ISSN: 1813-0410

Volume 8, Issue 2

Volume 8, Issue 2, Spring 2012, Page 1-347


Effect of Cd (NO3)2 .4H2O on Some Optical Properties of High Density Polyethylene

Eman Ibrahim Awad

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 1-6

In the present work , effect of addition Cd (NO3)2 .4H2O on some optical properties of High Density Polyethylene has been studied . for that purpose , many samples has been prepared by adding Cd (NO3)2 .4H2O on the High Density Polyethylene by different volume percentages from these salts with polymer and by different thickness .The absorption and transmission spectra has been recorded in the wavelength range (300-1100)nm . The absorption coefficient and energy gap of the indirect, allowed, forbidden transition have been determined.

Study the defects of mitochondrial architecture in mid piece of sperms in young and aged local bulls

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 7-12

This study was conducted in kerbala, vet. Med.lab University of kerbala, to determine the effect of age on sperm activity and quality in bulls.
The study included the collection of 30 semen samples from the tail of epididymis from local healthy bulls (15 from young and 15 from aged bulls) .The results revealed abnormal mid piece of sperms in 4 (26.66%) samples in young bulls, gives 5 defects as the following: 3 (20%) thickness, 1(6.66%) irregular, and 1(6.66%) absent) in young samples, while the abnormalities of aged shows 13(86.66%) samples gives 42 defects as the following: 10 (66.66 %) thickness, 8 (53.33%) interrupted, 6 (40%) irregular, 5 (33.33%) thin, 4 (26.66%) short, 4 (26.66%) pseudo droplet, 3 (20%) absent, 2 (13.33%) double.
Statistical analysis revealed, there is significant variation P ≤ 0.01 in abnormalities of sperm mid piece between young and aged bulls.

Simulating DES Algorithm Using Artificial Neural Network

Noor Dhia Kadhm Al-Shakarchy

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 13-21

Data Encryption Standard (DES) algorithm considers one of complicated algorithms that have users confidence for a long time. This algorithm enjoy with wide spread in business progress, banking, and governmental.
When DES algorithm entered running space, and many experiments and researches in cryptanalysis continuous to break this algorithm. In this research we using artificial neural networks to attack this algorithm by designing artificial neural network system simulating the main design of DES algorithm. The main idea of proposed system depends on represented the plaintext / ciphertext process; so that(Expansion permutation, and S-boxes substitution, and P-boxes permutation) process represented in proposed artificial neural network model; because the key is unknown and the purpose of proposed system obtained it. The proposed system used in two ways as cryptanalysis by provide a ciphertext as input to the network and the output obtained from the network system is the plaintext. The second used to the network is as cryptography system that’s by inputs plaintext as input to the network system and the output obtained from the network is ciphertext.

Synthesis and Characterization of Heterocyclic Azo Dye Complexes with Selected Metal Ions

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 22-32

Coupling reaction of 4-amino antipyrene with 2,6-dimethyl phenol gave bidentate azo ligand. The prepared ligand was identified by Microelemental Analysis, 1HNMR, FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques. Treatment of the prepared ligand with the following metal ions (CoII, NiII, CuII, ZnII, CdII, and HgII) in aqueous ethanol with a 1:2 M:L ratio and at optimum pH, yielded a series of neutral complexes of the general formula [M(L)2Cl2]. The prepared complexes were characterized using flame atomic absorption, (C.H.N) Analysis, FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopic methods as well as magnetic susceptibility and conductivity measurements. Chloride ion content was also evaluated by (Mohr method). The nature of the complexes formed were studied following the mole ratio and continuous variation methods, Beer's law obeyed over a concentration range (1×10-4 - 3× 10-4 M). High molar absorbtivity of the complex solutions were observed. The stability constant of the complexes have also been studied.

Nuclear deformation shape in the rich neutrons 172-194Os Isotopes

Mohsin Kadhim Muttaleb

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 33-40

A study of Os isotopes chain from (172-194) nuclei is presented .The energy levels , B(E2) transitions , the quadrupole moment of 21+ state and potential energy surfaces are described using the general IBM-1 Hamiltonian. In this chain nuclei evolve from O(6) to SU(3) properties stepwise with increases the atomic mass number. The energy ratio E(Jiπ)/E(21+) for the Jiπ =41+,61+ and 81+ levels for the doubly even Osmium isotopes agreement with both the non axial gamma-soft rotor limit and rotational which behavior were good criterion for the shape transition. The predicted theoretical calculations were compared with the experimental data in respective figures and tables ,it was seen that the predicted results are in a good agreement with the experimental data.
In the framework of IBM calculations (33) new energy levels were determined for 172-194Os

Radon Measurements in Different Types of Carbonated Drinks in Iraq

Abdalsattar K. Hashim; Abbas J. Al-Saadi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 41-46

In this study, the concentrations of radon (222Rn) radioactive isotope in different types of carbonated drink samples, as well as, in sterilized drinking water were determined. Measurements were made , using long-term technique for alpha particles emission with solid state nuclear track detector type CR-39. Twelve types of different carbonated drinks were brought from local markets in Iraq. The results showed that Radon concentrations in carbonated drinks samples were ranging between (1.771 - 5.642) Bq/L; while the average value was (3.835 Bq/L). The highest concentration was found in peach drink samples, whereas the lowest concentration was in the orange flavored drink. Also that radon concentration in sterilized drinking water was measured 1.642 Bq/L. However, these values were lower than allowed maximum contaminant level (MCL) for (222Rn) in drinking water as reported by USA Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) which is about 11.1 Bq/L.

The role of bird thymus extract on some immunological parameters in rabbits vaccinated with killed Salmonella typhi

FrialGemeelAbd; Lubnaabd al- adeemMjeed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 47-52

Three groups of rabbits were used to study the effect of bird thymus extract with protein concentration of 1.5 mg /ml .First group was injected with thymus extract ,second group was injected with thymus extract and killed Salmonella antigen and third group was injected wiN n th killed Salmonella antigen .After the period of immunization schedule was completed ,Blood samples , intestinal and appendix were collected to study some immunological parameters (direct agglutination with Salmonella antigen ,IgM ,IgG concentrations ,LIF ,IFN-ᵞ ,phagocytic activity and delayed type hypersensitivity ).Thymus extract was effect on humoral immunity by increasing the mean of specific titers against Salmonella in second group(533.33 ,53.3, 53.3)while third group were (266.6 ,26.6 ,26.6),the concentrations of immunoglobulin (IgM, IgG)also increased in second group compared with other groups .while in cellular immunity the results were differences between groups .
In this study we confirm, The immunomodulatory effect on previously mention parameters

A Numerical Method for Solving the Multi-Dimensional Hyperbolic Equations With Nonlocal Non-Linear Conditions

Ahlam Jameel Khaleel; Jehan Adnan Khtan

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 53-61

In this work we used numerical method for solving the initial value problem that consists of the multi-dimensional hyperbolic equation with (2m) nonlocal non-linear integral boundary conditions. This method depends on Crank-Niklson finite difference scheme and Taylor’s expansion.In this method the (2m) integrals in the (2m) nonlocal non-linear boundary conditions are approximated by using the composite Simpson 1/3 rule. Some examples are presented to illustrate the applicability of this method

New Transition Metal Complexes with a Multidentate Schiff-base: Synthesis , Characterize and Biological studies

Riyadh M. Ehmad; Dhuha F. Hussien; Enaam I. Yousif

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 62-70

5,5, '-(1 Abstract : The new polydentate Schiff-base ligand E,1'E)-(1,4-phenylene
bis(methan-1-yl-1-ylidene))bis(azan-1-yl-1-ylidene)bis(1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol) H2L and its binuclear metal complexes with Co(II) , Ni(II) and Cd(II) are reported. The reaction of thiosemicarbazide with anhydrous sodium carbonate in mole ratios of 1:1 gave the precursor 2-amino-5-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole. Condensation reaction of precursor with Benzen1,4-dicarboxaldehyde in mole ratios of 2:1 gave the new N2S4 Schiff-base ligand H2L.The complexes were prepared from the reaction of the corresponding metal chloride with the ligand .The ligand and its metal complexes were characterised by spectroscopic methods (FTIR, UV-Vis,1H.NMR, A.A), chloride content, conductance and melting point measurements.These studies revealed tetrahedral geometries for Co(II) and Cd(II) complexes of general formulae [M2(L2)] and square planar for Ni(II) complex.Biological activity of the ligand and its metal complexes against gram positive bacterial strain Bacillus (G+) and gram negative bacteria Ecoli (G-) The effects of prepared compounds depend on the type of tested bacteria. It is clear that, the ligand and its metal complexes have a potential effect on the gram negative (G-) of the tested bacteria.

Combined Convection In a TSNFL Square Cavity Under Various Moving Wall Directions

Ahmed Kadhim Hussein

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 71-85

Laminar combined convection air flow in a two-sided non-facing lid-driven (TSNFL) square cavity has been investigated numerically using a finite element method. The upper and lower walls are maintained at constant cold and hot temperatures respectively, while the left and right side walls are considered adiabatic. Four groups are considered for the movements of the TSNFL cavity walls and each group contains four different cases. All the non-facing cavity walls are considered to move at a constant lid velocity. Simulation of the cavity flow has been performed at three different Richardson numbers representing the natural convection, combined convection, and forced convection. The effect of the Richardson number and the movements of the TSNFL cavity walls on the heat transfer process are studied. The results are presented graphically in the form of streamlines, isotherms and average Nusselt number. The results indicated that the vortices grow with the direction of the movements of TSNFL cavity walls and the average Nusselt number decreases when the Richardson number increases. The results are compared with another published result and a good agreement are obtained.

