ISSN: 1813-0410

Volume 8, Issue 0

Volume 8, Issue 0, Winter 2012, Page 1-277


Synthesis, Characterization and Study the Mixed Ligand Complexes of (L-alanine and Saccharin) with Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions

Maysoon Abd Al-Hussein Al-Soodani

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 1-11

The research includes the synthesis and identification of two mixed ligands complexes of some heavy metal ions by using the amino acid (L-alanine), as a primary ligand and (Saccharin) as secondary ligand. The general formula of the complexes is Na2[M(Ala)2(Sac)2] in which the L-alanine (C3H7NO2) is symbolized as (Ala) and Saccharin (C7H5NO3S) is symbolized as (Sac). The reaction is established by reacting the two ligands with the metal chloride by using ethanol as solvent at temperature (80C) with the molar ratio [(1:2:2) (M:L1:L2)] where:
M(II)= Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II), L1= Sac, L2= Ala.
L-alanine behaves as a bidentate ligand, which is coordinated through the oxygen atom of the carboxyl group (-COO-), and the nitrogen atom of the amino group (NH2), while saccharin behaves as a monodentate ligand, which is coordinated through the nitrogen atom.

Study of Liquid – Liquid Extraction of Neodymium (III) by derivative of amino acid N-Acetylcysteine(NAC).

Dr. Alaa F. H; Muneer A. A; Raghad S. H

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 12-30

The study of liquid - liquid extraction of neodymium (III) with N-Acetyl-cysteine that refers by (NAC) had been made. The effect of different parameters on the percent of extraction and distribution rataio such as type of medium , time of equilibration , type of solvent , effect of some cations and anions, effect of redox agents , enrichment extraction , concentration of metal ; reagent, effect of batch extraction, salting out , and effect of temperature . The function of thermodynamic parameter of (ΔH , ΔG , ΔS) were calculated .The stoichiometry of the extraction was determined using two methods mole ratio and job' s methods. It was found to be (M: L) (1:3). The stability constant of complex in mole ratio method was calculated. The study of UV-visible and FT-IR spectra were studied for both the reagent and complex in organic phase. Other physical constant namely such as temperture,melting point and specific conductivity.

Two-pass heat-exchanger performance By programmable method

Saosun Abd AL-Shaheed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 31-40

The goal of heat exchanger design is to relate the inlet and outlet temperatures, the over all heat transfer coefficient, to the rate of heat transfer between the two fluids .The use of programming method can greatly aid in optimizing the design.
In this study a programmable method [successive summation method] is developed, applied and presented here using Microsoft Visual Basic (version 6) to determine heat – transfer coefficients and the operating temperatures of a two pass heat exchanger [tube bundle permits a hot gas to pass in a-u- pattern through the exchanger with a shell side contains one – pass cooling water], has replaced the classical log-mean temperature difference , LMTD,method. As many plant heat exchanger operations are not accurately analyzed by this method, due to the correction factors associated with it, which must be obtained experimentally where complete sets of data are rare.

hypersensitivity phenomenon in hydatid protoscolices irradiated by alpha particles.

Mohenned A. Al Se; adawy; Hassan M. Al-Tai

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 41-44

The phenomenon of hypersensitivity in hydatid protoscolices ,which isolated from infected sheep livers with hydatid cysts was studied. This protoscolices were irradiated by Polonium source (210Po) emitted alpha particles. The result showed that hypersensitivity occurs at low doses (0.04 mGy) which means the cells were high sensitive to the radiation. at (0.13 mGy) the cells show higher resistance for radiation .

