the mean potassium ion concentration decreased significantly with increased of follicular size.

Effect of organic manure type and IBA treatment on rooting cuttings of two olive cultivars (OleaeuropaeaL.)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 129-136

A factorial experiment within Complete Randomized Design with three replicates was conducted during season 2012 inside a plastic house belong to Nunavut Hort. Stat., General Establishment for Hort. and Forestry to study the rooting percentage of two olive cultivars OleaeuropeaL. cuttings ( Bashikah and Ashrasei) as affected by three media, peat moss, peat moss + sand and sand and treated with IBA in three concentrations 0, 2, 4 g.l-1 or powder and their interactions . Least Significant Differences Test (L.S.D)was used at probability level of 0.05. Results were as follows:-
Ashrasei cultivar gave a significant increases in rooted cuttings per cent ( 11.7% ), root numbers (34.2%) and plant height(16.7%), whereasthe cultivars have no effect on root length and total leaf numbers. Cuttings cultivated in poultry manure+ sandgave a significant increases in rooted cuttings per cent ( 12.1% ), root length (13.5%), root number (20.5%), whereas cuttingscultivated in sand only gave significant increases inplant height (15.9%) and total leaf numbers (57.5%). Cuttings treated with 4 g.l-1 IBA gave significant increases in rooted cuttings per cent (83%, root length (49.2%), root number (250%), plant height (101.5%) and total leaf numbers (77%). All the interactions between experiment factors have a significant effect on all studied parameters.

Effect of Lead Acetate in Some Physiological Parameters of Blood and Kidneys in White Male Rat Rattus rattus

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 137-143

أجريت التجربة في البيت الحيواني في كلية التربية / جامعة كربلاء باستخدام 40 ذكراً من الجرذان البالغة التي قسمت عشوائيا لمجموعتين المجموعة الفرعية الأولى جرعت فموياً لمدة 35 يوم والمجموعة الفرعية الثانية جرعت لمدة 70 يوم ضمت كل مجموعة 20 جرذ قسمت كل منها إلى أربع مجاميع فرعية(خمسة حيوانات لكل مجموعة) إذ جرعت المجموعة الفرعية الأولى فمويا 1 مل من المحلول الفسيولوجي وعدت كمجموعة سيطرةC) )لمدة 35أو70يوم, وجرعت بقية المجاميع فموياً بخلات الرصاص المجموعة الفرعية T1) ) بـ8ملغم/كغم من وزن الجسم لمدة 35أو70يوم ,بينما جرعت المجموعة الفرعية( T2)بـ16ملغم/كغم من وزن الجسم لمدة 35أو70 يوم .وجرعت المجموعة الفرعية (T3)بـ 24ملغم /كغم من وزن الجسم لمدة 35أو70يوم . تضمنت الدراسة تأثير خلات الرصاص على بعض معايير الدم ومستوى السكر في المصل وأداء الكلية لوظائفها. أظهرت نتائج الدراسة الحالية ان معاملة ذكور الجرذان بخلات الرصاص سبب انخفاض معنوي (P˂0.05) في عدد كريات الدم الحمر ومستوى الهيموغلوبين وقيمة الهيماتوكريت و متوسط الهيموكلوبين الخلوي Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin و معــــــدل حجم كرية الدم الحمراء Mean Corpuscular Volume و التَّرْكيزُ الوَسَطِيُّ لهِيمُوغْلوبينِ الكُرَيَّة Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration ومستوى السكر في المصل وعلى العكس حصل ارتفاع معنوي (P˂0.05) في مستوى اليوريا وحامض اليوريك في المصل .ان المعاملة بخلات الرصاص ذات تأثير سمي يسبب اضطراب المؤشرات الدموية و اضطراب في مؤشرات أيض الكلوكوز واختلال في عمل الكلية.

solving some kinds of linear partical differential equations of second order with variable coefficients which have three independent variables

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 144-155

الهدف الرئيسي من هذا البحث هو إيجاد حل بعض أنواع المعادلات التفاضلية الجزئية الخطية من الرتبة الثانية ذات المعاملات المتغيرة والمتضمنة ثلاث متغيرات مستقلة والتي صيغتها العامة هي :