Isolation and detection some factors causes diarrhea in children

Abeer Chiad Yousif; Mahdi Abdel kadher Ali; Kamal Mathlum Flyeh

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 86-92

The study was carried out to isolation and detection some of pathlogical agent of diarrhea disease for year(2009-2010-2011)all state take from one of health care center in kerbala total of it (1626)patients ,(443)case for year 2009 ,()451)case for year 2010,(732)case for year2011.The results showed that the number of patient in female more than male for year(2009,2010)reached in male and female (158,285) for year 2009 respectively while reached in male and female (211,240)for year 2010 respectively .The sample of water tested by[diethyl paraphenyel diamine(DPD)]chlorine were less than normal or negative Water culture showed growth of E.coli and other microorganisms. Stool examination showed high rate of E.coli,G.lambilia and E.histolytica.

Studying the prevalence of hepatitis virus in patients in Sammawa city

Nawar Jasim Hussein

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 116-124

This study was confirmed that HAV,HBV and HCV infections are endemic in Iraq, and are serious problem in Al-Muthanna province, during the period between October 2010 and April 2011,
The study included 83 patients who was diagnosed as viral hepatitis and referred to Central Public Health laboratory, with age range from 1-40 years old of both sexes.
Patients group were found to be 59 anti-HAV seropositve ,16 HBsAg seropositve, and anti-HCV seropositve.
The study showed that the percentage of anti-HAV seropositve was (71%) followed by HBsAg was (19%) and anti-HCV (10%) .The higher infection rates according to the age groups were under 10 years old 83% for hepatitis A, while hepatitis B and C were under age group 21-30 years old 50% and 51% respectively.
The higher infection rates according to the sex was in males in hepatitis A, B and C 61%,75% and 100% respectively. The higher infection rates according to residence was in hepatitis B in the rural regions (81%) while in urban regions in hepatitis A and C were 67% and 62% respectively.

Application of Neural Network For Solving Linear Algebraic Equations

Noor D.K. Al-Shakarchy; Enaam H. Abd

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 125-134

In this paper, we present an neural network approach to solve a set of linear algebraic equations. A Black-Box Neuro- Identifier network has been developed to optimize an convergence until getting the optimal solutions. Black- Box approach called also (input-output description) which is used when no information is available about the system except its input and output. The input-output description of a system gives a mathematical relationship between the input and output of the system. In developing this description, the knowledge of the internal structure of a system may be assumed to be unavailable; the only access to the system is by means of the input and output terminals. Our approach called Black Box Neural Network(BBNN) which provided an optimal solution and a faster way to solve the linear systems; and considered the best with large systems ( the number of equations and parameters very large) and conceded the first step to apply this approach with nonlinear algebraic equations which needs difficult computes and long time relatively.

On Separable S^*-Non-Atomic Boolean Algebra

Dhuha Abdul-Ameer Kadhim; Ali Hussain Battor

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 135-139

The main purpose of this paper is to study the characterization of separable S*-non-atomic Boolean algebra and to give a necessary facts about this concept, where S^*= S^* [0,1] is the ring of all real measurable functions on [0,1].

Clinical Evaluation Of Bovine - Derived Xenograft In Treatment Of Human Periodontal Class II Molar Furcation Defects.

Zainab Muhi Hameed Al- Fatlawi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 140-148

The aim of this study is clinical evaluation of bovine derived xenograft in the treatment of human periodontal Class II molar furcation defects. Eighteen patients(8 males, 10 females) suffering from chronic periodontitis,with Grade II molar furcation defect, were treated using bovine derived xenograft , completed the study with the following clinical parameters were assessed immediately before the surgical procedure(Baseline) and at 6 months after treatment.These parameters were, Plaque index Score(PlI),gingival index (GI) periodontal pocket depth(PPD),Clinical attachment level (CAL),Gingival Recession(GR) and Closed horizontal probing depth (CHPD).This therapy resulted in significant PPD reductions and no significant improvement was seen (CAL),(GR) and(CHPD). For the mean values for the of (PPD)(5.47±1.39),(CAL)(3.1±1.4), (GR)(0.21±0.51) and(CHPD)(3.5±1.3) at baseline ,while these parameters at 6 months after surgical treatment were(3.8±1.52),(2.35± 1.34), (0.3±0.5)and(2.2±1.3) respectively.
The findings of this study suggest improvement in clinical results with bovine derived xenograft treatment in class II furcation molar defects.

THEORETICAL AND NUMERICAL ANALYSIS FOR BUCKLING OF ANTISYMMETRIC SIMPLY SUPPORTED LAMINATED PLATES UNDER UNIAXIAL LOADS

Abdulkareem Al Humdany; Emad Q. Hussein

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 149-160

The buckling behaviors of antisymmetrically angle ply laminated composite plate under uniaxial compression have been studied using eigenvalue buckling analysis. In this research, the effects of aspect ratio, fiber orientation, number of layers and material properties on the critical loads have been studied. Finite element model is carried out using ANSYS package version 5.4,the adopted element is 3-D with 8 nodes shell 99 composite one. A comparison study is made between the present analysis and the finite element method FEM and good agreement is obtained. It is found that in design of an antisymmetric laminate; the thickness is not only the element which must be determined, to satisfy the constraints of the problem, but in addition, the number of layers in the laminate and their relative fiber orientation must also be considered. The mathematical model has been implemented in a MAT LAP

Preoperative Care of diabetes Mellitus Patients

Hadeel Kh. Mohamed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 161-168

People with diabetes present unique challenges for surgery because of their delicate metabolic balance between insulin and its counter regulatory hormones. The complications related to diabetes present further challenges, especially with regard to cardiac risk assessment. The medical history, physical examination, application of the cardiac risk indexes, and the appropriate ancillary tests would be help for risk-stratify patients. Diabetes must be controlled tightly preoperatively. This will improve coagulation time of blood and wound healing, also will decrease the chance of postoperative infections. Careful preoperative assessment and planning by clinicians can help diabetic patients to ensure the difficult surgical period

Solution of the calculus in the computer by using MathCAD software

Basim Karim Kadhir

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 169-173

In this research we give a brief explain the basic usage of MathCad software in calculus, and we will see in program mathcad can typing and evaluating mathematical expression, computing symbolically or numerically, where Mathcad scripting codes, also will explain set of notes which will describe how to use some of the features of MathCAD that perform calculus by using some of operators, also supported this solution by the some examples, and finally the mathcad software lets you use the language of mathematics which a consider new technique and fast in mathematical.

On the b-separation axioms

EnaamHadiAbd

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 174-180

In this paper we present b-separation axioms by using b-open set and proved some related theorems .Where we consider T0 ,T1,T2and T3spaces also regular and normal spaces .

Nonlinear responses and optical limiting behavior of 2-Chloro-5-nitroanisole dye under CW laser illumination

Fahmi S. Radhi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 181-186

Nonlinear optical properties of 2-Chloro-5-nitroanisole in chloroform solvent are studied employing different optical techniques. Experiments are performed using the diode laser beam at 532 nm wavelength and 50mW power. The effect of nonlinearity of 2-Chloro-5-nitroanisole in broadening the laser beam is observed. The optical limiting behavior is investigated by measuring the transmission of the samples. The nonlinear absorption coefficient is calculated using the open aperture Z-scan data, while its nonlinear refractive index is measured using the closed aperture Z-scan data. The nonlinear refractive index and absorption coefficient are found to be in the order of 1.24x〖10〗^7 〖cm〗^2⁄W and 8.68x〖10〗^(-3) cm⁄Wrespectively. The results indicate that 2-Chloro-5-nitroanisole is a potential candidate for low-power optical limiting application. The optical limiting behavior of the solvent of 2-Chloro-5-nitroanisole is also demonstrated.

Comparison between the results of applications of the Canadian and Bhargava methods for irrigation water quality index at multi- locations in Tigris River. (A Case Study of Al-amarah Region)

Nabaa Shakir Hadi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 187-196

To understand the Iraqi water needs for different uses, it is important to study the quality of the water parallel with the quantity. In this research, two national methods are adopted to evaluate and judge the suitability of Tigris River (in Al-amarah region) for irrigation use. These methods include the water quality index (WQI) of the Canadian and Bhargava. These indices have been applied to assess the suitability of water for a variety of uses and reflects the status of water quality in lakes, streams, rivers, and reservoirs. The concept of WQIs is based on a comparison of the concentration of contaminants with the respective environmental standards.
Tigris River is one of the two main rivers passing through Iraqi land, the uses of its water are different and its use for irrigation depends on many environmental parameters ( CL-1, Ca+2, Mg+2, TDS, PH, EC, SO4-2 and SAR ). The researcher studied the quality of this river for irrigation use during year 2011. Seven locations were been taken on the Tigris river in Al-amarah Region in Iraq. The main results showed that there is no difference between the two techniques at significance level (0.01) and the quality of the river inter in Al-amarah Region classified as GOOD and FAIR according to Bhargava and the Canadian method respectively.

Application of B-Spline to Numerical Solution of Free Damped Vibration Equation with Boundary Values Conditions

Adil Mohamad Hassan Rizak Al-Rammahi; Shahad Adel Taher alkhafaji

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 197-211

In this paper were recruit B -spline method to Solve one types of ordinary differential equations Free Damped Vibration where a solution by B – spline method Further confirmation of the results by comparing with exact solution, the comparison also a way to resolve numerical approximations other generally accepted called finite Deference method . Proved that the way B–spline is the best in terms of error rate through compliance with the exact solution.