The Use Of Discrete Cosine Transformation(DCT) In Information HidingProcess

Enaam H. Abd; Hiba J. Abdulwahed; HussamA.Mohammed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 45-51

In the current internet community, secure data transfer is limited due to its attack made on data communication. So more robust methods are chosen so that they ensure secured data transfer. One of the solutions which came to the rescue is the audio hiding to ensure secure data transfer between the source and destination.
The basic idea behind this research is to provide a good, efficient method for hiding the data from hackers and sent to the destination in a safer manner. Though it is well modulated software it has been limited to certain restrictions. The quality of sound depends on the size of the audio which the user selects and length of the message. Though it shows bit level deviations in the frequency chart, as a whole the change in the audio cannot be determined.
Frequency Transformation is a mathematical equation that mapping the image data from the spatial domain to the frequency (spectral) domain , where all the pixels in the input domain contribute to each value in the output domain with one – to – one correspondence between the pixels. Information hiding involves transmitting secret messages through seemingly innocuous files. The goal is that not only does the message remain hidden, but also that a hidden message was even sent .Discreet cosine transformation (DCT) is used as one of frequency transformation type and use it to hide the secrete manage (Audio) inside the carrier (image) , after converting the Audio into a stream of bits . these bits will be embedded inside the image using one of information hiding algorithms and use DCT as one of frequency transformation .

Differential Diagnosis of Hemoptysis in the medical out-patient clinics

Kadhim.A.Al-Hilali

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 52-57

Background:
Hemoptysis is a common and significant symptom in respiratory Medicine. The patient as well as his relatives are frequently frightened, because of the possible life-threatening etiology or consequences.
Objective:
To determine the prevalence of the various causes of hemoptysis.
Methods:
The study involved (161)patients , (94) males and (67) females , complaining of hemoptysis attending the medical out-patient clinics for 5.5 years .Evaluation of each case was done and the results were analyzed to reach the final diagnosis .
Results:
Male to female ratio is (94/67 = 1.4:1) . The average age is (42) years . The diagnosis was undetermined in 45 cases (28%) of the total , Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB) 32 (20%) , Bronchitis (acute and chronic) 29 (18%) , Lung cancer 19 (11.8%) , Bronchiectasis 13 (8%) , Miscellaneous 13 ( 8%) and pneumonia and lung abscess 10 (6.2%).
Conclusion:
High prevalence of PTB in this country as a cause of hemoptysis . The prevalence of bronchitis and lung cancer comes next . All attempts should be sought to control these diseases.

Fuzzy Linear Transformations

Ali H. Battor; Budarub; Areej Tawfeeq Hameed AL

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 58-69

In this paper , the concept of fuzzy linear transformation have been investigated , this lead us to study and give some properties concerning with it .
Moreover , we give some types of fuzzy as a fuzzy Kernel and its relationships with fuzzy linear transformation and a characterizations of fuzzy linear transformation is presented .

synthesis of some a new azo derivative of paracetamol

Saadiyah A. Dhahir; Rasha A. Gasam; Israa H. Ibraheem; Rana R. Hamza

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 70-76

In this work new derivatives of paracetamol drug were prepared that known high medicinal effectiveness, through coupling reaction between alkali solution of paracetamol and diazonium salt of some substituted aniline compounds (4-chloro -2-nitro aniline, 4-amino aniline , 2,3-di methyl aniline ,1-amino Naphthalene, 2-amino 1,3,4- thiadiazole-5- thiol ).The identification of the prepared compounds was carried out by using UV-Visible and FTIR spectra.

Construction of a Hard Direct Digital Signature Scheme

Noor Dhia Kadhm Al-Shakarchy

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 77-84

Abstract
The rapid development of internet e-commerce is a new model of business activities; and the spread of electronic government in every organization all that needs to look for signing the documents and reports then verification of this signature in the other side. Digital signature authentication scheme provides secure Communication and reduce transmission costs, because the message is contained in the signature itself and no separate message and signature need be sent again.
This research develops a digital signature scheme to introduce a hard digital signature (double secure signature). This duplicate comes first from applying RSA hashing text, and the second from applying hard knapsack to message recovery elliptic curve cryptography ECC.
The combination provides secret signature against current attacking mechanisms using public key algorithms and in the other side, the sender can send the signing message directly to receiver without Arbitrated Digital Signature.

