ISSN: 1813-0410

Volume 9, Issue 0

Volume 9, Issue 0, Winter 2013, Page 1-256

Effect of insecticide Nogos on some soil fungi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 0, Pages 1-7

Four fungi , isolated from the rizosphere of Viccia faba in the fields of AI-Qadisiya district , were selected for their variable resistance to toxic insecticide Vapona ( Nogos ) at the range of 0.1, 0.3 , 0.5 ppm concentration and the 0.5 ppm concentration represtented to the initial concentration in the field soil . These fungi were Aspergillus niger , Rhizopus stolinifer (high tolerance ) , Trichoderma harzianum ( moderate tolerance ) , Fusarium solani ( low tolerance ) .
The inhibition percent of T . harzianum reached ( 28.8% ).with Vapona (Nogos ) on solid media in 0.5ppm concentration , but the inhibition percent reached(10.0%) in 0.1, 0.3ppm concentration.
The inhibition percent of F. solani reached(45.5%) in0.5ppm concentration and(36.6%),(46.6% ) in 0.1 , 0.3ppm concentration.
The results showed that A .niger ,R.stolinifer, T. harzianum were able to convert Vapona(Nogos) to other compounds in laboratory, but F. solani did not convert this insecticide .

EpidemiologicalStudy of Parasitic and Bacterial causes diarrhea in Karbala city

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 0, Pages 17-26

during the period between October 2008 until September 2009, examined 4064 faeces of samples for ages ranging from one year to forty of auditors children's hospital,general al-Husseini hospitalin Karbala.The Samples were examined by the direct smear and culture methods
1 – Result of examination revealed the record of five categories of diarrhea causes parasitic and bacterial which included Total incidence Giardia lamblia (17.8%) compared with (13.7%) Entameoba histolytica and dysentery (12.7%) of the E. coli (7.0%) of Salmonella (4.6%) of the Shigella.
2 - Overall, the pathogens of diarrhea during the months of June and July and August are higher rates during the hot months than other in months of the year did not notice any injuries in Samoella and Shigella during the following months (November and December and February) was observed by statistical analysis (Chi square test) that there are significant differences under the level of 0.01 and 0.05 between months of the year and the incidence of E. coli and Salmonella, while there were not significant differences with an infection Giardia lamblia and Entamoebahistolytica The Shigella did not show a difference with the moral of the year below the level of 0.01,but significant difference showed significantly under the level of 0.05 .
3 – Signifcant differences in the study shows the percentages of infection causes of diarrhea in different age groups, we have the injury Giardia lamblia and low among the age group (1-10) in 7.8% compared to the age group (10-20) years 37.5%, while the Entameoba histolytica in group (20-30) years was 6.3% low compared to age group (30-40), amounting to 27.4 The bacterial causes of diarrhea were the proportion of bacteria Escherichia coli infection in the age group (20-30) years compared to 4.0% in age group (1 -- 10) year 28.2%, while the incidence of Salmonella bacteria in the age group (1-10) year amounted to (5.8)% compared to age group (30-40) years is (9.5%) either Shigella recorded injuries and low where the two categories (10-20) years and (20-30) years, and they, respectively (4.0%, 2.7%). Generally observed by Chi square test that there were significant differences below the level (0.01 and 0.05) for different age groups with different causes of diarrhea of Microbiology, except as Shigella bacteria did not show significant difference with the various age groups below the level of 0.01 and 0.05.

Determination of Micro amount of Ranitidine in the Pharmaceutical Rantisam By Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry Using Palladium as Mediating Metals

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 0, Pages 27-35

It this study,the Rantidine in the three commercial pharmaceuticals was determined by in directed flame atomic absorption spectrometry(FAAS) . Ranitidine is widely used as medicament for the treatment of stomach and intestine ulcers and cases accompanied by excessive secretion. The following analytical results obtained in this research: formation of ion – pair association complex between [Pd(SCN)4]2- ranitidine and subsequent indirect AAS determination of the latter after extraction of the complex with 1,2- dichloroethane and atomization under this method has been evaluated by determining several optimal experimental conditions,namely ; as the following : PH (3.5-4.5), concentration of [Pd(SCN)4]2- equals 10 ppm , phase ratio aqueous – to – organic (7/1), time for completion of reaction in aqueous Phase is 10min, Extraction time is 3 minutes and one extraction is enough for overall removal of the complex without extrenuous interference. 1,2- dichloro ethane was used as organic solvent for extraction of the ion – pair association complex . Figures of merits: linear dynamic range (0.5-15ppm )ranitidine . RSD% (3.045). D.L (0.2283) ppm . A.S. (0.2706) ng . Erel (2.39%).Recov. % (97.61).

Effect of Combination in Different Sources of Irrigation Water on some Physical and Chemical properties in loamy and sandy soils as well as growth and yield of Sunflower

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 0, Pages 36-42

The Experiment was carried out in green house in private farm near Mussayab Technical Institute during the growing season 2009-2010. Sunflower crop we used . The study included fourteen treatments are consisting of the compatibility between tow factors. First, was tow kinds of soils: sandy and loamy clay soil . second was seven levels of irrigation water ( 1) river water,(2) well water, (3) drainage water, (4) river + well water,(5) river + drainage water, (6) well + drainage water, (7) river + well + drainage water). The RCBD with three replicate was used and the means was compared by L.S.D 0.05.
Result showed that:
The treatments of loamy soil was best than sandy soil in physical properties such as (bulk density, porosity and WHC) by 8.28 ,22.46,and 78.51% respectively. and on chemical properties such as ( Ec , PH and CEC) by 16.33 ,1.42 ,111.07 % respectively . The treatments planted in loamy soil showed superior qualities of the vegetative mass (germination ratio, area of leafs and dry vegetative weight) by 10.07 ,9.07,11.48 % respectively .And in grain mass (yield of grain in plant , amount of grain in plant and the weight of 1000 grain) ) by 7.77,9.59 , 5.89 % respectively. The treatments irrigated by river water , river + well water has the best quality in the physical and chemical properties.Also in vegetative and grain mass .But the treatments irrigated by daring water , daring + well water , well water and three source water lead to increased the Ec and decreased the Ph and CEC .
There was an interaction between tow factors in the experiments in ( the amount of grain in plant and the weight of 1000 grain ) .

Effect of magnetically treated water irrigation and manure on vegetative growth parameters and yield of cauliflower

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 0, Pages 43-49

An experiment was conducted in field belong to Plant Production Department / Kufa Technical Institute during the period from 15/9/2011 till 12/1/2012 . The aim was to study the effect of four levels of magnetically treat water irrigation ( i.e.without treatment , 500 , 1000 , and 1500 Gaus ) and three levels of organic fertilizer (i ,e ,without fertilization,100 and 200 g/plant ) on some vegetative growth parameters and curd characteristics at harvesting of cauliflower cv. Ruba .
Results showed that irrigation with magnetically treated water in general reduced the values of soil EC and pH ; P , K , and Ca were more or less reduced or increased depending on water treatments . Meanwhile , organic fertilizer that added to the soil reduced the values of P , K , Ca , Na and Cl . and the effect increased with the increase in the level of added organic fertilizer . Soil EC and pH recorded a slight increase with the increase of organic fertilizer .
On the other hand , the highest values for vegetative growth parameters and curd characteristics were produced from the use of treated water with 1000 Gause accompanied with the use of 200g/plant of organic fertilizer . The highest values for the measured parameters were : 25.2 leaves , 1155.0g . , 128.0g . , 17.2cm . and 832.0g . for leaf number and its weight , stem fresh weight ; curd diameter and its fresh weight , respectively , compared to 19.0 leaves ; 515.0g .; 50.0g . ; 9.8cm . and 239.7g . respectively , for the above studied parameters obtained from plants of control treatment .