Modified (LTB) Algorithm For Image Compression By Using Standard MV-Algebra

Husein Hadi Abbass; Karrar Dheiaa Mohammed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 212-228

In this paper ,we introduce a new method as a modified of the (LTB) algorithm for image compression, by using the standard MV-algebra (A, , ~ ,0), where A=[0,1] is the unit interval of real numbers with the internal binary operation which is defined by x y=min {1, x+y }and the internal unary operation ~ x =1-x, for all x,y belong to A and a constant 0. We prove some mathematical properties of standard MV-algebra to use them as a mathematical support in our modified method, we call this method (CSLTB). A comparison was made between our method and (LTB algorithm , JPEG algorithm) by the PSNR (Peak signal Noise Ratio) and RMSE (Root Mean Square Error).Show that our method has better performance.

Mutagenic and anti-mutagenic effect of alcoholic extract of Citrullius colocynthis seeds using bacterial system (G-system)

Ali Hafedh Abbas; Hind Hussein Obaid; LikaaHasoun Sagban; Ishrak Abdul Ameer; Rasha Hussein Kubba

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 229-236

Methanolic extract (80% methanol) of Citrullius colocynthis dried seeds was evaluated for its mutagenic and anti-mutagenic effect in vitro using bacterial system (G-system). The study depended on recording survival index (Sx) as an indicator for study the cytotoxicity effects and the induction of Streptomycin and Rifampicin resistance mutants as a genetic marker.Alcoholic extract of 80% methanol was prepared from dried seeds, and then the extract was dried, then 5 ml of distilled water was used to dissolve the powder, gradual concentrations of plant seeds alcoholic extracts were used to choose the suitable concentration which is resemble the negative control.
The interactions included three types of treatments (pre-mutant, with-mutant and post-mutant) between optimum methanolic extract of dried seed (125 μg/ml)and optimum concentration of methotrexate drug (MTX) (50 μg/ml)as a chemical mutagen and the optimum exposure time of ultra violet ray (UV) (10 minutes, 254 nanometer) as a physical mutagen in order to determine the mechanisms of this plant extract in preventing or reducing the genotoxic effect of MTX and UV.
The results showed that a significant increasing in survival index(Sx) of treated cells which is resemble the negative control when compared with positive control, and the methanolic seed extract of C. colocynthishad no effect to induce resistance mutant for the two antibiotics for all treatment. So these findings suggest that the plant extract have no genotoxic effect on the cells system.
The results of interaction between optimum concentration for extract and the treatment with mutagen to induce resistance mutant for streptomycin and rifampicin found that the MTX had no effect to induce resistance mutant for these two antibiotics, for the three types of treatment (pre-MTX, with-MTX, and post-MTX), while the result of interaction between optimum concentration of extract and the treatment with UV shows that UV had no effect to induce resistance mutant for these two antibiotics, for the two types of treatment (with-UV, and post-UV), the alcoholic extract suppresses or repair mutant from the treatment with MTX and UV ray and give protection 100% for bacterial cells, while the percentage of pre-UV treatment was (90%).

Study the influence of excitation capacitance chooses and examines the use of external rotor capacitance techniques on the performance induction generator

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 237-257

The generated voltage of the self – excited induction generator (SEIG) depending on the wind velocity fluctuations , load variations and is mainly depend on choosing the proper value of excitation capacitor .This value is very crucial for the self-excitation and voltage build-up as well as voltage regulation in an SCIG. This paper presents simple and accurate approach to compute the minimum value of capacitance required for initiating the voltage build-up and maximum value which the machine fails to self excitation in a three-phase slip ring induction generator and also attention is focused on the influence of external rotor capacitance along with the excitation capacitance which were used to achieve the reactive power requirements and observing their effect in building up the voltage. In this paper is the new method proposed based on the dq Model techniques is developed to find the capacitance requirement under R-L load and resistive load.

On Artin Character Table of The Group When m is a Prim Number

Nesir Rasool Mahmood; Zahraa Fadel Abd AL-Hussein

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 258-267

The main purpose of this thesis Result is to determine the of The Artin Characters Table of The Group ( ) When m is a prim Number.
And we prove that the Artin Characters Table of The Group ( ) When m is a prim Number to explain by using the examples.

Laboratory Investigation on Efficiency of Models Stone and Lime Column Groups

Mohammed Al-Waily; Geotechnical Engineer; Mayssa Salem F. Al-Dabbas

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 268-279

The efficiency of a group (Eg) of stone or lime columns is defined as the ratio between the capacity of each stone or lime column in the groupto the capacity ofsingle stone (lime) column. In this study, the group efficiency of 16 model stone and lime columns installed in soft clay arecalculated. These groups consist of 2, 3 and 4 columns. The tests were conducted on stone and lime columns with length to diameter ratio (L/D) of 9.A special compression machine was manufactured for carrying up these tests. The foundation steel plate have 120 mm diameter and 5 mm thickness. The spacing between all columns equals twice the stone or lime column diameter (D), center to center.
The stone (lime) column capacity is taken as the load corresponding to a settlement equals to 50% of the diameter of stone (lime) column. The results illustrated that the group efficiency decreases with increasing the number of stone columns, also the stone columns provided higher efficiency than lime columns in the soil of shear strength (cu= 8 kpa), but the lime columns provided higher efficiency than stone columns in soil of cu= 14 kPa.

Effect of Area Replacement Ratio on Bearing Capacity of Soil Treated With Stone Column

Maki Jafar Mohammed Al-Waily

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 280-290

This experimental study was conducted to demonstrate the relationship between the bearing improvement ratio (which is defined as the ratio between the bearing capacity of the soil treated with stone column to the bearing capacity of untreated soil at the same settlement level ) or (qtreated/quntreated) and the area replacement ratio (which is defined as the ratio between the area of cross-section of stone column and the area of soil surrounding it).
The investigation was carried out using model tests of stone column with different diameters (20, 30, 50 and 60 mm) or area replacement ratio (Ar) (0.042, 0.099, 0.333 and 0.563) performed inside the container with dimensions of 240 mm x 240 mm and in height of 260 mm. The undrained shear strength of the soil prepared in the containers ranged from 11 kPa to 22 kpa
The study showed that the bearing improvement ratio were 1.16, 1.29, 1.64 and 2.29 for the soil having (cu = 16 kPa) treated with stone columns of (Ar = 0.042, 0.099, 0.333 and 0.563) respectively.

The Solution of Special kind of Linear Second Order Partial Differential Equations and Solution The Heat Equation as Physical Application in Spherical Coordinates

Ali Hassan Mohammed; Ali K. Hasan; Wafaa Hadi Hanoon

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 291-303

The main aim of this search is to solve kind of partial differential equations of second order with variable coefficients, which have the general form

where some of and are functions of or both .
For this purpose, we will use one kind of the partial differential equations its formula
where are real constants.
We found the following substitution
.
Transforms the above kind to the first order ordinary differential equation with two independent functions , which have the general form

We found the general form of its complete solution and we applied this form for solving the heat equation as physical application in spherical coordinates

Numerical Investigation of Mixed Convection inside a Wavy Upper and Lower Surfaces Cavity

Esam M. Mohamed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 304-319

A numerical study has been performed on mixed convection heat transfer inside a square cavity with sinusoidal wavy upper and lower surfaces, the vertical walls are insulated. The lower surface was maintained at uniform temperature higher than the upper surface.
Vorticity-stream function method has been used to write the dimensionless governing equations, which consist of parabolic vorticity and energy equations that are solved by (explicit) method and elliptic stream function equation solved by successive over- relaxation method (S.O.R). The system of equations was solved using finite difference discretization. The Body Fitted Coordinate system (B.F.C) has been used with the grid generation technique to solve the flow equations because of the complexity of the upper and lower surfaces shape. Two elliptic differential equations had been solved to generate the internal grid.
In the present study, the effect of number and amplitude of undulations (λ & A) of the wavy surfaces, the Richardson number (Ri) and Grashof number (Gr) on the flow structure inside the cavity and Nusselt number of the heated wall are reported for (λ=0 to 3), (A=0, 0.02, 0.04 and 0.06), (Ri =0.01, 0.1, 1 & 10), (Gr=103 ,103.5,104 & 104.5) and Pr=0.71. A two-dimensional laminar viscous non-compressible fluid flow was considered.
From the present analysis, it is found that local Nusselt number increases with increasing the number of waves of the wavy surfaces. While, the mean and local Nusselt number decreases with increasing the amplitude of undulation (A) and Richardson number (Ri) and increases with increasing the Grashof number (Gr). Higher mean Nusselt number is observed at (A=0.02 & Gr=104.5) at low Richardson number value (Ri=0.01). The validity of the numerical code is verified by comparison with published results.

Numerical Investigation of Mixed Convection inside a Wavy Upper and Lower Surfaces Cavity

Esam M. Mohamed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 304-319

A numerical study has been performed on mixed convection heat transfer inside a square cavity with sinusoidal wavy upper and lower surfaces, the vertical walls are insulated. The lower surface was maintained at uniform temperature higher than the upper surface.
Vorticity-stream function method has been used to write the dimensionless governing equations, which consist of parabolic vorticity and energy equations that are solved by (explicit) method and elliptic stream function equation solved by successive over- relaxation method (S.O.R). The system of equations was solved using finite difference discretization. The Body Fitted Coordinate system (B.F.C) has been used with the grid generation technique to solve the flow equations because of the complexity of the upper and lower surfaces shape. Two elliptic differential equations had been solved to generate the internal grid.
In the present study, the effect of number and amplitude of undulations (λ & A) of the wavy surfaces, the Richardson number (Ri) and Grashof number (Gr) on the flow structure inside the cavity and Nusselt number of the heated wall are reported for (λ=0 to 3), (A=0, 0.02, 0.04 and 0.06), (Ri =0.01, 0.1, 1 & 10), (Gr=103 ,103.5,104 & 104.5) and Pr=0.71. A two-dimensional laminar viscous non-compressible fluid flow was considered.
From the present analysis, it is found that local Nusselt number increases with increasing the number of waves of the wavy surfaces. While, the mean and local Nusselt number decreases with increasing the amplitude of undulation (A) and Richardson number (Ri) and increases with increasing the Grashof number (Gr). Higher mean Nusselt number is observed at (A=0.02 & Gr=104.5) at low Richardson number value (Ri=0.01). The validity of the numerical code is verified by comparison with published results.