Effect of plasticizer on some of materials and characteristics of concrete

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 156-166

Using of plasticizer as added to mixing materials of concrete has affect on proportion of this materials and fresh ,harden properties of it . Research is show that effect through study behavior three mixing with cement content (380,300,210) kg/m3with three plasticizer percents (1,2,3 ) % by weight of cement for each of mix . Then results show that increasing slump in fresh mixture with 18% percent, and increasing with tensile , compressive strength and density with ( 34.93 , 58.82 , 3.5 ) % respectively, and absorption decrease with 30.1% for 380 kg/m3 cement content and 3% plasticizer at 28 days with respect to reference mixture . The research indicates that we can reduce the quantity of influential materials in mixture, such as w/c ratio 20% with using 3% plasticizer . for three different cement content given very expensive properties fresh and harden concrete . In comparison with reference mixture without plasticizer and decrease in cement content 21% with 1% plasticizer given a same properties which is given from without plasticizer with 380 kg/m3 cement content .

Study of the effect of Fusarium dimerum on fruits of date palm ( Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit drop of sayer cultivar and the effect of chemical fungicide and propolis on the infection

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 167-177

An experiment was conducted at Shatt Al-Arab region – Basrah province during the growing season of (2011) . Fusarium dimerum was isolated and identified as a pathogenic cause of date palm fruit dropping disease , it was the first record . Results of pathogencity test showed that, the fungus caused a disease in percent of (74.67%) on the strand compared with (15.55%) for the healthy strand. Results also explained that the optimal temperature of growth was( 25 ºC) followed by (30 ºC) , the radial growth were (90 and 88.34 mm). respectively.The study revealed the capability of the fungus for producing cellulose , the enzyme activity zone was( 5.5mm) .The study of infected and non infected tissues elucidate the incidence of the fungus of F. dimerum in infect strand tissue and cause a cell wall degradation compared to healthy tissues. The dropping fruit percentage was affected by F.dimerum , it was( 52.5 and 78.6%) compared to control treatment which was ( 9.2%) . It was also found that the fungicide benlate inhibited the raided growth of the fungus in a percent of ( 91.11 %) , whereas propolis when used as alcoholic extract in concentration of 30% reduced the full growth of the pathogenic fungus .

NumericallyTripleDimension Method For Evaluation Values of Triple Integralsof ContinuousIntegrands( )

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 178-187

The main aim of this search is to derivation numerically new rule to find the values of the triple integrals, Its integrands continuous in region of the integration and derivation the errors (correction terms ) and to improve the results of the triple integrals we used Romberg accelerating method by depending on these correction terms that we found, this method (composition method of applying Romberg acceleration method on the obtained values of applying Mid-point rule on the dimensionzand Trapezoidal Rule on the dimensionyand Simpson’sruleon the dimensionx, when the number of subintervals of interval of interior dimension equal to the number of subintervals of interval of middle dimension and equal to the number of subintervals of exterior dimension) such that , is the distances between the ordinates on the x– axis, is the distances between the ordinates on the y- axis and is the distances between the ordinates on the z– axis ,and we indicate this method by ( ) , we can depend on it to calculate the triple integrals when it integrands continuous on the region of integration and give higher accuracy in the results by few subintervals

Effect of foliar application by manganese sulfate on the yield of wheat Triticum aestivum L. Exposed to different levels of water stress

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 188-195

This study was conducted in a field of Ibn Al–Bittar high industrial school at Al– Husseiniyah District in Karbala governorate during the growing season 2013 – 2013 , Factorial experiment within a Randomized Completel Block Design (RCBD) was used in this experiment in three replications , it included the foliar application of Manganese in four levels i.e ( 0 ,50 , 100 and 200)mg Mn.L-1 and three levels of stress i.e (100% ,75% and 50%) of water consumption value , the experiment included 36 experimental units . in order to study the effect of various levels of water stress and Manganese on the Wheat yield, which included (spikes number. m-1, spikelet number. spike-1 , spike’s length , number of grains. spike-1 , weight of 1000 grains , ) as well as grain yield .The results were statistically analyzed and the means were compared by using the least significant differences at 0.05 probability level. and the most important results obtained from 100 % of the water consumption giving the highest values of the studied characteristics (spikes number. m-1, spikelet number. spike-1 , spike’s length , number of grains. spike-1 , weight of 1000 grains , grain yield) . Results showed that , the concentration at manganese 200 mg Mn . liter -1 gave the highest values of the previously mentioned characteristics , The interaction between these two facters gave a significant effect on the previous studies traits .