Purification of water pollution by some dyes using food by products

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 0, Pages 50-57

This study is concerned with the adsorption isotherms of dyes Rhoda mine 6G Nile blue by using ultra -violet- visible spectroscopy technique , the results showed that the dyes terms of Rhoda mine 6G and Nile blue were (S_(4 ),L_3) according to (Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms Giles classification).
Temperature has been investigated at (298 – 328 k) , the results obtained indicate that the adsorption of Rhoda mine 6G and Nile blue dyes ,increase with increase of temperature ,in other words the adsorption process is endothermic and ΔH is positive .
The effect of the acid function was also studied; the results obtained were follows according to the sequence:
In the Rhodamine6G pH 3 <7 > 10 .
The Nile blue pH 10 > 7 >3 .

Optimizing condition for production of protease and chitinase from Beauveriabassiana

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 0, Pages 58-66

Effect of environmental and cultural conditions in the production of the Protease and Chitinase enzymes from B. bassiana were studied . Results showed that the highest production of these enzymes were obtained by using medium composed of baker's yeast at concentration 1.5 % supplemented with 0.3 % (NH4)2 SO4, at initial pH 6.5 with an inoculum size 16 % , and incubated at 30 ˚C on a rotary shaker at 150 rpm for 72 h.


journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 0, Pages 67-73

A study was conducted to evaluate the availability of iron in some Babylon governorate soils and their contents in corn plants. Thirteen different locations were selected; the selections were made to represent the most local geographical units dominated in Governorate in soils and were 27 units. Since the locations were differed in areas, accordingly differed in number of soil samples.
Linear equations were used to describe the relationship between the studied parameters and some properties of soils. The results showed that, the availability of iron was ranged from 0.26 to 12.60 with average of 4.96 mg Kg-1.With respect to plant dry matter, the data indicated that iron content was ranged from 16.22 to 166.31 with average of 49.73 mg Kg-1. The percentage of locations suffered from iron deficiency was 82%. With the exception of AL_Sadda soils, all locations were low in available iron, moreover locations of Al_Abrahimyia and Abu-Garak were the least in available iron with percentages of 100 and 98% respectively. The results also showed a negative linear relation between available iron and iron content in plant with total and active carbonate minerals, whereas a positive linear relation between available iron was found with cation exchange capacity (CEC), however no significant relation was found with pH, organic matter, clay and silt content.

Interaction study between different levels of water stress and potassium on shoot growth of Wheat plant (Triticum aestivum L.) at elongation stage

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 0, Pages 74-81

This study was conducted by using plastic pots in the Department of Biology- College of Education for Pure Sciences / University of Karbala for the season (2011 - 2012), to study the effect of the interaction between different levels of water stress and the addition of potassium on vegetative growth indicators of plant wheat, which included (plant height , Leaf area, number of, number of leaves, dry weight of root system, dry weight of shoot) at elongation stage. Factional experiment within a Completely Randomized Design (C.R.D.) with three replications was applied . The experiment included three concentrations of potassium (i.e. 0, 100 and 200) kg K.ha-1 , and three water stress levels depending on the field capacity at the amount (100%, 75%, 50%). The experiment included 27 pots (experimental unit).The data were been analyzed and means were compared using L.S.D at 0.05 probability level. The most important results that could be summarized as follow: one hundred field of capacity treatment gave the highest values of the studied traits(plant height, number of leaves, number of tillers, leaf area, dry weight of root system, dry weight of shoot). Results also showed that addition of potassium at (200) kg K. ha-1 gave the higher values for the above-mentioned traits. Meanwhile the results a significant interaction between the levels of water stress and potassium giving a various effects on the studied traits.

Effect of wet cupping on some blood parameters on male young

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 0, Pages 89-94

The aim oPf this study was to determined some blood effect caused y wet cupping therapy , the study occur on 200 in male young in March 2010. After take types of blood group of young some other parameters were determined before and after 3 hours wet cupping like hemoglobin estimation ,packed cell volume , deferential leukocytes , clotting time and systolic and diastolic blood pressure .
The statistical analysis showed significant increase (p<0.05) in the hemoglobin estimation ,packed cell volume in A,B and AB groups and significant decrease (p<0.05) in clotting time in all blood groups and also found significant decrease (p<0.05) in systolic and diastolic blood pressure in A,B and O groups . The study also revealed to male young show with good physiological feeling after wet cupping therapy.

The effect of using of nigella sativa seed as a food addivited to local Iraqi goat kids in body weight and some hematological traits

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 0, Pages 101-106

The aim of present study was to investigate the effect ofnigellasativa seed in two level to diet in some haemologicaltraits and body weight of localblack male kids, this study was conducted in private farm in Karbala city between 27/3/2012 to 27/8/2012,twenty four kids in 10.5 -11 month age old were divided randomly into three group (8each).Animal of first group (control) free from any addition only concentrated diet,the 2nd group feeded on 5 grams of nigella sativa add to each Kg diet as a foodaddivites,while the 3rd group feeded on 8 grams of nigella sativa add to each Kg diet ,the result revealed the following:
Kids body weight in T1 &T2 groups was significantly increased( P<0.01) comparative with control.Hemoglobine concentration was significantly improved (P<0.01) in the T1&T2 groups at last month of study comparative with control group, RedBlood Cells count significantly increases(P<0.01) in T1&T2 groups comparative with control in last month of study , while white blood cells count and packed cell volume there was no significant different in spit of the numberous different between groups

Effect exhibitionist industrialization and chemical traits (quality and qualitative) on competence , qualitative and classification among grains wheat varieties locality

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 0, Pages 107-112

This experiment was conducted during the winter season 2010-2011 in the laboratory of Seed Technology – Field crops Department - Collage of Agriculture - University of Babylon, and laboratories of the General Authority for examination and certification of seeds - Branch Babylon - Ministry of Agriculture, in order to study how to distinguish between cultivars of local wheat, including but distinguished from varieties of wheat imported or exotic by the distinction between the grains studied recipes grain (the key classification of grain cultivars) were studied traits are (the size of Brush , Recipes groove , the proportion of thick to wide, the length of grain , the weight of 1000 grains , Resistance to salinity, dressing percentage , the power of the fetus, saturated phenol and the percentage of protein).
Used in the experiment of the qualities of digital design randomized complete CRD , Data were analyzed by analysis of variance were compared using the test averages less significant difference at the level of 5%, and the results of the experiment showed the following: -
Does not appear Brush in grain varieties Adnaniyah and the Door29 and were small in cultivars of Eazz ,Maxbak , Iba95 , Rashid, Noor and Abu Ghraib , medium-sized varieties Sham 6 and Iba99 and Zahra and Tamoz2, while the area of the groove and wide varieties Adnaniyah, Eazz , Cham 6 , Iba 99 , Abu Ghraib , Iba 95 , Door 29 and Noor , were narrow for the rest of items within the study , and different depth of the groove between the deep of the Eazz, Sham 6, Abu Ghraib , Iba 95 , Rashid and the shallow to the rest of the cultivars of the study, for the amount of the proportion of thick to wide was the largest of the items Adnaniyah , Maxbak, Rashid and equal in Sham 6 and Zahra and smaller in the rest of the Articles of the study, and the superiority of cultivars Adnaniyah and Rashid to give more weight of a grain and the length of the pill compared to the other cultivars, and the resistance of vegetative gave classified rational greater resistance than other varieties and dressing percentage surpassed items Maxbak and Iba95 and Rashid for the rest of cultivars, and the superiority of cultivars of Rashid and Adnaniyah in the strength of the embryo on the rest of the items, and the varying grain color phenol between the non-appearance of the dye Brown color and gray and black, and also more than Rashid in the class to give the largest percentage of protein than other cultivars.