Comparative Study on Liver and Lung Infections with Hydatid Cysts, Liver Flukes and Lung Worms among Slaughtered Ruminants in Kerbala Abattoirs

Hikmat Sahib Al- Nassir; Ehsan Mohammed S. Al- Zuqaibi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 320-325

This study was conducted in three slaughter- houses of Kerbala City during five months for the period of 20th April 2011 to 22nd September 2011 and aimed to detect the most common parasitic infections of livers and lungs amongst ruminants in Kerbala governorate.
In this study, a total of 20477 of sheep carcasses , 4421 of goat carcasses , 3993 of cattle carcasses as well as 622 of buffalo carcasses were examined.
The results showed infection of both organs ( liver & lung ) in a considerable number of examined animals with parasitic diseases namely , hydatid cysts (Echinococcus granulosus ) , lung worms (Dictyocaulus spp ) and liver flukes (Fasciola spp ). The grand total infection rates in buffalo carcasses were higher than other animals and reached to 8.36% with a significant variation (P≤ 0.01) , while the total parasitic infection rates in cattle, goats and sheep were 5% , 4.07% and 4% respectively .
The results also showed that livers of buffalo was more frequently infected with hydatid cysts and Fasciola spp when compared with livers of cattle, sheep and goats, as 4.98% of buffalo-liver was found infected with hydatid cysts , while livers of 3.28% cattle, 2. 39% sheep and 2% goats harbored the infection. Moreover, Fasciola spp was also detected more frequently in buffalo liver ( 2.57%) than cattle ( 1.32%), goats ( 0.74%) and sheep ( 0.67%).
The infection of goats with lung worms was higher than other animal species which reached to 1.29% , while the rates of infection in other slaughtered animal spp. were 0.94% , 0.8% and 0.55% of sheep , buffalo and cattle respectively

EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY ON THE PREVALENCE OF HYDATIDOSIS IN SLAUGHTERED RUMINANTS IN KERBALA GOVERNORATE

Hikmat . S. Al-Nassir

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 326-333

A retrospective survey was conducted for determining the prevalence of hydatid cysts in food animal species: sheep, goats, cattle, buffaloes and camels in Kerbala Governorate between January and December2011. Slaughterhouse specimens of 1130 sheep, 200 goats, 292 cattle and 79 buffaloes were collected through weekly visits.
Hydatid cysts in liver and lungs of the above mentioned animal species were detected and counted, while the fertility rate of the cysts was microscopically examined. A temporal distribution of infection was studied to determine the seasonal variation of the incidence rates.
The rate of infection was 2.41% in sheep, 2.16% in goats, 3.18% in cattle, 4.79% in buffaloes and 0% in camels. The highest percentage of infection (4.79%) was noticed in buffaloes can be attributed to the old age at which the animal was examined, while the argument behind the lowest infection rate 0% in camel was the unique raising system of camel as well as the weak relationship between camel and stray dogs.
The infection was noticed more frequently in livers(53% sheep and buffaloes, 56% goats and cattle) than lungs of all examined animal species. The results also revealed that the highest infection rate of hydatidosis in all examined animal species was recorded in the first quarter of the year (winter season). The grazing system of the animals during late autumn and winter may increase the opportunity of Echinococcus eggs to enter the animal GIT and formation of cysts in the targeted viscera.
Fertile cysts were found more frequently in livers of cattle 37.7% and buffaloes 36.7% , while lungs of the same species harbor 22.9% and 26.6% of fertile cysts respectively. Fertile cysts were also detected in 15.8% lungs of sheep and 15 % goat- lungs, while livers of the same species were less infected by fertile hydatid cysts ( 11.2% , 12.5% of sheep and goat respectively ).

Effect the Multiple Synthetic Aperture On Linear Spread Function Using Optical System Contain High Degrees Of Aberrations

Azhr Abdulzahraa Raheem

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 334-347

In this research the linear spread function (LSF) have been studied to multiple synthetic circular aperture as instead of the usual circular aperture which used in optical systems or synthetic circular aperture .
The optical system which studied in different cases of effect focus error (W20=0.5λ,1λ,1.5λ) or spherical aberrations (W40=0.5λ,1λ) or coma aberrations (W31=0.5λ,1λ) with rotation angle (ψ=π/4,π/2 rad ) when number of sub apertures are (N=7) and distance between them (L=6) and the number of multiple sub apertures which subdivided from sub apertures are (M=4,6) and distance between them (M=3,5,7).
The results showed be the number of multiple sub apertures lead to increasing intensity of the line object image and maintain the general shape of the function regardless of the aberrations amount in the optical system in addition of increment of distance between them works to reduce the secondary peaks in the intensity distribution of linear object image

The Use of GIS in Deriving Surface Draining Nets of Water and its Morphometric characteristic From Radar data (Basin of Abu Gar Valley in Western plateau case study)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 1-18

This research introduces a modern way depending on iteration style between remote sensing techniques and geographic information system .This way summaries in using (GIS) in processing digital elevation model gained by shuttle radar topography mission to derive surface draining nets from it, then calculating morphometric variables associated with it as a substitute for the tradition style used in topograpgic paper maps.This was accomplished by the programmed bundle(Arcgis 9.3 – Global Mapper11 – Erdas 9.1).
The study is applied to one of seasonal water basins (Abu Gar basin) located in western plateau in the southern east of Muthana between latitudes( 29 21 18 and 30 42 30 )north and longtitudes (45 34 56 and 46 28 21) east. The research concludes: the importance of integration styled radar data and geographic information system in deriving surface draining water nets time and less costs and efforts .It is a successful substitute for limitation in traditional ways. The research also concludes that Abu Gar basin is hydromorphometric since a number of logartimic-graphic relations are found between draining density and river types that show how much the basin is affected by geology diversity and hydroclimalic situation data which were represented by equations exponential .

Hilla During the Era of Ottoman Governors( 1831-186 A study in Economical and 9AD) Social Affairs

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 19-31

Hilla had witnessed during the period (1831-1869AD) the interest from Ottoman authorities. The taxes got from Hilla which came from the abundance of agricultural product because of water available in Shatt- al- Hilla, represented a particular kind of that interest, as a result of that important social effects had happened caused by the influence and effect of town inhabitants by areas and regions surround them. However, the town continued its commercial and economical role that imposed by its distinct geographical site. We notice that commercial relations (especially with downtown in Baghdad) and witnessed great developments that contributed in giving the town its important economical address

The Democratic Path in Iraq After 2003( Elections)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 43-72

Election is a popular decision to choose who represent them in the decision, It’s a political participation to attaining common benefit for people and government .this election process pass through several steps to appoint at the end political ingredient take executive task for (4) years coming . choose the government in Iraq not stand on only democratic mechanisms begging of choose the people the electors through the election , but the need for the depositing insider and political agreeableness forcing new situated that is (agreeableness democratic) , and its become necessary matter because the ethnical forming for the Iraqi society. And because the national exigency to protect the national level , engraining the democratic principle . continuo this democratic approach don’t give any way to return the dictator system by adherence the people and government to go by guaranty steps no backing away . this actually happening by wile and resolve to true aldermanic represent with Arabic and regional check who approve the correct the result with small breaches not effect on the final results . So we guaranty the democratic path in Iraq by participate the all and give the chance for all kind s to represent and candidacy , this give legal and legit awning for the political achievement.

Aggressive Behavior by the Husband towards the wife and Children of the Wife's point of view in the Holy city of Karbala _ An Empirical Study

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 73-89

The present study aims to identify the patterns of aggressive behavior perpetrated by the husband towards the wife and children from the viewpoint of the wife in terms of relationship pair the wife, relationship pair boys and relationship pair neighbors, and to achieve the goal of research carried researchers prepare scale (tool) consisting of (43) paragraph behavioral husband , has been confirmed the veracity of the tool through the expense of stability, including through: re Alachtbaraz reached correlation coefficient (0.86), retail midterm (0.88) has been corrected correlation coefficient for both methods under equation (Spearman _ Brown) as reached reliability coefficient (0.92) as well as Cronbach's alpha method, and this shows that the validity and reliability have realized a high degree. The research sample of (277) wife depending on the number of forms retrieved from the research community's (280) wife.
The findings researchers through the results of the study to the axis relationship pair boys had ranked first, axis relationship pair the wife has got a second place, while the axis relationship pair neighbors on the third place, has recommended researchers that keen both spouses to provide models good relations human intimacy. And monitoring aspects of domestic violence, and in particular the behavior of the husband in the family, and strengthen family ties and modify some methods upbringing within the family by highlighting the position of the Islamic religion and its teachings and its provisions for violence on the part of commitment to the teachings of Islam tolerant and applied in family life, whether it be at the level of choosing spouses, or raising children and dealing with them. As well as to monitor aspects of domestic violence, particularly violence pair within the family through the establishment of social institutions specialized care issue of domestic violence and all forms, and work to analyze and deal with them in a scientific manner according to educational theories, social and find hot lines to these institutions through which to provide advice and assistance, and coordination between various institutions of society in order to address the phenomenon of domestic violence and to reduce them. The researchers suggested conduct a comparative study of violence against the wife into account variables include: the level of education of both spouses, aged, an analytical study in order to develop appropriate solutions that address the manifestations of violence, and finally prepare targeted programs to combat violence in all its forms and reduction .