THE RESPONSE OF FOUR BREAD WHEAT CALTIVARS (Triticum aestivum) TO ABIOTIC STRESS. I- SOME OF MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS,CLOROPHYLL AND THE YIELD

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 196-206

The research was conducted to study the stress effect of Fe- with three concentrations of bicarbonate (HCO3-) from KHCO3(0,800,1600 µM/L) in a static nutrient solution as a first experiment Four wheat cultivars namely (Iraq, AL-Fateh, Tahadi and Sally) were grown. Completely Randomized Design (CRD) was adopted. A field experiment with some cultivars was also conducted in a in calcareous soil classified as Typic Torrifluvent. Same treatments of Fe were applied. Split plot design was adopted. Means were compared using L. S. D at 0.05 probability level. Results showed that varieties exposed to Fe stress in development and emersion iron deficiency. Iron deficiency differences between wheat varieties .varieties exposed to Fe,HCO3(800 and 1600 µM/L)stress exhibited iron deficiency phenomenon .Accompany iron deficiency emersion a significant decreased in shoots and roots fresh weight ,especially under Fe ,HCO3 stress assembly. Iraq variety give higher values in shoots and roots fresh weight compared with other varieties .Same behavior was shown in architectures roots .Also Iraq variety gave higher values of total chlorophyll content compared with other varieties. Active iron concentration was significantly decreased when varieties grown under Fe, HCO3 stress. Filed experiment results supported the results of hydroponics experiment. Iraq variety was significantly superior in grains yield (5.667 and 6.187 Mg/ha) in the (-Fe) and (+Fe) respectively, same behavior was shown in all characters. This study suggested a capability to use as important criterion to separate efficient varieties which tolerant to Fe and HCO3 stresses, and to give early signaler to varieties separation to stress tolerance.

Quantum mechanical calculations of some hydrazones (Schiff 's bases) derived from benzoic acid hydrazide using the MINDO/3-FORCES model

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 207-222

Quantum mechanical calculations by the one of semi-empirical method (MINDO/3-FORCES) model were applied for (Hydrazones molecules (II,III,IV,V,VI) derived from benzoic acid hydrazide (I) ) The equilibrium geometries (lengths of bonds and angles) , charge and electron densities ، heats of formation ، dipole moments , energies of HOMO and LUMO orbital , energy gab،ionization potential، electron affinity , electronegativity , chemical hardness , electrophilicity , the standard thermodynamics functions U0 ،H0 ،S0، G0 and A0 and the 3N-6 fundamental vibration frequencies along with their corresponding IR absorption intensities were calculated . The assignment for each one of the fundamental frequences were also estimated , for all the 6 molecules was shown that hydrazones substituted with strong electron-withdrawing group has the higher values dipole moments , energy gab , electronegativity , chemical hardness and electrophilicity from that has substituentes electron releasing group but the latest has a higher portability the loss and gain electrons and the higest of all standard thermodynamics functions.

The interaction study effect between Potassium and water stress on some physiological characteristics at flowering stage of wheat plant (Triticum aestivum L.)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 223-232

The effect of the Interaction study between added Potassium and water stress on some physiological indicators of wheat plant (Triticum aestivum L.) at flowering stage was studies . A field factorial experiment has been applied , within randomized complete block design (RCBD) of the sectors in Ibn Al- Bittar high industrial school located at Al – Husseiniyah district in Karbala governorate . Wheat c.v. IPA-99 was grown during growing season of 2012 – 2013 . The experiment included two factors with three replications, where the first factor represented three water stress levels i.e ( 100 , 75 and 50 ) % of wheat water consumption during the growing season which have been coded as (S1 , S2 and S3) respectively. The second factor has been represented by four Potassium fertilizer levels , ( 0 , 50 ,100 and 150) kg K . ha. -1 , which have been coded as (K0 , K1 , K2 and K3) respectively . They have been randomly distributed on all experimental units .The experiment included 36 experimental units . Results were statistically analyzed and the means were compared using of the least significant difference at (0.05) probability level . The measurements of some physiological indicators of wheat plant were taken in the complete flowering stage (100%) which are included (chlorophyll content in leaves , relative water content % , proline concentration in leaves , the activity of the enzymes peroxidase POD , catalase CAT and superoxide dismutase SOD in the leaves).