Effect of Zinc spraying on the growth and yield of three cultivars of beans

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 0, Pages 113-120

A field experiment was conducted at AL-Hussainyah district of Kerbala /Iraq to study the effect of Zinc spraying on the growth and yield of bean. The experiment included two factors. First factor included Zinc concentrations (0, 30 and 60 ppm). Second factor included three cultivars. of bean. The experiment was designed as according the Randomize Complete Block Design ( RCBD).
The result showed the following points:
1. The concentrations of zinc Significantly increased plant height and number of pods at60ppm, number of forest,number of seeds, seed weight, rate of seed yield and Biological yield at 30ppm .
2. Height significant different local vari. On other vari. In characters on the plant height, number of forest, number of pods and number of seeds.
3. The interaction between (local vari. + 60 ppm) significantly increased plant height, number of forest, number of pods, number of seeds, seed weight , seed yield and Biological yield.

Predict of productional and physiological performance of Friesian cows by calculating Heat Tolerance Coefficient

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 0, Pages 121-125

This research was conducted in Ishaqi Cattle Station north of Baghdad, and use of 36 Friesian cows in the beginning of the lactation for the period, 2010. the aim of this research to study the predicted production and physiology performance of Friesian cows for the heat tolerance coefficient (HTC). Negative and highly significant regression of daily and total (monthly) milk production on HTC, while the speed of access to the peak lactation on HTC was positive and significant, the regression coefficient of this relationship was 21.56 day, while the regression coefficient of the length of peak had negative and highly significantly (-44.99 day). This investigated should be significant negative regression of protein , fat and lactose of milk on HTC were -0.85, - 1.11 and – 0.42 % respectively. Positive and significant (P<0.01) regression coefficient of days open and services per conception on HTC. Negative & highly significant of packed cell volume (PCV) , red blood cell (RBC) and Hemoglobin on HTC . Highly significant and negative regression coefficient of glucose , total protein and albumin on HTC, while the regression coefficient of AST , ALT and cholesterol had positive and highly significant. Negative and significant (P<0.01) regression coefficient of T3 and T4 hormones on HTC were – 1.40 and 2.95 n.mol/L respectively .

Study of some biological and ecological parameters of tomato leaf miner Tuta absuluta ( Gelechiidae : Lepidoptera ) in Karbala province

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 0, Pages 126-132

Tomato leafminer Tuta absuluta considered as one of an important exotic pest on Solanaceae ,especially on tomato crop , this experiment carried out in Karbala province in 2012 and included study of insect biology under laboratory conditions , its densities in the field by pheromone traps in addition to insects preference to different kinds and varsities of solanaceae family plants Results showed :
Life cycle ( generation period ) under laboratory conditions reached23.49 days , eggs incubation period 3.41 days , semi – larval 12.04 days , pupa phase 6.08 days , lifetime female 13.00 days and 6.80 days for male , average number of eggs was 115.20 eggs / female , hatching ratio 89.88% , sex ratio 1 :1.4 male : female Adults present at the beginning of the planting season with an average number of adults caught 52.3 / trap on 10 March /2012 and this pest exist as long the host plant exist , the highest density reached 248.3 insect /trap on 7 April and at the end of the season the average fixed at 81. 33 insect /trap on 16 June. The ferolite trap bitted with synthetic pheromone ( Qlure TUA - 500 ) was highly efficient in attracting insect males Insect differ in their preference for Solanaceae plants , tomato was the most sensitive host with an average 6.629 ± 0.30 mines / plant , while green pepper was the less sensitive hosts with an average number of mines 0.00 ( not infected ) . Also the Insects differ in their preference for tomato varieties ,Super-rigina Varity was the most preference with an average 6.9048 mines / plant while Super - queen variety was the less preference with an average6.5714 ± 0.506 mines / plant . Fruits of Super – queen tomato Variety were the highest infected by the pest, the percentage investigation reached 0.25 % while Olla variety was less , the percentage reached 0.23 % .

Duration effect of whitening machine on grain temperature, moisture content and rice manufacturing indicators

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 0, Pages 133-139

The study aim to determine whitening duration effect of whitening machine (type Satake grain mill) on some manufacturing indicators for sheller rice . Four whitening time period used(15, 30, 45.60 seconds) to see the effect of changing time in grain temperature , moisture content , percentage of broken grains and the degree of grain whiteness. Has used samples of rice Amber 33. Results showed that increase in whitening time effects significantly on the grain temperature ( from 18.34 C ° to 26.7 C °). And showed a significant effect in increasing of rice whiteness degree , have ranged (from 24.6 to 33.8 ) degree . And has a significant effect in increasing of broken grains ratio and ranged between (4% - 7.63%). The study also showed a negative relationship between the time of grain whitening and grain moisture content .Moisture content decreased from 13.37% to 11.8% .
Results were analyzed statistically according to completely randomized design CRD with three replicates , differences tested by (LSD) . Whitening period of 45 second was recommended .
Key word : whitening duration, rice temperature , degree of whiteness, rice moisture , percentages of whitened breakage rice.

Numerical density study of Aphid gossypii Glover ( Aphididae : Homoptera ) and its preference for different hosts and varieties of Solanaceae family plants under controlled condition in karbala province

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 0, Pages 140-145

Field and laboratory studies in one of the greenhouses planted with different varieties of solanaceae family plants in karbala province for the year 2011 – 2012 dealt with insect life and numberical density and food preference results showed . theat the highest intensity of the lesion was on the papper plant amounted to 893 insect / 10 paper and less intensity of the lesion was on the tomato plant and 104 insect /10 sheets of family Solanaceae plants . Eggplant Abdublack variety was more favorable for a nocturnal insect product Black star , Jawaharlal finaly type . the type of host plant clear impact on aspects of life of the insect , especially in a period role nymph productivity and a generation as she was the shortest period of generation on the class eggplant Abdubalck and longest period of a generation product Black star , and rate of productivity female virginity per 5.7 nymph female / day varieties Abdu Black and Black star Jawaher sequentially .

The Effect of Sesbania Seeds Partial Replacement with Soybean meal on the productive Features for two Broiler Hybrids .