Industrial services law between the positives and negatives underneath No .30 for the year of 2000

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 147-152

Laws are legislated when the human phenomena is monitriong ,the purpose of them is correction or modification or to complete path of these phenomena,and that apply on industrial services law number 30 for the year 2000 ,which is found to complete and correct the former laws path,although from that substitutions,but it contains on negative items and that what research shows ,and putting the suitable solutions for that negatives,hopping to reach to the responsible men,and success anted by God.

Study of thickness of the three abdominal muscles ‘obliguusexternus, obliguusinternus, transversesobdominis’ in accordance with the chronic lower back pain

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 153-161

Demonstrated by the research problem in the lower back pain is one of the diseases of modern times, as well as the dearth of studies on the thickness of the abdominal muscles of the three (obliquusexternus, obliquusinternus, transverses obdominis) in accordance with the chronic low back pain study also aimed to identify the thickness of the abdominal muscles of the three to those who are suffering and who do not suffer from chronic low back pain as well as identify the relationship the thickness of the abdominal muscles of the three pain of chronic low back as the subject of research within the Section II all of the relevant muscles of the abdomen three and lower back pain and achieve the objectives of the study the researchers sought to use the descriptive style surveys and studies relational and through analysis of the results and discussions reached several conclusions the researchers the most important appearance is a correlation between the thickness of the abdominal muscles (obliquusexternus, obliquusinternus, transverses obdominis) chronic lower back pain, the researchers concluded the most important of the recommendations of the studies should be conducted on samples of a broader and include most government institutions and non-governmentOrganization.

Alafsheen mohammed bin Abi Alsaaj ( 288 A.H / 901 A.D ) and his political & military role in 2nd Abbasiyan era

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 162-176

Alafsheen Mohammed bin Abi Alsaaj is regarded one of most important Turkish military leader who played great role in Islamic and Arab state history in 2nd Abbasiyan era .
He belong to sajian family who descended from Ashrusna Province in the state behind the river , that emerged to the existence in the political and military court in 2nd Abbasiyan era .It bears at the beginning the burden of defending the caliph state , but soon changed his attitudes due to the circumstances specially the weakness of the Abbasiyan caliph and their engagement in caliph issues , and appearance of the beginning of Turkish military domination . Accordingly their persons got high posts in Abbasiyan army and dominated over Armenia and Azerbaijan .
Despite of the failure of Mohammed bin Abi Alsaajto achieve his ambitions and greed in Syria and Euphrates desert against Tolons and other local forces , but still he succeeded to spread his influence over both provinces of Armenia and Azerbaijan and establishing ruling family semi-independent from the Abbasiyan caliphate in the late of 3rd hijri century /ninth century A.D . his polices directed towards domination of Armenia with out adhering to the commitments agreed upon regarding Armenian from the beginning of Islamic era and the caliphs of Bani Saj family and their followers after him followed the same policy ..

The Transformation of the Public Sphere of Fiction into Cyberentics, Paranoia and Anti-Paranoia: An Inquiry into the Fabulous Fiction of Kurt Vonnegut, Philip K. Dick and Thomas Pynchon

Aqeel Joony Laftah

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 1-17

Novelists who are influenced by nineteenth century British thought like Ruskin, Thomas Hardy, D. H. Lawrence, Tolkein and Mark Twain are among the earliest novelists who explore the conquest of social truth by the scientific method. They are convinced to develop the reflection of the general premises of man with the consequences of the power of science. And man has been considered the victim of ambiguous referentiality. Man can no longer conform to but must form and correspond a society by modeling it according to his own experience. But, the real beginning which technologizes itself in modern narrative direction in the twentieth century starts with Moore, H. G. Wells, Aldous Huxley and George Orwell whose negative utopian narratives are concerned not with the artifaces but with the artifacts of the imagination which are well elaborated to suppress the technology of the future. Yet in the last quarter of the twentieth century, Kurt Vonnegut, Philip K. Dick, and Thomas Pychon and other science-fiction writers explore the growth, development, organism and the extreme irony for employing the machine in fiction. They attempt to answer simple stated questions in their narrative: Are we machines whose functions including the mental ones? Are we describable by a formal closed system of laws (algorithms)? Or are we transcendent and therefore free of our own mechanical descriptions? And they conform the view that the universe is uncertain in its non probabilistic causals and therefore is mechanistic. They conform the views of the circulation of texts and the processes of the negotiation means. They find that the machine does not work without the discoveries in physics and without the manifested threat to the author’s artistic imagination which is offered by paranoia, anti-paranoia and cyberentics which petrify the new literary technique. Therefore, the properties of the story elements systematize what they essentially see from the new technology by receiving and processing the new technological information about the new world.

Acomparassion betweeneffect of Iraqi method(Uropygealectomy) with addition of Iraqi probiotic in the ration with their effect on productive performance of ross broiler

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 1-7

This study was conducted in the poultry farm of Al-Mussayab Technical college Babylon provinceto investigate the effect of uropygealectomy with addition of 0.4%Iraqi probiotic in some productive traits of ross broiler chickens.
Atotal of 180,one day old chicks,40gm/chick,were randomly allocated in to equaltreatments, each treatment in cluded 3replicates (15chick/replicate) and fed on astandard ration contained Iraqi probiotic at arate of 0.4%for the third and fourth treatment(T3,T4) ,uropygealectomy was applied for chicks at the end of the second week for the second and fourth treatment (T2,T4) , where as the first treatment was left with out addition of probiotic nor uropygealectomized for comparassion.
Daily and total weight gain of chickens were calculated for three periods (1-21day), (21-42day) and(1-42day) ,feed consumption, feed conversion rate , dressing and carcass cuts percentages and the productive index at the end of the experiment.
Results illustrated high significant differences in daily and total weight dains for each period ,feed consumption and high significant reductionof feed efficiency in treatments where the chickens were uropygealectomized and additionof probiotic with their both effect as comparared with control treatment .
Results also showed high significant differences in dressing percentage, percentage of pectoral cuts and productive index and high significant reduction in backcuts of all treatments of uropygealectomy with addition of probioticand with their both effect in compararassion with control, mean while ,it was non significantin thigh cuts which were represented by edibaleoffals (liver,heart and gizzard) ,wings and neck in comparassion with the control treatment .

A study of variations and genotypic and phenotypic correlations in bread wheat under effect of three nitrogen levels

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 8-22

A field trail was conducted at the experimental farm of Ibn Al-Betar secondary school in Al-Hussania district in Kerbala province during winter season of 2011-2012.The objectives were to study the variation genotypic and phenotypic correlations under three nitrogen levels to determine the best characteristics selected as indices with grain yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).The experiment was arranged in a split plot design within RCBD with three replications . Nitrogen levels (69,138 and 207 Kg N /ha)were assigned in the main plots, wheat cultivars (Al-Tahady ,Al-Adnania, Al-Iraq, , IPA 95,Ashur,Sali,Al fatehand ,Sham6)were assigned in the subplots.
Results showed that, higher genotypic and phenotypic variation on all nitrogen levels were obtained from plant height ,number of tillers /m2,nitrogen use efficiency ,nitrogen harvest index ,number of spikes /m2,biomass yield and harvest index ,thus ,the improvement of these traits will be more effective. nitrogen use efficiency and harvest index gave in (69,138 Kg N /ha)can be adopted as selection indices.
At 207 Kg N /ha, each of the following : nitrogen use efficiency, nitrogen harvest efficiency and harvest index can be used as selection criterion to improve grain yield .

Effect of Gibberelline and phosphate fertilization in plant vegetative growth and production of Rosa. Sp.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 23-26

An experiment was conducted on Rosa. Sp. For the year 2010-2011 in the lath house / Al. Qadisyia University. to study the effect of giberellic at the concentration of (0 , 100 , 200 , mg/L) and phosphate levels (0 , 25 ,50 Kg/Donum). On veg atative and. Flower growth. The parameters studied were, height plant, number of branches, leaf area, per centage of dry weight and number of flowers.
The results were as follow:
- Gibberellic acid at the concentration of 200mg/L Led to asignificantly increase in height plant , per centage of dry weight and number of flowers but it. No significant increase in the number of branches and leaf area.
- At another side, high levels of phosphate positively affected vegetative growth except the leaf area.
- Interaction between the GA3and phosphate levels had significantly positive effect on the all characters except the number of flowers.

Forecasting number of students admitted in the College Medicine / University of Karbala for the period from 2012 to 2016

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 27-36

To estimate the number of students and determine the requirements of the study (in total) through the numbers to predict the future and at the lowest possible error will give an accurate perception of the movement of growth and development of the college, which will lead to the establishment of development plans in the near term solid Outlaid. By calculating estimates of the number of students admitted to the (College of Medicine / University of Karbala) from 2004 to 2011 and compared with the actual numbers in order to choose the best way to predict for the coming years of 2012_2016 lowest possible error in the estimate of the regression models of linear and non-linear, which included the following methods: linear regression . exponential regression, power function, logarithmic regression , logistic regression , inverse function , Form Quadratic Equation , Cubic model equation , curve S.
Adopted as the data of students enrolled in the College Medicine of the previous years (2004_2005_2006_2007_2007_2008_2009_2010_2011). were obtained from the Registration Department / in the College Medicine / University of Karbala.
Accordingly, the research found that the S curve model was more successful in predicting the number of students from the rest of the other models because the value of Coefficient of determination R2 has the highest value was reached (70%) and the value of F has become the highest value and the level of significance (.010). And (mean squares error) has reached a minimum value (0.019) compared to models with the rest.