Synthesis and Characterization of polymeric metel complexes with thiol groups of thiadiazole ring

Ahmed S. Hamad; Iman A. Yass

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 91-103

This paper describes the prepration of bis thiadiazole-2-thiol derivatives by conversion hydrazide derivatives of carboxylic acid to xanthate salt through its reaction with carbon disulfide.
The bis thiadiazole derivatives were obtained through ring closur of xanthat salt by adding sulfuric acid as catalyst.
Bis Thiadiazole-2-thiol derivatives have been used as ligands to prepare polymeric coordinated complexes by direct reaction between ligand and divalent ion(Co2+ , Ni2+ , Cu2+ , Zn2+ , Cd2+) in a basic aqueos solution. On the basis of IR , UV analytical studies and literature data the probable structures have been proposed , it has been found that the divalent metal ions coordinate with polydentate ligand BTH-H1-3 forming octahedral polymeric complexes.

Investigation of the neutron rich zirconium(A=92,94) nuclei with the interacting boson model

Shetha Farhan AboAlhose

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 104-109

The low lying levels structure and electric quadrupole transitions of 92,94Zr nuclei have been studied by using the Interacting Boson Model-1 (IBM-1).
The calculated results are in good agreement with recent experimental data. The results obtained and the values of parameters used in this calculations indicated that Zr isotopes have a vibrational properties.and determined energy level for tow nuclei Zirconium(94,92) by values (2.574MeV,2.580MeV) which did not specified earlier.

Effect of chopped cane sugar fibers on some Mechanical Properties of Phenol-Formaldehyde and Urea-Formaldehyde Composites

Mohammad Nadhum B. AL-Baiati

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 110-117

This research was carried out by reinforcing the matrix (phenol-formaldehyde and urea-formaldehyde) resins respectively, with natural material (cane sugar fibers) . Each specimen was reinforced with different weight percentage, (5% , 10% , 15% , 20% and 25 % ) of chopped cane sugar fiber . After preparation of composite material, some of the mechanical properties, flexural, tensile and impact tests were studied of prepared specimen.
The results obtained from these tests indicated that, 25% from chopped Cane sugar reinforcing with urea-formaldehyde composite has the higher values of mechanical properties, compared with 5% from same composite, and 25% from chopped Cane sugar reinforcing with phenol-formaldehyde composite has the higher values of mechanical properties, compared with 5% from same composite.

Adaptive method for image steganography using genetic algorithm

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 118-123

Steganography is the art of hiding information in ways that prevent the detection of hidden messages, That a process involves hiding a message in an appropriate carrier e.g., an image, an audio or video file. This research aims to hide a color image in another color image with the same size , depends on substituting the similar blocks of embedding image within the cover blocks by using genetic algorithm for select best match block .This method is robust against the changes and treatments done for the cover image . additional it fast and the stego-images have less distortions. And so , more secure because the positions is send independent from stego- image.

Degenerate Four Wave Mixing in Photonic Crystal Fibers

Rasha Ali Hussein

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 124-133

In this study, Four Wave Mixing (FWM) characteristics in photonic crystal fibers are investigated. The effect of channel spacing, phase mismatching, and fiber length on FWM efficiency have been studied. The variation of idler frequency which obtained by this technique with pumping and signal wavelengths has been discussed. The effect of fiber dispersion has been taken into account; we obtain that the influence of FWM can be reduced by irregular channel spacing. We use three wavelengths in the calculations (580, 780, and 1040nm) which are the zero dispersion wavelengths, all the results reported in this work are simulated using MATLAB 7.

Investigation of optical properties of irradiated and unirradiated poly (vinyl chloride-co-vinyl acetate)

Hamid H. Mohammed; Zainab N.Majeed; Zuhair K.Abbas

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 134-141

This work describes the studies of the optical properties of poly (vinyl chloride-co-vinyl acetate) film (25 μm Thick.) before and after irradiation, where we found that the irradiation has major effect on the optical properties. The optical properties studied by using ultraviolet - visible spectra in the wave length range (300-900) nm .