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 0, Pages 146-152

An experiment for two hybrids (Cobb and Ross) has been carried out to know the production performance by replacing partially Sesbania seeds (with a percentage of 0%, 15%, 30%, 45%) with Soybean meal . This experiment comprisen the use of 80 chicks for each Cobb and Ross and they have been distributed randomly on eight coops (ten chicks for each coop) and have been fed on the experimental diets contained Sesbania seeds instead of Soybean meal (Two times for each treatment) as follows :
Treatment 1 : Replacement of Sesbania Seeds 0% (Cobb) .
Treatment 2 : Replacement of Sesbania Seeds 0% (Ross) .
Treatment 3 : Replacement of Sesbania Seeds 15% (Cobb) .
Treatment 4 : Replacement of Sesbania Seeds 15% (Ross) .
Treatment 5 : Replacement of Sesbania Seeds 30% (Cobb) .
Treatment 6 : Replacement of Sesbania Seeds 30% (Ross) .
Treatment 7 : Replacement of Sesbania Seeds 45% (Cobb) .
Treatment 8 : Replacement of Sesbania Seeds 45% (Ross) .
The weight gain , diets consumption and feed gain conversion as well as carcass cut – up parts have been measured at the age of 20 and 40 days .
The results have shown that there were no significant differences between Cobb and Ross regarding the weight gain at the age of 10, 20, 30 and 40 days in addition to the treatments except for the age of 30 days in which there was a significant difference (P<0.05) whereas the percentage of replacement (0%) was the best .
There was no Significant change in diet consumption at all ages except for the age of 30 days in which the hybrid Ross has consumed more Significant diet (P<0.05) comparing to hybrid Cobb and the percentage of replacement (0%) was less significant in diet consumption .
As for feed gain conversion , there were no Significant differences between the two hybrids at all ages but at level (P<0.05) in the percentage of replacement between the age of 15 and 30 days at level (P<0.01) .
The percentage of replacement (0%) was the best but the treatments have not shown any Significant differences except for the age of 20 days at level (P<0.01) . The treatments 6 and 2 were the most Significant in comparison among others .
Concerning other features , there was no Significant difference between the two hybrids as well as the treatments . Only Significant differences have appeared (P<0.01) regarding the percentage of replacement for Carcass, chest, thigh, back and neck weight . The results have finally shown that the percentage of replacement (0%) was highest in numbers .

Production and Purification of Lactic Acid from LactobacillusImmobilized onAgar-agar

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 0, Pages 153-416

Cells of L. acidophilus and Lactobacillus sp. (25) were immobilized using entrapment method with two different supports . Results showed that agar – agar was more efficient in lactic acid production in compare with sodium alginate . Factors affect cells immobilization were studied and the results showed that (3)% agar – agar as a support with (1×109) cell / ml gave the highest production of lactic acid .
Some of the optimal conditions for lactic acid production from the immobilized cells of L. acidophilus and Lactobacillus sp.(25) were studied . The results revealed that the best date juice concentration and yeast extract for lactic acid production were (4 and 0.3)% for both isolates , respectively .The optimal incubation periods for lactic acid production were (60 and 72) hours for L. acidophilus and Lactobacillus sp. (25), respectively.The immobilized cells for both isolates were stable during five repeated cycles and no acid production loss was observed during the studied periods.
Lactic acid was isolated from culture filtrate of L. acidophilus and Lactobacillus sp.(25) . The isolation procedure included Clarification step, Ion exchange with anionic exchanger ( Amberlite IR- 400) and Ion exchange with cationic exchanger ]Amberlite IR 120- (H)[. Lactic acid yield obtained were (88.75 and 91.56)% for the above mentioned isolates , respectively .


journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 0, Pages 165-173

This research is studied possibility of using a sort of sand which its characters are not fulfilled Iraqi standard specification No. 45 - 1984 for passed graded materials that respect to sieve No.300 with deviation ratio up to14.5% as maximum as fine aggregate inproducing Concrete that has lower ( 12.4% compression, 18.5% tensile strength,and 1.35% density ) with increasing in water absorbing ratio which is reached to 9.5% in comparison with referential mixture . Mentioned sand is used with an addition of 10%cement weight that is used in the mixture for curing so as to produce Concrete which has an increasing of (compressive strength8.83%,tensile strength 11.15%,and 1.01% density )and with decreasing inratio of water absorption 2.5% . There is alsopossibilityfor addingplasticizer in the ratio 1% of cement weight that is used in the mixture so as to produce Concreteis had more(40.63% compression, 32.4% tensile strength,and 1.98% density ) withdecreasing inratio 8% of water absorption in comparison with same referential mixture .

The effect of foliar application of Abscisic acid on some vegetative traits of wheat plant under diffrent levels of water stress

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 0, Pages 174-182

This study was conducted using plastic pots in the Department of Biology, College of Education for Pure Science - University of Karbala during the growing season of 2011/2012. Factorial experiment within a Completely Randomized Design (C.R.D.) with three replicates was applied . The experiment included three concentrations of Abscisic acid (i.e. 0, 50 and 100) mg.l-1 .and three levels of field capacity (i.e. 50 , 75 and 100%). The experiment included 27 pots (experimental units).Results were summarized as follow : the field capacity of 100% gave the highest values of the remain studied traits. Whereas , 50% field capacity gave the lowest values root lenght. Apart from one case, Abscisic acid effect was constant with all studied parameters, where 100 mg.l-1. Abscisic acid gave the highest values of the parameters All interactions between water stress levels and Abscisic acid had a pronounced effect on studied parameters.

Growth and yield of Roselle plant under different levels of K and proline

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 0, Pages 183-195

An experiment was conducted at AL- Bargah district (30) Km north- east Karbala province during the period from 2nd of March to 12th of October 2012 . to study the effect of the different levels of potassium and proline on some characteristics of vegetative growth and yield of Roselle plant . Three levels of potassium (i.e. 0.5,1.0 and 2.0) g/pot and four concentrations of proline (i.e. 0,50,100 and 150) mg/l were used . The experiment was conducted by using plastic pots of 10 kg soil capacity , 20 cm in diameter.
Results revealed that, K at 2.0 g/pot significantly affected growth parameter (i.e. root's length and volume , root ,stem and leaves dry weights , leaves number ,leaf area , absolute growth and relative growth rates). Yield parameters (i.e. fruits number, fresh and dry weights of fruits) were also markedly influenced. Proline at 150 mg/l significantly affected the above mentioned parameters in addition to the root's diameter ,Apart from root's volume , relative growth rate and fruits number ,the interaction between K and proline had profound effect on the studied characteristics .

Using modelsBox-JenkinsARIMAforecastingproduce electric power

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 0, Pages 196-207

This research includes a study of Box - Jenkins ARIMA models for The forecasting of electric power producing for Baghdad city. These models are used to build a model of the time series and Then choose the best model to predict values for future electricity production with practical application for electric power production for 6 years time series (i.e. 69 months) using statistical software STATGRAPHICS, The best model was ARIMA(1,0,2) Than ARIMA (1,0,1) model and ARIMA (1,0,0) from performance of predict methods

Nuclear Shell Model Application on Nuclei Spectra By Using Modified Surface Delta Interaction

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 0, Pages 208-216

Nuclear Shell Model is applied by using Modified Surface Delta Interaction to study the energy levels. The nuclei , have chosen in this study , contain two nucleons out of close core .By using calculated energy levels results and the allowable total angular momentum and parity values ,we found accepted sameness with the experimental values and also we determine and certain several angular momentum of experimental energy levels that are not determined and certainty experimentally.