Epidemiological & Statistical study about infection with liver flocks (Fasciola gigantica ) in the carcasses from the slaughter hose in region Kerbala

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 37-43

This study was conducted on slaughtered animals ( Sheep – Goats – Cattle – Bofallo ) in the slaughtered house of Kerbala province during period from 2-12011 until 30-12-2011 , so 46977 of Sheep carcases , 8958 Goats carcases , 8701 of Cattle carcases & 1501 carcases of Bofallo were examined during this study .
The results showed the infection rates were 71.02% Sheep , 13.54?% Goat , 13.15% Cattle & 2.26% Bofallo & highest rate of infection with liver flock were in Sheep that reach to 53.5% as acompered with others slaughtered animals .
In Sheep the rates of infection were elevated significant during Octobar & November which reached respectivilly 11.35% , while the infection rates decrease during February & March which reached to 4.10% & 4.41% respectively in other animals ( Goats & Cattle ) there were similar changes while in Bofallo the infection rates elevated during Decamber & reach to 18.60% but decrease during March & reached to 4.65% .

EFFECT OF TREE SEAWED EXTRACTS APPLICATION ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF KIDNEY BEAN (Phoseolus vulgaris L .)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 44-48

An experiment was conducted at vegetable crops farm of plant production Department ,Technical Instiute of Mosul during spring season of 2010 to study the effect of seed soaking , plant spraying , and seed soaking with plant spraying with three seaweed extracts (Hypertonik , Marvel and Algaren) 1 ml/ L . conc . on growth and yield of kidney bean plants .
The experiment included ten treatments conducted in RCBD with three replicats . The results showed that applaying seaweed Algaren with 1 ml/ L . conc . by the three methods (seed soaking , plants spraying and seed soaking with plants spraying) increased significantly vegetative growth and yield characteristic and the treatment of seed soaking with plant spraying was gave the highest plant length (48.21 cm),leaf area (960.3 cm2 .) , chlorophyll content (38.52 SPAD unit ), dry weight (49.52 gm .) ,early flowering (53.01 day) . number of pods per plant (27.82 pads), pod weight (4.98 gm .) plant yield (102.62 gm .) and total yield per donum (1831 kg .) . Also applying marvel extract increased significantly plant length , leaf area , chlorophyll content , early flowering , number of pods per plant , pod weight , plant yield and total yield compared with control treatment .

EFFECT OF BIO-FERTILIZER WITH PSB ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF WHEAT PLANT

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 49-56

A pot experiment was conducted in lath house at the College of Agriculture -University of Baghdad in 2010-2011 in a silty clay loam soil , to study the effect of Bio-fertilizer (PSB) phosphate solubilizer bacteria on the growth & yield of wheat (IPA-99) . The experiment was CRBD design with four treatments (A1,A2,A3,A4 ) . A4 –as control (only soil) , A3 – mineral fertilizr (280 K.gm.N.ha-1 & 40 K.gm . p . ha 1 & 280 K.gm. ha-1.
.A2 (S0il was treated with Bio-fertilizer mixed with seeds and A1 (soil was treated with Bio-fertilizer mixed with irrigated water , the results showed that Bio-fertilizer application had a significant effect on the growth of plant , the number of filler , the weight of 100 seeds , the total yield of dry matter ,and there was a significant increment in the available N&P in soil .The results of this study indicated
1-The treatments with Bio-fertilizer gave 7 tillers .plant -1 , 3.6gm wt of 100 seeds & 93% of planting while the control (with out Bio-fertilizer )gave 4, 2.5 gm , & 7% ) rerpectively.
2- the treatment A2T3 gave a high number in phosphate dissolving , CFU/ gm of dry soil 653*106- &gave high level of available p which was 38.16 M gm .p. Kg -1 of soil
3- the treatment A2T2 gave high level of available- N 35.48 Mgm NH4+ . Kg-1 of soil-1 .
4-the treatment A2T1 gave available-N 28.2Mgm.Kg 0f soil-1.

Effect of 2,4-D, BA , and explant on Atropa belladonna callus induction in vitro

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 57-65

The research was conducted at the plant tissue culture lab.- College of Agriculture – University of Baghdad during the period from June 2011 to October 2011. Three different explants were taken from Atropa belladonna seedlings grown on medium contain BA and 2,4-D in concentrations to determine the suitable explant, and the typical concentration of each of BA and 2,4-D leading to the best callus induction. Results showed that BA at 0.8mg.l-1 was superior in giving higher fresh and dry weight of induced callus, (40.42 mg and 4.417 mg respectively). 2,4-D that led to higher fresh and dry callus weight, (64.35mg and 6.958 mg respectively). The explants that resulted in inducing higher fresh and dry weights of callus was shoot tips ( 44.23 mg and 4.615 respectively). The interaction of these three factors levels showed that the best callus was induced by culturing the shoot tip on medium supplied with 0.8 mg.l-1 BA , and 1.5 mg.l-1 2,4-D that resulted a fresh and dry weights of 167.12 and 17.625 mg respectively

Using Quick cluster analysis to sort the rapid , depending upon the type of breast feeding mothers

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 66-79

It is known that cluster analysis rapid a special case of cluster analysis is one of the methods by looking at the clustering of multiple data and heterogeneous, for the purpose of collecting the items in groups homogeneous with each other (within the same group) and different from the totals of other, depending on many variables and is used to shorten the data and generate hypotheses and selection and in predicting and matching models, we note that the analysis is similar to the analysis classification in terms of the classification process the data into homogeneous groups, but they differ from each other in that cluster analysis does not require that the number of groups known or membership of cases in which they are known, while in the analysis of discriminatory shall be the number of groups and the membership of cases are known in advance. to analyze the data concerning the classification of the type of feeding (natural, mixed) and arrange them inside Anode so that the cases classified within Anode homogeneous with respect to the characteristics of specific and different from other cases exist in the cluster analysis. we should expect the behavior of individuals based on group membership and involving its members in the properties are similar. addition to the statement of the importance of breastfeeding on children's physical, psychological, mental and that breast feeding is much better than any mixed milk or boatel feeding , scientific research has proven that breast milk is essential for development of the child sound physical and mental health
As adopted data from women who clinics external consulting in holy city of Karbala, as it has been collected a random sample of mothers numbered (93) through the form statistics included the number of questions to measure a variety of variables related to breastfeeding and mixed (natural and artificial), which includes maternal age, duration of marriage, the number of births the mother, qualification for the mother (elementary, middle, junior high, Higher Diploma, Bachelor, above the bachelor's) working mothers (employee, housewife) was applied method of cluster analysis Quick them and was able to sort them by type of breast feeding mother.

Spectrophotometeric determination of phenols using gallic acid and iron in different samples of tea.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 80-88

This research is dealing with seven sample of black tea that were respectively as follows: Ahmad Tea-London, Al-Otuor Tea-Ceylon, Mahmood Tea-Ceylon, Apple Tea-Srilanka, Alwazah Tea-Ceylon, Jawhart Alrabea-India, and unpacked mixed Local - Tea. Samples were extracted by distilled deionized water and by using standard calibration curve of gallic acid as a reference material in determination of phenols in tea solutions so the concentrations of phenols were determined and by using UV-Visible spectrophotometer working at 280 nm. Results have shown that the higher concentration of phenols was recorded for Alwazah Tea 3758 mg/L in other word equal to 75.2 mg GAE /gm of dry tea and at pH equal to 4.71.
While a higher concentration of phenols was recorded for black tea in United Kingdom at 2002 equal to 103 mg GAE /gm of dry tea. The results have also shown that the Lowest concentration of phenols was recorded for Jawhart Alrabea Tea 3164 mg/L in other word equal to 63.3 mg GAE /gm of dry tea and at pH equal to 4.51. While a lowest concentration of phenols was recorded for black tea in United Kingdom equal to 80.5 mg GAE /gm of dry tea. Samples were also tested for metal (Fe) content using atomic absorption spectrophotometer depending on standard calibration curve, results have shown that samples which have been subjected to analysis few concentrations of iron were existed in some of the samples and the range was from 0.1 mg/L to 2.8 mg/L, while the other samples the concentrations were not detected.

The influence of aging period on the increased cardiovascular disease risk at women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 89-98

The present study has been carried out in the fertility center of AL-Sadir teaching hospital , and was involved the follow up(68) woman at the child bearing age that were infected with polycystic ovarian syndrome ,have been divided in to three aging period the first group (14-24) year that was included on (22) woman , the second group( 25-34) year that was included on 25 ) )woman and the third group( 35-44) year that was included on( 21) woman ,while the control group that was consisted of (25) woman their ages between (15-45) year that have been checked medically with ultrasound waves to confirm that they have no polycystic ovarian syndrome and no infected with different heart diseases
The study had been revealed a significant increment (p< 0.01) in : body weight , cholesterol concentration in the serum , the systolic and diastolic pressure of the blood at the women with polycystic ovarian syndrome as compared with the control group . Conversely ,the blood platelet counts, prothrombin time , total protein and albumin concentrations in the serum have been showed a significant decrement (p< 0.01) at the women that on polycystic ovarian syndrome when compared with the control group.
The present research has been appeared , there was association between the progression in the age and an increased risk of infection with atheroscleriosis and other cardiovascular diseases at the women with polycystic ovarian syndrome .