Investigation of Some Even -Even Nuclei with Mass Numbers (A=98,100) by Interacting Boson Model

A.R.H Subber; Mohammed A. Al Sharefi; Ahmed M. Shuaib

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 142-148

In this work, some nuclei with mass numbers (A=98,100) have been investigated by using the both (IBM-1 and IBM-2) versions of interacting boson model (IBM). In calculations, the theoretical energy levels have been obtained by using PHINT and NP-BOS program codes. The presented results are compared with the experimental data in respective tables and figures. At the end, it was seen that the obtained theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental data. Also the mixing ratios are calculated .

Study the Factors Affecting Cadmium Ions Extraction from Aqueous Two-Phase System Using Potassium Iodide

Yousra Saber Kareem

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 149-154

The extraction of Cd (II) was studied in an aqueous PEG-Na2SO 4 two phase system, formed from a water soluble polymer (poly ethylene glycol) and inorganic salt (Na2SO4), in the presence of iodide ions (potassium iodide) as extractant . For the system consisting of mixture of 50 wt% PEG and 15 wt% Na2SO4 aqueous solution , % Cd removed was determined as a function of Initial concentrations of Cd (II) , Concentration of (KI) solvent , Phase ratio (PEG /Na2SO4) , and Molecular weight of the (PEG) polymer .
The experimental results measured by atomic absorption spectrometer model (PERKIN – ELMER 5000) and it shows that for a given aqueous two-phase system, the extraction behavior of Cd (II) is increased with increasing of the four variables above.
The optimum results for the extraction of Cd (II) determined for mixtures consisting of (0.5ml) of Initial Concentration of Cd(II), (0.28ml) of KI, phase ratio (PEG/Na2SO4) equal to 4 for the molecular weight of PEG (3000, 8000, 20000) g/g mole which reach's to (94, 95, and 97 %) respectively.

Application of fixed effect regression method in some examples

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 155-163

عدة مجاميع من البيانات تكتب بشكل مشاهدات متكررة في عينة من المواضيع ( موضوع واحد لكل صف ) ولتسهيل عملية تحليل البيانات يصار إلى إعادة تركيب هذه البيانات وبعدة طرق منها (طريقة الخلط ) . استخدمت طريقة (انحدار التأثيرات الثابت ) ولحالتين يكون فيها تكرار المشاهدات مرة ثنائي وأخرى ثلاثي ولهذه الطريقة القدرة في السيطرة على استقرار مميزات الأفراد المقاسة أو غير المقاسة والتي غالبا ماتكون ضمن أصناف مثل العمر أو الجنس أو الزمن -- الخ . كما إن هناك طريقة بديلة تعطي نفس النتائج تدعى طريقة الانحراف المتوسط تم تطبيقها على نفس المثال . كما تناول البحث استخدام الأنموذج اللوجستي لميزة المتغير المعتمد الثنائي وكان التطبيق لبيانات موسمية لسنتين متتاليتين ليصبح المتغير المعتمد يمثل مشاهدتين لكل مفردة .تم تحليل البيانات باستخدام البرنامج الإحصائي الجاهز SAS 9.1) )

Derivation and analyzation of steady state error (s.s.e) performance of rejected disturbances in the variable structure of control (VSC) systems

Mohanned Hassan Ali

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 164-176

This research presents an analytical study in the variable structure of control (VSC), where many equations had been derived in the (VSC) and designed to meet the recorrects for the fast response, low overshoot and small (S.S.E) for the 2nd order control system. Through using (VSC) efficiency feature, it is found that, it is possible to obtain high quality control which canʼt be obtained through using conventional control. It is noticed that, these controllers are easy and also, the switching cctʼs is simply implemented, and the system works even if the first structure is unstable, however it is necessary to have stable over damped structure. The most switching function algorithms which proposed here for (VSC) systems in different application fields (lift), claim a 2nd order and high order of robustness with respect to parameters variation and external disturbances. The analysis presented here in treating the question of changing the structure when a deterministic disturbance acts anywhere in the control system using Matlab programs.
An adaptive model reference algorithm is established to make the control system respond satisfactory or not there is a disturbance.