The Effect of Potassium ,Gibberellic Acid and their Interaction effects onthe Growth of Roselle Plant (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. )

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 0, Pages 226-234

This study was conducted at Al-Bargah district (30)Km north east Kerbala city during the period from 2nd ,March till 12th ,October ,2012.The aim was to assess the effect of three levels of Potassium (i.e.0.5 ,1.0 and 2.0)g/pot, four concentrations of Gibberellic acid( i.e. 0 ,50,100and 150) mg/L and their interaction on growth parameters of roselle plant(Hibiscus sabdariffa L.).The treatments were applied twice,at 4-6 true leaf stage and at the flowering stage.
Results could summarized as follow.
1-Increasing potassium levels significantly increasedplants height ,no. of branches ,leaves number andarea and fresh and dry weights of shoot.
2- Results revealed that , 50 mg/L GA3 caused an increment inplants height ,no. of branches ,leaves number andarea and fresh and dry weights of shoot.
3-The interaction between K and GA3 revealed that , the treatment of 2.0 g K and 50 mg/L GA3 increasedno. of branches and leaves area and fresh and dry weights of shoot.While,plantsheight andno. of leaves were notaffected.


journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 0, Pages 251-256

A study was conducted at Al-Faihaa station (North of Babil) the station had a herd of awassi Sheep (500 sheep), This study included 180 records of 60 ewes the averge ages between (2-5) years, over period from 2010 to 2012, 120 viewer for every characters from blood parameters belonged to the same ewes for three month (April to June)2012 to predicting of number of production and reproduction traits through number of blood parameters after study effect of fixed factors on traits[birth weight (BW), weaning weight (WW), gain body weight (GBW) from birth to weaning, percentage of fertility (F) and litter size (LS)]. The overall means of BW, WW and GBW 2.53, 17.60 and 14.80 kg respectively. The F and LS were 69.82% and 1.40 bornewe respectively. The averages of blood biochemical characteristics such as glucose, total protein (TP), level of cholesterol and Follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) were 54.64 mg/dl, 53.23 g/l, 50.21 mg/dl and 1.59 ng/ml respectively. The age of the dam had nonsignificant effect in 3 years age records on BW while significant on WW and GBW. The age of the dam had significant effect(p<0.05) on F and LS and turned to the dams at 4 years age compare to other ages. Increased in growth traits with increase level of blood glucose and cholesterol while the regression coefficient of growth on level of TP was negative and the growth no effect by other blood parameters. The regression coefficient of F were significant (p<0.05) on glucose, cholesterol and FSH hormone. The regression of LS on level of glucose and TP in blood were negative and highly significant (p<0.01).

Explain the effect of Pico Cells and Femto Cells to reduce the Predicted Path Loss of the Mobile Communications

Sameir A. Aziez

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 0, Pages 1-12

Pico cells are a small wireless communication base station covering a small area, often used to extend cellular network coverage to indoor or outdoor areas where signals can not easily penetrate, and also to improve data transfer throughput for mobile users and increase capacity in the mobile network.
Femto cells are a small cellular, low-power wireless access points, typically designed for use in a home or small business. Femto cells deliver significantly improved coverage inside homes, small offices, and outdoor public spaces. This means a stronger signal and better voice quality, plus improved data download and upload speeds.
The aim of this paper is to explain the effect of pico cells and femto cells to reduce the predicted path loss, this achieved by taking a different scenarios and using a MATLAB 2008a programming language to compare the obtained results.
From the results obtained, once can see the importance of using this type of cells to improve the signal quality of the mobile phone.
Keywords: Pico cells, Femto cells Indoor coverage, IP address, Correction factor for mobile unit antenna height ( ), Predicted Path Loss ( ).


Adnan Alwan Al Helli; Mahdi Abdul Sahib

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 0, Pages 13-25

Background; Iraqi medical graduates qualify (MB. Ch. B.) then assigned as intern resident doctors to commit uniform twelve months training in various clinical disciplines as apprentices in health care. Ministry of health has no formal apprenticeship program to ensure competency and quality of juniors.
The objectives of medical colleges are to ensure eligible safe health providers qualified to acquire and refine clinical skills in medical disciplines. Outcomes feedbacks are recommended to promote faculty curriculum and to ensure graduates competence. This current appraisal of Karbala is the second whereas the first was at 2010.
Aims; To promote curricula of medical colleges and establish a genuine apprenticeship legislation for resident doctors.
Design; cross sectional self evaluation.
Date; December 2012.
Setting; CME Center, General directorate of Holy Kerbala, Kerbala, Iraq.
Subjects and Methods; Recently assigned 45 medical graduates of academic year 2011-2012. Questionnaire consists of 50 items including clinical skill performance, curricular affairs, and graduates comments and opinions. The scoring levels assigned (+) if competent, (±) if equivocal, and (-) if non competent.
Results; Response rate; 98%. Females; 71.1%. Kerbala graduates; 71.1%.
Upgrade performance; 19 clinical skills. Downgrade performance; 25. Females are better in communications and clerkship skills, males are better in interventional and emergency management skills. Graduates recommend skill lab and asked for more practical and professional curriculum.
Conclusions; Most of the upgrade skills are learned through skill lab. The low 25 skills are of clinical methods. Gender has strong impact on skill performance.
Faculties curricula need renewal and health authority should apprentice graduates better to achieve an eligible national health services

Statistical Analysis for optimum sulphate content of Sulphate Resisting Cement (SRC)

Hussein Ali Ewadh; Majeed Khudair Jassim

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 0, Pages 31-37

It is impractical for cement producers to test the produced cement after manufacturing process, because it is very difficult to correct the final production. Moreover, it is useful to make adjustment to the raw mix design through the blend process of raw materials.
Calcium sulphate is added in small quantities to the other constituents of cement during its manufacture to control the setting time of the product.Using a large scale data base, this paper shows an effort to model optimum sulphate required to be expressed in term of some concerned variables.
Statistical analysis using SPSS16 software is performed for a data base of 362 chemical and physical tests obtained from archive of quality control at Kerbala plant for SRC cement. These data sets are refined to 322 by excluding outliers to avoid errors in measurement, recording, and observations.
Stepwise regression results in a linear model that explains (99.8%) of variation in required sulphate in relation with: C4AF, C3A, and K2O, while excluding one explanatory variable (Na2O) according to a degree of significance of (0.05).The developed model can be used as a guide for manufacturer to control the content of; K2O, C3A, and C4AF that result in an optimum sulphate content of SRC cement.

Coflat Modules and Exact Sequence

Amjad Hamead Alhusiny

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 0, Pages 38-40

We know that a right R-module C is flat if and only if every short exact sequence O→A→B→C→O of right R-modules is pure. Dually a right R-module A is coflat if ever short exact sequence O→A→B→C→O of right R-modules is copure. Co flat modules are defined in several ways, (as shown in [2] and [4]), In this paper it has shown that these definitions are equivalents. And we shell prove that every direct sum of coflat modules is coflat.