Effect Gibberllic acid and super phosphate fertilizer on some growth characters of fenugreek plant Trigonella foenum – graecum L. Local varity

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 99-104

An experiment was carried out by using pots (capacity 4 Kg soil/pot) inside the glasshouse of Biology Dept. College of Education (Ibn Al-Haitham) of University of Baghdad during the growing season 2010 – 2011, to know the effect of different concentrations of GA3 at (25 , 50 and 100) ppm and three levels of super phosphate fertilizer (0.25 , 0.50 , 1.00) gpot-1 that equal (83.33 , 166.66 and 333.32) kgh-1 on some growth components of fenugreek plant (local Varety), dry weight of plant on 1st sampling, number of branches, weight of pods, weight of seed in pod, weight of seeds (g) in plant. Factorial experiment within a completely randomized design (C. R. D.) with three replicates was adopted; means were compared by using the least significant difference at 0.05 probability level. Results showed that 50 ppm of GA3 with 0.50 gpot-1 of the fertilizer gave the highest values of the studied characters compared with other treatments.

Study the effect of diabetes mellitus of both types I and II levels of immune complements

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 105-112

Been highlighted through this study to determine the change in the levels of complements immune in people with Diabetes melltius both types I and II as well as knowledge of the relationship between the infaction and its impact on those parameters, contained the current study, 60 people from diabetes patients and by (30) patients of the first type and ( 30) patients of the type II who underwent some tests, as well as (30) people (healthy, apparently) as a group control of the study were collected serum samples from the Hussein Hospital Teaching Unit and a hospital of India General (Laboratory of emergency), the Laboratory Razi analyzes of disease in the province of Karbala during the time period from 01.12.2011 till 01.04.2012. sera were analyzed 60 patients with diabetes of both types I and II and 30 healthy people (control group) to measure levels of immune supplements C3 and C4 for patients with diabetes of both types using the method of single immunodiffusion Signal Radial Immune Diffusion (SRID).
1. shows the results of the current study, high levels of complements immune C3 and C4 significantly in people with diabetes type I and II, as was (53.45), (25.08) mg / d. L., respectively, in patients with type I, while the levels of concentrations in patients with type II (119.59 ), (32.14) mg / d. L., respectively, compared with the control group (65.98) (10.40) mg / d. L, respectively.
2. recorded levels of complements immune C3 and C4 overall decrease inversely with age for all groups under study and for both types of diabetes and the results were significant for the integral immune C3 only in patients with type II, specifically in the fourth category and fifth (111.30), (92.65) mg / d. L. respectively, compared with the control group, as was (61.25), (57.87) mg / d. L., respectively, and for fourth component of complement C4 recorded categories first, fourth and fifth in patients with type I increased significantly as the level of concentration where (47.20), (23:03), (17.70) mg / d. L. compared with the control group, as were concentrations of C4 for the same categories (20.70), (9.42), (6.60) mg / d. L. respectively, while the results were in patients with type II, all high and was significantly compared with the control group for all categories.

Use plant Lemnaceae.gibba as an alternative to feed fish Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 113-120

Plant of water lentil Lemnaceae.gibba has been used for nutrition of Grass Carp fish Ctenopharyngodon idella Grass Carp in an average weight of 30± 4.6 gram , it has been divided into four categories , three of them are dry , one is wet as the following :-
Category A wet of water lentil ( wet meal )
Category B powder of water lentil Plant vegetable starch with dry feed with a rate of 10:90
Category C powder of water lentil with ( dry meal ) with a rate of 50:50
Category D commercial feed
Results of experiment proved the effect of temperature between 15.1 – 18.0 Degrees as it is shown in table 3 during the two weeks , the second and third , when temperature was 18 degrees which positively effected in encouraging of fishes to have food regardless of food type used in nutrition , but in the end of last week of experiment due to the decreasing of temperature reaching to 15.1 Degrees , Many death cases have respectively been appeared more than one category ( D-C-B-and A ) as it is shown in table No. ( 4 ) due to the composition of feed in increasing of weight to accept the dry or wet food , some of fish lost weight in the last week due to the decreasing of temperature and fish stopped feeding when temperature reached 15 degrees .
Composition of food had an effect on the nature of developing of fish in spite of using of four food categories one of them is wet , the remain three categories are dry , we have noticed that the biggest weight and length increasing happened is in the category ( A ) which is the wet food as it is shown in the table No. ( 5 – 6 ) in the third week because of the availability of proper temperature since fish prefer wet food such as plants and algae , It has been noticed that there is a slight weight and length increasing in categories ( B , C ) Degrees as it is shown in table No. ( 5 – 6 ) when using dry food that contains powder of water lentil Plant and non existence of apparent weight and length increasing in the category ( D ) may be belong to the composition of this food .

Production and Characterization of partial purified Protease from the fungal species Trichoderma harzianum

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 121-132

Laboratory experiment was achieved for production and partial purification of protease from the fungal species Trichoderma harzianum. After screening of enzyme productivity by calculating the radial of hemolysis zone in Skimed milk was 7 cm. The optimal conditions for protease production were studied using liquid state fermentation composed of wheat bran as protein source. The results revealed the optimal conditions of enzyme production after five days of incubation at 25 C in liquid mineral medium with 2% concentration of wheat bran and pH 4.0. The protease was purified by several steps, including precipitation with 80 % saturation of ammonium sulphate as the first step of purification, the obtained purification fold was 3.47 and recovery 43%. Second step of partial purification which was ion exchange chromatography using DEAE- Cellulose in the presence of Tris buffer ( 0.05 Molar and pH 9 ). The obtained purification fold 25 and recovery 25% for A image which have specific activity 225 unit/ mg protein. The B image step obtained specific activity 375 unit/ mg protein , purification fold 41.6 and recovery 20.8 %. The optimum pH of activity for partially purified enzyme with ion exchange chromatography for both A and B image was 9 and 5 respectively and the optimum temperature was 35 C for both steps.

Molecular characterization of some mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes of breast cancer patients

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 144-151

The importance of this study is the investigation of mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes as tumor suppressor genes related to occurrence of breast cancer, and its correlations with tumor marker. Blood sample of (69) breast cancer patients were collected from early detection unit in AL- Hussein teaching hospital in Kerbala governorate, which compared with (30) apparently healthy women.
The CA27.29 tumor marker was adopted for detection of breast cancer, The DNA was extracted from blood samples, the detection of BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations were adopted using PCR technique, the molecular diagnosis for (185 del AG) and (5382 ins C) mutations in BRCA1 gene and (6174 del T) mutation BRCA2 gene were applied.
The results showed that the higher percentage of mutations were (27.5%) for(185 del AG) mutation in sporadic breast cancer group, and for hereditary breast cancer group, the percentage of(185 del AG) mutation was (20%) and for (5382 ins C) mutation was (10%), while the (6174 del T) mutation is not recorded in both patient groups. And the results also revealed that the total percentages of (185 del AG),(5382 ins C) and (6174 del T) for patient group were (23.19%) , (5.8%) and (0%) respectively, and there were no mutation detection in control group.
Finally, the results showed there were no correlation between the tumor marker and mutations, and highly significant correlations between tumor marker of patients in comparison with control group.
Key words: Breast cancer, PCR, Mutations, BRCA1, BRCA2, Kerbala

Effect of Low Freque ncy Vibration on The Micro-structure Of The Aluminum Eutectic Alloy

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 152-165

The effect of low frequency vibration (50cps) on solidification, structure and mechanical properties of aluminum eutectic alloys(Al-33%Cu, Al-11.7%Si )which is casted in pre-heated metallic moulds at different temperatures (200,300,400,500 and 5500C) was carried out in this investigation .
The results show that low frequency vibration affect the solidification state , structure type and mechanical properties of the implemented alloys.
Eutectic and intermetallic phases were coarsened by low frequency vibration ,the effect of which was found to increase by increasing the preheating temperatures of the metallic moulds .The solidification time is also reduced .Consequently coarsening of the micro-constituents the mechanical properties were lowered , although porosity, ultimate tensile stress(U.T.S) and eutectic cell size were reduced by vibration .
The results show that the columnar growth was suppressed and equiaxed grain size were promoted . The fine lamellar structure of the eutectic was degenerated to a coarse irregular one .The effect of casting size on the extent of influence of vibration on structure and related aspects was also observed that ,with the increase in the size of the casting , the effect of the vibration is accentuated .
As the preheating temperature of the moulds was increased, grain refinement effect due to vibration decreased and also the mechanical properties considerably decreased .

Purification , characterization of chitinase produced from Bacillus subtilis and inhibitory activity on some fungi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 166-173

Bacillus subtilis with highest production of chitinase was selected among other Bacillus sp. Chitinase was extracted from culture media contain shrimp and fish-shell powder as the major carbon.
Enzyme was purified by anion exchanger (DEAE) and Sephadex G-50 Gel filtration with yield and Purification fold, 33.18% and 11.01 respectively.
Optimum PH for activity and stability was 6,5 and 5.5-8 respectively, The purified enzyme had Mw. 37 Kd. Inhibitory activity was 100% against some molds after incubation for 2h with sterilized chitinase solution (Unit).