A study of sintering temperature effect on the thermal conductivity of Polystyrene – Bentonite Composite

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 233-241

Samples of composite materials have been prepared by using raw material like poly styrene as matrix material , Bentonite AL-Sufrra (Filler material) ,poly vinyl alcohol (surfactant material to Bentonite) and using surfactant material to dissolved polymer surface with Anti-oxidant (bis dimethyl benzyl diphenyl amine) and binder material (Tris hydroxy methyl methyl amine) with different ratios.
After preparing Bentonite powder, it had been choose particle size smaller than (75μm) after conducting the annealing process to powder with different temperature (100,200,300,400)°C and surfactant process of Bentonite have been done on them by using poly vinyl Alcohol.
These samples which have been treated by heat and surfactant by using poly vinyl Alcohol have been added to dissolved poly styrene material in benzene with the state ratios and temperature degrees (70-80)°C have been used also surfactant materials to polymer surface and anti-oxidant material and binder material , and the study of effects because of these additions upon Thermal Conductivity.

Some factors causing mortality among Awassi lambs from birth to weaning

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 251-255

This study was conducted on 80 recorders contain information about 65 ewes ˛ 2- 4 year old from 1/12/2011to 29/2/2012 at AL-Fayha station for breeding livestock which located in north of Babylon.
Statistical analysis was performed by SAS program and using the( Khi square) test. The results showed that:-
The overall of mortality from birth until weaning was 11-25% , The age of ewes was significant for mortality babies at level P ≤0.01 of -Type of birth had a high impact in the loose ratio A mounting to 8.00 , 33.33% for individual and twin births respectively, there was significant difference at level P˂0.01 in the mortality according to type. Moreover there was no significant difference in mortality according to parturition month and the maximum mortality was due to weakness and wasting of birth , then birth defects and respiratory inflammations.

THE ANNUAL PRESENCE AND THE AGE SPISIFIC FECUNDITY LIFE TABLE FOR CoccinellaundecimpunctctaL IN BAGHDAD

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 256-263

The annual presence were studied for the adults of “Coccinellaundecimpunctata L” for a full year in a field of Alfa Alfa var. Hairy pervian and it was done by making 100 sweep weekly by insects standard net mesh. The results obtained indicates that the adult ladybirds are found on the plants throughout the whole year but with fluctuated population, with very low densities when thereare high temperatures and lack of preys in the hot summer days; to reach 10 adults/ 100 sweep in the first week of July and continued to decline until it reached the 1 adult/100 sweep in the fourth week of July and continued its decline during the month of August until the last week of September, where mild temperatures and humidity begin to appear, low densities population of adults were recorded from the last week of September last week of December and then it began increasing gradually during the months of February and March and continued During the month of April, where mild temperatures and relative humidity and frequent prey were recorded, especially from alfalfa trout “Therioaphis maculate” and fabaebeans “Acrythosiphonpisum” where there were quick increasing in the population density peaked in the mid-March (36 adults / 100 sweep) then began to decline gradually up to 12 adults / 100 sweep at the end of June. The results shown in the tables explainsthe susceptibility to reproduction of the adults whenit is cultured on an “Aphis fabae”at temperature of 28 ±1oC and relative humidity of 60 ± 5% ; the survival ratio of adults began to decline at the beginning of day 40, and it needs 10 days to make its first breeding, and its total age is 62 days. Each female can lay an average of 1257.24 eggs per cycle, and the value of the Net reproduction rate(R0) for one female is 410.83 Female / Female / generation, which proves that the populationis of the unstable kind, as the rate of the Intrinsic increase (rm) was 0.118 Female / Female, while the average length of generation (T) was 50.74 days.

Effect of wind speed variation on frequency of dust storms in Iraq.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 264-281

Average annual wind speed in Iraq, about 2.9 m / sec, occurs highest rate of wind speed in half the warm of the year, especially in the months: May, June, and July, so recorded the highest frequency of dust storms and risingdust and suspended dust. While going less than the speed of the wind in the cold season of the year, especially in the months: November, December, and January, so recorded the lowest frequency of dust storms and rising dust and suspended dust. The station was Nasiriyah more country stations in the frequency of dust storms and dust rising, because it was the highest stations in the rate of speed of the wind. While the stations north of Kirkuk and Mosul from stations in the rate of less frequent dust storms and risingdust, because it was the less Iraq stations in average wind speed. As for the suspended dust was the highest stations repeatedly Baghdad station is the appropriate rate of winds Therefore, while it was less Rutba station terminals to the rocky nature of the soil. When extracting simple correlation coefficient application of the law Pearson appeared to be stronger relationship between the rate of wind speed and frequency of dust storms was in the station Nasiriyah about 0.971, while the strongest correlation with the risingdust in station Amara around 0.992, with the suspended dust in the station Basra, about 0.938