Evaluation the Performance of IP Routing Based OCDMA Networks by using fourth Padded Sequences of MPC Sequences

Wesam Hamid Abdulhussein; Ali Mahdy Ali

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 0, Pages 41-52

The new code namely “Fourth Spreading Code-modified prime code (FSC-MPC)” was introduce through this paper of IP routing schemes over coherent optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) network. This code is created by addition pad for the prime code (MPC(. The length and weight of the proposed code are equal to (P2+4P) and (P+4), respectively, where P is a prime number used to generate the code, this proposed to enhance the performance of IP-based OCDMA networks and this code performed by using correlation term. The performance has been analyzed in terms of the users’, Bit Error Rate (BER) and received power signal of channel utilization factor in the network, and these results compared with another families codes. The numerical results show that the proposed code to reduces the multiuser interference without affecting the optical receiver sensitivity, and increasing the users with low power Consumption.

Dependence of Structural and I-V Characteristic on Annealing Temperature of a-As/c-Si Heterojunction

Ramiz Al-Ansari; Hussien Al-Lamy; Jenan Al-Haidery

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 0, Pages 53-57

In this work the effect of annealing temperature on the structure of a-As and electrical properties of a-As/c-Si heterojunction have been studied. The heterojunction fabricated by deposited of a-As film on c-Si using thermal evaporation technique. Electrical properties of a-As/c-Si heterojunction includes I-V characteristic in dark at different annealing temperature and C-V characteristic are considered in the present work.
C-V characteristic show that the fabricated diode was abrupt type , built in potential determined by extrapolation from 1/C2-V curve. The built in potential (vbi) for the a-As/c-Si system was found to be increase from 0.35 to 0.8 V with increasing annealing temperature.

Solving System of Fuzzy Linear Differential Equations With Fuzzy Initial Values

Athera Nema Kathem

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 0, Pages 58-63

In this paper, we consider a system of linear fuzzy differential equations (F.D.Es) with fuzzy initial values. We discuss the solution of the system
x ̇(t)=Ax(t)+f(t,g) ;t> 0
x(0)=x_0 ,
where A is a real n × n matrix, the initial condition x0 and the constant g are vectors of n fuzzy
numbers and the function f(t,g) is described by multiplication the variable t with the vector of
fuzzy numbers g. In addition , we generalized the solution for solving nth order linear F.D.Es. with fuzzy initial values .

Calibrating the Discharge Coefficient of Rectangular with Quarter Circular Edge Crested Weir

Riyadh HamadMohammed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 0, Pages 64-73

This study presents a series of experimental investigations on to calculate discharge coefficient of flow over rectangular weir with quarter circular edge crested extending across the full width of the channel(suppressed) to evaluation the discharge coefficient of the flow. Three weirs were constructed and tested for differentdischarges. They were stable over flow pattern, easy to pass floating debris, has fair coefficient of discharge. Data obtained from laboratory experiments provide information on head - discharge relationship for three models with different height and curvature of weir. Each model has an empirical head – discharge equation.
The predicted values of discharge coefficient for the proposed models were based on measured discharge and the derived discharge equation. Analysis of the results revealed thatdischarge coefficient is proportional withheight and radius of curvatureand with the upstream head above weir crest.

Diameter and width via Rotating Calipers of a Set of Two-dimensional Convex Hull Vertices using Graham scan algorithm

Mahdi Naser Alzubaidi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 0, Pages 74-81

A convex hull is an important shape in graphic geometry that can be used to construct many other geometric structures.In this paper we compute the Convex hull polygon by eliminating all the interior points and bounding box the exterior points using Graham scan algorithm then we compute the Diameter and width of aconvex hull polygon using a powerful, easy and well-designedmethod that can solve several computational geometric difficultiesprofessionallyin practice called Rotating Caliper method. The proposed idea of a well-known rotating caliper algorithm includesrotate pairs ofparallel straight lines called antipodal pairs around a given polygon's vertices, the first one located inmaximum Y-coordinate and the second one is in minimum Y-coordinateof Convex hull vertices. If wecontinuously sweep the tangent of the antipodal pairs through 360 degrees,then the width and diameter of the convex hull polygon are simply detected byminimum and maximum distance between the antipodal pairs during thissweep process. The experimental results revealthat The rotating calipers algorithm is fast ,powerful, easy and general tool for solving geometric problems.
Keywords: Rotating Calipers; Computational Geometric; Graham Convex Hull.

Synthesis and Characterization of Fused Rings from Mannich Bases.

Nagham .Mahmood .Aljamali

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 0, Pages 82-91

In this work , four new compounds of mannich bases were synthesized through reaction of diketone compounds with ammonia or amine derivatives to give enamino ketone as intermediate , which reacts with aldehyde compounds to yield compounds [1-4] .
The structures of all synthesized compounds were characterized by (C.H.N)elementary analysis , 1HNMR spectra and FT-IR spectra.The data obtained gave good support for synthesized compounds [1-4] .

Study of comparative between insulin ,daonil drugs and effect on immune resistance in diabetes mellitus patients

a Jaber Hussein; Hayfa

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 0, Pages 92-97

This study was design to explain the action of insulin drug in saving on the normal level of immunoglobulins in diabetes mellitus patients compared with daonil drug .
Fasting venous blood samples were taken from 60 subjects of which 20 patient with type І diabetes mellitus, 20 patient with type ІІ diabetes mellitus and 20 healthy individuals.
All the blood samples were analyzed for C- Reactive Protein and immunoglobulins (immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin A, immunoglobulin M).
The results detected an increase in CRP in sera of patients with type ІІ group compared for patients with type І and control groups.
Immunoglobulins (IgG,IgA) levels were increased in sera of patients with type ІІ group compared to patients with type І and control groups, while, IgM level was decreased in sera of patients with type ІІ group compared with patients with type І and control groups.

Study the some concentrations of Immunoglobulins IgG ,IgM ,IgA in Psoriasis Patients

Tamara Ala; a Hussein

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 0, Pages 98-103

This study designs to study the effect Psoriasis disease on the concentration of some immunoglobulins in human. The study divided into two groups : psoriasis patients group including 20 Randomly individuals of both sexes with different ages. and control group , which also included 20 normal individual from healthy individuals not infected with any skin disease and were races and ages approach to psoriasis patients.The study included some tests of the immunological examination by measuring the concentrations of immunoglobulins IgG, IgM and IgA in both groups. The results indicated the presence of significant change (p < 0.05) a change in the mean level of immunoglobulins in samples infected as compared with a control. also found two phases of infection psoriasis, one active and represents the acute phase, and the other inactive and represents the phase chronic infection has been found a difference in concentration standard tests studied in both phases. Because after the active phase increasing the concentration of IgG and IgA. The inactive phase of the study to increase the concentration of IgM.

Blood and Lens Glutathione and Catalase Activity in Patients with Age-Related Cataract

Ahamed M; Haider M. Ibrahim; Adelah A. Taher

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 0, Pages 104-108

Cataract is a complete or partial opacity that develops in the crystalline lens of the eye . There is an accumulation of evidences suggesting that oxidative damage might be one of the primary biochemical events leading to cataract development.
This study was conducted at the Department of Biochemistry ,College of Medicine , Kufa University from December /2006 to July /2007.One hunderd and ten cataractous lenses were collected from patients aged 50-85 years (males 52 and females 58) who underwent extracapsular cataract extraction at Al-sadder Teaching Hospital in Najaf. Blood samples were obtained from 60 patients (males 25 and females 35). Lens and blood samples were subjected to chemical analysis to estimate levels of catalase activity and glutathione as a biomarker of oxidative stress in cataractogenesis process. Comparison was made between mature and immature cataract and it was found that the catalase activity and levels of glutathione were significantly decreased (P<0.01) in lens and serum of patients with mature cataract and smokers when compared with immature cataract and non smokers respectively.