EFFECT OF ADDING GINGER POWDER TO LAYER DIETS ON THE BIOCHEMEICAL BLOOD TRAITS

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 174-180

This study was carried out at the poultry farm of Animal Resources Dept. / College of Agriculture / University of Baghdad during the period from 1/2/2008 to 1/8/2008 to investigate the effect of adding different levels of ginger powder to layer diets on biochemical blood traits. Ninty laying hens (Lohmann Brown) at the age of 20 weeks were used in this study . At the age of 22 weeks , the hens were individually weighed and randomly distributed into five treatments and each treatment with three replicates (6 hens / replicate). The treatments were as follows : T1 (control) : without addition ، other treatments included different levels of dry ginger as follows : T2: 1.0% ، T3: 1.5% ، T4: 2% and T5: 2.5% .
The results showed significantly(P<0.01) decrease in serum glucose of treatments with addition of ginger ، however T4 and T5 showed significantly increased in total protein at 34 week of age as well as T3 and T4 at the age of 46 week . There were no significant differences between all treatments in total albumin and globulin at 34 and 46 weeks of age. T3،T4 and T5 showed significant (P<0.05)decrease in serum cholesterol at the refered previous weeks ، as well as the triglycerid and Low density lipoprotein (LDL) level of blood serum was decreased in all treatments with addition as compared with the control group .T4 and T5 gave the highest High density lipoprotein) HDL) during these periods . It can be concluded from this study ، that the addition of ginger powder to the layer diets will improve the biochemical blood traits of hens and produce healthy food.

Antimicrobial Sensitivity of Locally Staphylococcus Isolates against Four Quinolones

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 181-184

Ninety one isolates were collected from clinical samples included blood, urine, wound and burn swabs from different Baghdad hospitals during the period from 192011 to 1122011 . Result of coagulase test revealed that (59) of isolates were positive while others (32) isolates were negative.
The sensitivity of isolates to four quinolones groups was tested, and results showed that (51.6%) of isolates were resistant to Norfloxacine , (46.2%) were resistant to Ofloxacine and (42.9%) were resistant to ciprofloxacine. While the lowest resistance was (29.7%) to levofloxacine. On the other hand, the coagulase positive Staphylococcus showed a high resistance in compare to that coagulase negative isolates . The range of the minimum inhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacine were (8-512 µgml).

The antimicrobial activity of aqueous extracted plant dyes from Rubia tictorium l., Punica granatum l. And Mentha piperita l. Aganist some types of pathogenic bacteria

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 185-189

This study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of aqueous plant dyes extracted from Rubia tictorium l (roots)., Punica granatum l.( shell )And Mentha piperita l(leaves).against some pathogenic bacteria Streptococcus pneumonia , Bacillus subtilis, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa by using cup plate agar diffusion method . This test was applied on both solid media and cotton texture to make a comparison on the effect of antibacterial activity to whole extract. The results revealed that all dyes extract had the ability to inhibit the growth of tested bacteria on which Punica granatum showed a high inhibition zone at range (2.4-2.6 cm) on the solid media and a good microbial growth reduction on the cotton texture in a various ratio.

Study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistance to first line of antibiotics used for treatment of tuberculosis

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 190-194

In the present study ,we diagnosied 208 isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were collected from 685 sputum samples (30.3%) from patients coming to the center of chest and respiratory diseases – Baghdad. Aged (4 months - 70 years old) of both sex .
Sensitivity of bacterial isolates was tested to three antibacterial agent , rifampicin , isoniazid and Streptomycin to detect the Multi-Drug Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB), results showed that (20) isolates were resistant to isoniazid (14.9%),16 isolates resistant to rifampicin (11.9%),12 isolates resistant to streptomycin and 26 isolates (19.4%) were resistant to both isoniazid and rifampicin (MDR-TB).

Isolation and screening of Indole - acetic acid producing Azotobacte

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 195-200

Sixteen bacterial isolates belonged to the genus Azotobacter were obtained from different agricultural areas cultivated by alfalfa in sacred Karbala and Babylon governorates and each the isolates were identify by gram stain , Catalase test , Oxidase test , Indole test , Motility test, Sugar fermentation test and growth ability in 1% NaCl , glycerol and 0.1% phenol . All the isolates were subjected to a screening program to test their abilities for indole- acetic acid (IAA) production using different incubation conditions . Results showed that, Azotobacter sp.8a was the highest producer isolate and chosen to be used for further studies

Preparation of two Azo Compounds and Study of Their Linking Effect with Two Donating Groups and other Drawing on Their Compounds with Hg+2

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 210-218

This search is concerened with Preparation of two Azo compounds ,the first one attached to two realasing groups while the second one attached to two with drawing groups instead of one group in past studies and their complexes with (Hg+2).Identification of optimum conditions to complexes (Optimal concentration of two legands , ion ,PH ,mole ratio of two complexes by using job and mole ratio methods), spectrophotometric studies (determination of maximum wave length of ligands and their complexes by Uv-Vis-spectra ,identification of ligands with complexes by FT-IR-Spectra ),melting points and suggestion figurs of complexes .

Preparation of two Azo Compounds and Study of Their Linking Effect with Two Donating Groups and other Drawing on Their Compounds with Hg+2

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 210-218

This search is concerened with Preparation of two Azo compounds ,the first one attached to two realasing groups while the second one attached to two with drawing groups instead of one group in past studies and their complexes with (Hg+2).Identification of optimum conditions to complexes (Optimal concentration of two legands , ion ,PH ,mole ratio of two complexes by using job and mole ratio methods), spectrophotometric studies (determination of maximum wave length of ligands and their complexes by Uv-Vis-spectra ,identification of ligands with complexes by FT-IR-Spectra ),melting points and suggestion figurs of complexes .

Study of fungal population in Citrus aurantium root soil

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 219-224

In this study , we collected 44 soil samples of Citrus aurantium, (22 samples from non – rhizosphere and 22 samples from rhizoplane) from Abi- Gharaq in Babylon province to Study fungal population & Environmental conditions which include temperature & Humidity from October / 2011 to February / 2012. We obtained 678 fungal strain back to 10 genera and yeasts and some strain didn’t diagnosis . Deutromycota was the higher ratio with 72.91 % then Oomycota with 40.1 % , Zygomycota 6.89 % finally Ascomycota 6.49 % . This study showed that Aspergillus niger was the higher frequency in both zone with 53.8 % and Mucor was the lower frequency from registered fungi with ratio 0.5% .

Derivation of formulaes for evaluating double integrals and their error formulaes by using Trapezoidal rule.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 225-245

The main aim of this search is to evaluate double integrals numerically ,with continuous integrands or continuous but at least one of the partial derivatives is singular or with singular integrands at one point or more of the integral region and to find the general forms of correction terms (Errors) with respect to the behaviour of integrands by style different from style that Mohammed [4], Altaii[9], Dya’a[12] used it .By depending on that the correction terms that we found it we improved the results that we got it .And we found the method RTT(compouned method depends on Trapezoidal method for the two dimensions x and y ) and Romberg acceleration can be depend on it when the subintervals of interior dimension x equal to subintervals of exterior dimension y, that is where as means the distances between x ordinates and h means the distances between y ordinates.
This method gives high accuracy on the results with little subintervals and little time less than the others searchers needed it.

EFFECT OF TREE SEAWED EXTRACTS APPLICATION ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF KIDNEY BEAN (Phoseolus vulgaris L .)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 246-250

An experiment was conducted at vegetable crops farm of plant production Department ,Technical Instiute of Mosul during spring season of 2010 to study the effect of seed soaking , plant spraying , and seed soaking with plant spraying with three seaweed extracts (Hypertonik , Marvel and Algaren) 1 ml/ L . conc . on growth and yield of kidney bean plants .
The experiment included ten treatments conducted in RCBD with three replicats . The results showed that applaying seaweed Algaren with 1 ml/ L . conc . by the three methods (seed soaking , plants spraying and seed soaking with plants spraying) increased significantly vegetative growth and yield characteristic and the treatment of seed soaking with plant spraying was gave the highest plant length (48.21 cm),leaf area (960.3 cm2 .) , chlorophyll content (38.52 SPAD unit ), dry weight (49.52 gm .) ,early flowering (53.01 day) . number of pods per plant (27.82 pads), pod weight (4.98 gm .) plant yield (102.62 gm .) and total yield per donum (1831 kg .) . Also applying marvel extract increased significantly plant length , leaf area , chlorophyll content , early flowering , number of pods per plant , pod weight , plant yield and total yield compared with control treatment .

Effect of two types of organic fertilizers on the productivity of two cultivars of wheat

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 251-257

An experiment was performed at Botany Dept. , Kufa Institute from the period of 15 / 11 2009 till 20 / 6 2010 to study the effect of three levels for both poultry fertilizers ( 1 , 2 and 3 ton donum ) and cow fertilizers ( 2 , 4 and 6 ton donum ), in addition to the control treatment on the productivity of two cultivars of wheat plant (Maxipak and Florance Aruroa) . Treatments were distributed by Randomized Complete Block Design ( RCBD ) with three replicates.
Results showed that , the organic fertilizers have significantly effect on the yield of wheat .
Wheat cultivars were differed in their response to organic fertilizers .
It was noted from the results that , treatment of poultry fertilizer of ( 3 ton donum ) and treatment of cow fertilizer of ( 6 ton donum ) gave the highest production (460.65 and 443,86 kg / donum ) for total weight, ( 280.99 and 266.31 kg / donum ) for grain weight , ( 179.65 and 177.54 kg / donum ) for straw weight, for Maxipak cultivar and ( 395.72 and 382.82 kg / donum ) for total weight and ( 241.38 and 219.00 kg / donum ) for grain weight and ( 154.33 and 164.61 kg / donum ) for straw weight, for Florence Aruroa cultivar.

Studying the effect of some oximes (Acetone oxime, α-benzoin oxime) on the activity of acetyl cholinesterase enzyme inhibited by some thiotriazol compounds.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 258-263

This work involves studying effect of two types of oximes (Acetone oxime, α-benzoin oxime) on the activity of inhibited enzyme acetylcholinesterase by thiotriazol compounds reactivated the inhibited enzyme by thiotriazol compounds through increasing their activity with increasing the oxime concentration