Effect of GarlicOil on Gentamicin InducedHepatorenal Toxicity in rats

Mohammed Talat Abbas; Mohammed Mustafa HashimZayni; Najdat Ali Al-Kadhi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 0, Pages 109-117

Gentamicin is an important aminoglycoside, natural or semisynthetic antibiotic commonly used against the life threating infections in human. Nephrotoxicity is the major side effect of aminoglycosides. The aim of this study is to investigate the protective/ prophylactic roles of garlic oil against gentamicin-induced abnormalities in metabolic biochemical parameters in serum and tissues of female albino rats. In this study, we used 30 Wistar albino 230-250 g female rats. The animals were randomly divided into five groups. Each experimental group consisted of six animals.Control group, they were fed with only standard rat diet and tap water for 2week. Garlic Oil: Rats were treated daily with a dose of5 ml/kg Garlic Oil(GO) via gavage, and received was start of the 5day of the experiment. Gentamicin: Rats were treated daily with a dose of 100 mg/kg gentamicin(G) asintraperitoneal(IP) at 5 day of the experiment. Gentamicin + Garlic Oil: Rats were treated with synchronisedintraperitoneal gentamicin plus garlic oil 5ml/kg every day via gavage at 5 day of the experiment. Garlic Oil (Pre) +Gentamicin: Rats were treated with 5 ml/kg/ every day via gavage garlic oil in start the first day of the experiment and then gentamicin received at the above-mentioned dose at 5 day of the experiment.a significant increase in serum levels of glucose, bilirubin, urea and creatinine as well as the activity of the AST, ALT, LDH, and ALP enzymes were observed in rats treated with gentamicin for a period of ten days. However, supplementation of gentamicin- intoxicated rats with garlic oil ameliorated the gentamicin adverse effects as evidenced by a significant increase of serum total protein content, and a decrease of serum glucose, bilirubin, urea and creatinine levels, as well as the activity of AST, ALT,LDH and ALP enzymes. Histopathological changes in liver and kidney were not observed on animals treated with Garlic oil when compared with the control group .However, animals treated with gentamicin showed fibrosis, necrosis, and fatty infiltrate in liver and showed necrosis and degeneration of glomerulus in kidney. This effect was significantly decreased in animals pretreated with garlic oil.

A Modeling Approach Towards Improving Compliance of Treated Water Quality to Reduce Manpower and Chemicals

Alaa Husaeen Wadie

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 0, Pages 118-128

In water treatment processes, the individual unit operations are complex, highly non-linear and poorly understood. Whilst many models have been developed to improve process understanding, these are rarely in a form easily exploited by the control engineer. Attempts to improve the performance of water treatment works through the application of improved control and measurement have had variable success. This paper investigates the application of feed forward control on the clarification process of a small-scale pilot plant. The application aimed towards maximizing the efficiency of the chemical coagulation process. To accomplish this, a simple computer program written in Visual Basic version 6 models to achieve the process operating conditions. Mathematical models based on historical plant data covering 18 months were analyzed by stepwise multiple regression analysis. The following parameters were important determinants of coagulant dose and pH control reagents: river turbidity, pH, temperature, total dissolved solids, and plant flowrate. A predictive equation was developed from the data, of the form:
Al2(SO4)3 (mg/L) = a*Q + b*Turb + c*TDS + d*pH + e*Temp + f
While for adjusting pH, whether lime or soda ash are added, the pretreatment of water supplies involves decreasing the acidity, to soften, and to clear drinking water. Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime. The addition of lime is with the form:
CaO (mg/L) = j + k *pH
The addition form for sodium percarbonate Na2CO3 is:
Na2CO3 (mg/L) = m + n*pH
The program was designed as an aid, so the user can still customize and optimize the computer suggested design. Users are able to move forward in adjusting or optimizing the design in minutes, which is difficult for manual system.
This system is very powerful tool in improving compliance of treated water quality to reduce manpower and chemicals. This is the underlying concept behind the development of this work and to facilitate the organizations and individuals with better understanding on how their actions can have a direct impact on the treatment.

Calculating the parameters of a circular microstrip antennas CMSAs by using the Simple Cavity Model SCM.

Nabeel Abbas Areebi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 0, Pages 129-136

Simple Cavity Model (SCM) was used to solve the problems related to the measurement of the characteristics of microstrip antennas MSAs, where the electric and magnetic fields were calculated . The programming of the SCM equations was done using MATLAB language.
The antenna parameters such as: (input impedance, return loss ,bandwidth, resonance frequency and radiation patterns for both 〖TM〗_11 mode and 〖TM〗_21 mode) were computed and plotted. From which the bandwidth and directivity of the circular microstrip antennas have been determined. We found the increasing in the bandwidth value was obtained from increasing the thickness of the dielectric substrate in the CMSA and decreasing the dielectric constant.

Employing hybrid methods for compression color images

Baheja K.Shukur

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 0, Pages 137-144

The purpose of compressing images to represent the image less to provide cost data storage and transmission time, however, the effectiveness of pressure accomplished by bringing the original image (instead of the exact loss).
Therefore clustering problem defined as a collection of objects which are “similar” between them and are “dissimilar” to the objects belonging to other clusters; so, as every other problem of this kind, it deals with finding a structure in a collection of unlabeled data that providing a novel solution to the color image compression by exploiting the ability to generating groups of data by using k-mean algorithm.
In this study true color images converted to YIQ color space then k-mean algorithm applied on the Y component to determine the number of cluster which used to constructing the clustered images. Run length encoding (RLE) algorithm applied on the resulting YIQ clustering images. In decompression stage RLE decompression algorithm
used to reconstruct the RGB color images. Number of quality measurement computed like (peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), (mean square error) MSE and signal to noise ratio (SNR) to measure the amount of distortion in this processes also the compression ratio calculated.

Study on the photocatalytic degradation of indigo carmine dye by TiO2 photocatalyst

Ahmed Hassan Ali

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 0, Pages 145-153

Dye pollutants produced from the textile industries are becoming a major source of environmental contaminations. Approximately 150 tonnes every day is estimated to be released into the aquatic environment all over the world. The release of those dyes in the aquatic environment is a considerable source of non-aesthetic pollution and these dyes are also resistant to aerobic degradation, and under anaerobic conditions the dyes can be transformed into carcinogenic aromatic amines.
This research reports on photocatalytic treatment of a hazardous indigo carmine dye in wastewater. The photocatalytic degradation was carried out in the presence of the catalyst TiO2. The effect of catalyst dose, pH and initial dye concentration on the degradation process has been assessed. The aqueous dye solution was degraded in a photochemical reactor in presence of UV light (365nm) along with suspended TiO2 particles. 100 ml of dye solution (25ppm) was subjected to degradation under UV light. Different concentrations of TiO2 photocatalyst (0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.25g/L), different pH values (4, 7, 9, and 11) and different concentrations of indigo carmine dye (5, 10, 25, 50, 100 ppm) were employed for the present study. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction at optimum conditions was examined. The degradation of the dye was confirmed from the disappearance of peak at 608 nm.

Nonlinear Dynamic Modelling of Methanol-Water Continuous Distillation Column

Asseel M. Rasheed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 0, Pages 154-166

Methanol-water distillation column is an important unit operation in chemical processes. This research presents simple procedure of design and then dynamic model for binary continuous distillation column. This model is used to simulate the nonlinear dynamics behavior of the column, study product composition response and test effect of disturbance which takes place in feed. It plays an important role in controlling the column. The simulation results show that the effect of feed composition disturbances is greater than the effect of feed flow rate disturbances on the dynamic response behavior of product composition. The dynamic response of change in distillate composition is accompanied by dead time at different feed perturbations.

On The Factor GroupK(Dn×C3When n =2h)

HuseinHadiAbass; Basmaa Mohammed zwen

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 0, Pages 167-175

Let Dn be the dihedral group and C3 be the cyclic group of order 3 . Let cf(Dn×C3,Z) be the abelian group of Z-valued class function of the group Dn×C3. The intersection of cf(Dn ×C3,Z) with the group of generalized characters of Dn ×C3 which is denoted by R( Dn×C3 ) is a normal subgroup of the group cf(Dn ×C3,Z)denoted by (Dn×C3) . The factor group cf(Dn ×C3,Z)/ (Dn×C3) is afinite abelian group denoted by K(Dn×C3) .
In this paper, we prove that the rational valued characters table of the group D ×C3 is equal to the tensor product of the rational valued characters table of D and the rational valued characters table of the cyclic group C3 . Also, we find that K(D ×C3)= .

Effect of maternal factors on breast feeding pattern among women in holy Karbala

Sulfa .A .Hussein; Suhair .M. Husoon; Suha attea

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 0, Pages 176-181

The aim of the present study is to determine variables, which associate with the breast feeding.
Background: Maternal milk is considered the best and mostimportant nutritional source for the infant during thefirst six months of life.It is a unique process that inaddition to supplying the ideal nutrition for lactatinginfants, contributes to their healthy growth anddevelopment.
Results: most mothers give breast feeding and the highest rate was among age group 30-34years.Analysis of data shows that breast feeding was higher among women who had of older age group, and older age at marriage, as well as illiterate mothers, and those who do not use contraception .
Recommendation: Antenatal counselling on breastfeeding and postnatal lactation support are likely to improve rates of exclusive breastfeeding as well as health.

The Effect of using Laboratory on achievement goodness and Scientific lighting for Intermediate stage students in physics

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 0, Pages 1-28

An instruction is the process of planned and intentional and designed to create positive changes in the undesirable behavior of educated and the objectives are the cornerstone of the educational process also students are the target group and accompanying the progress of scientific and technical expansion witnessed by the present- day had to take on the responsibility of education , through its educational and instruction preparation of cadres capable of specialized scientific research and thinking also the development of mental skills as well as progress sides of students so they can develop appropriate solutions to the problems faced by physicist, and the dimensions of the traditional teaching methods , which rely on the methods and to avoid traditional systems in education which depended on keeping by heart. This current research aiming to know change that happen in Laboratory on achievement goodness and Scientific lighting for Intermediate stage students in limits are schools department education Baghdad Al- Karkh/ second through answer about question following :
1- what is the Effect of using Laboratory in achievement goodness for Intermediate stage students.
2- what is the Effect of using Laboratory in Scientific lighting for Intermediate stage students.
3- what is the Effect of using Laboratory in achievement goodness & Scientific lighting for Intermediate stage students due to the sex.
The researcher using an experimental design was selected with partial control, groups were selected randomly. The sample consisted of (112) male& female students, (29) male students and (27) female students for an experimental group that number (56) was studied by using Laboratory , and such (56) male & female students for the control group was studied by the ordinary method. The groups are equivalent according to the following variables: Age (in months). Intelligence (mental age), previous knowledge in physics of the first Class Intermediate and the level instructional also pre- knowledge test.
The researcher using instruments for measurement , the first achievement test consist of (50) item objective (a multiple choice test for each one four alternates one of them right(25)item and empty(25)item it has been presented the items of test on group of experts and arbiters to know it capacity and suitability for the purpose in which used for, the second Scientific lighting measure this make ready (mohamad,2011) consist of (45) item test Scientific lighting of (50) question to be covered dimension five main. And after application instruments research and treatment research result statistically by using of T- test the results were appear as follows:
1- There is a direct statistica as (% 0.05)l difference between average degrees achievement for students experimental & control, groups for benefit experimental group .
2- There is a direct statistical as (% 0.05) difference between average degrees Scientific lighting for students experimental & control, groups as for benefit experimental group .
3- There is no a direct statistical as (% 0.05) difference between average degrees achievement for students research , groups due to change sex.
4- There is no a direct statistical as (% 0.05) difference between average degrees Scientific lighting for students research , groups due to change sex.

Political decision-making mechanism of Kuwait (Upbringing and even contemporary Kuwait)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 0, Pages 75-90

The process of political decision-making related to the political system, which is a group of institutional relationships that are reflected on the social reality of the country, as a result of the interrelationship between the political system and decision-making, the latter influenced all interactions community simply because the process of transforming the political demands in the community to make binding decisions, and usually do not have political decision unilaterally, but it is often a collection of opinions and positions converged, which concludes at the end a decision usefulness to the public interest, in addition to this, the political decision to be devoid of meaning if it does not comply with the interests and needs of the community groups that are the responsibility of the decision-maker

The Companion Umm Salamah (God bless her) And their impact on the study of the Sunnah

journal of kerbala university, Volume 9, Issue 0, Pages 91-105

Whatever disappeared historical facts in books on the shelves of libraries must extend the hands that want to show the truth and give the devil his due, and thank God, who did this work, which I hope to have reached even the minimum of satisfaction seen it and through which summarized a number of important results:
1- This research sheds light on several aspects of the personality of Umm Salamah (God bless her) that ripe her Alzerrv to be One of the women with a share in the history and have a distinct impact of biography and thought it belonged to the family، Knew her generosity and kindness, as well as the most important event in her life is her marriage to the Prophet (God bless him and his family).
2- research found that Umm Salamah (God bless her) was alive time Martyrdom of Imam Hussein (peace be upon him) was because of the confirmation of the Holy Prophet (God bless him and his family) to do so In the famous modern bottle and blood Alabit.
3- research focused on number of conversations told by Umm Salamah (God bless her) nine in the modern books .
4- Explain search relationship Umm Salamah (God bless her) for the family Mohammed (God bless him and his family) and are very close and almost one
Them to their crisis throughout their life span fixed position towards them and recounted a lot of chatter that uttered them Especially in the Imam Ali (peace be upon him).
5- Find the religious and social status prestigious L Salamah (God bless her) because of the reluctance of some personalities Saw them jurisprudence and righteousness for the purpose of documenting conversations and hear for themselves.
Seek through her positions on the wisdom of her mind and pass the crises and dilemmas that they encounter Muslims.