The Study of the effect of some medical plant extracts on snail Lymnaea auricularia

Firas A. Khdier

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 177-180

The aim of study to evaluate molluscicidal activity of some medicinal plant extracts(Achillea millefolium L., Artemisia vulgaris L., Salvia officinalis L.)against Lymnaea auricularia snails . the toxicity of different conditions after 24hrs,48hrs for mulluscs was time and dose dependent. The 24hrs Lc50=12mg/L of the ethanolic extract of Salvia officinalis L.were higher in comparison to Achillea millefolium L. Lc50=30mg/L and Artemisia vulgaris L. Lc50=20mg/L In chlorinated water extract, tap water extract and distilled water extract of A.vulgaris L. shown highest activity in comparison to S.officinalis L. and A.millefolium L.According to these results it may conclude that, the ethanolic extract of Salvia officinalis L. may be used for the snail control.

Evaluating Reliability Systems by Using Weibull & New Weibull Extension Distributions

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 191-196

In this paper we evaluate the reliability systems by using (Weibull & New Weibull Extension) distributions, and by using both of them we determine the Reliability Function and the associated functions such as cumulative distribution function , hazard function … etc., then we discusse the relationship between them and how effectiveness this to calculate the reliability function and associated functions.

Investigation of the low-lying energy levels structure of the rich neutron isotopes 96-104 Mo.

Heiyam .N. Hady

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 197-206

The low-lying levels structure, electric quadrupole transitions and the potential energy surfaces of the rich neutron 96-104Mo nuclei have been studied using the Interacting Boson Model-1 (IBM-1).The agreement between theoretical prediction and experiment values were fairly good.
The results obtained and the values of parameters used in this calculations indicated that 96-100Mo isotopes have a vibrational properties with the pairing effect which is starting from 100Mo to 104Mo isotopes while the quadrupole term appear in the last one as a acute competitor to the pairing force. The potential energy surface show smooth transition from vibration to gamma soft and finally to rotational like nuclei.

Investigation the Interstellar Dust toward the Galaxy M82

Muwafaq Fadhil Jaddoa

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 216-222

The composition of the interstellar dust remains controversial .The 10µm absorption feature has been analyzed in terms of silicate for a long time, In this paper we had compared between absorption toward the galaxy M82 and infrared spectra of organic and biological materials. We obtained a good agreement relatively with spectrum of Murchison meteorite. This meteorite composition contains organic and amino acids components which are the basis of DNA of the cells.

Design of Active Loop Antenna for Multi-band Radio Reception.

Jabbar S. Hussein

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 223-230

A simple design method of multiband active loop antenna for multiband reception is presented, the propose antenna work for LW and MW. Theoretical overview of the loop antenna is provided where the magnetic field equation is derived. Description of the design consideration and circuit of the antenna are presented, these antenna is simple, cheap and easy to construct and installation. Finally with practical experiment this antenna show good reception properties.

Iraqi Undergraduate EFL Students Errors in the Use of the Indefinite Article 2009 - 2010

Azhar Hassan Salumee

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 231-240

This study is an analysis of compositions written by Iraqi first- , second- , third-, fourth- year university EFL students. It aims at identifying the kinds of errors they make in the use of the indefinite article.
Nine types of error were identified, and their frequency computed and then compared across the four levels .These errors are: (1) deletion of the indefinite article, (2) writing a as part of the noun/adjective following it, (3)substitution of the indefinite for the definite article, (4) substitution of the definite for the indefinite article, (5) substitution of a for an, (6) use of the indefinite article with unmarked plurals, (7) use of the indefinite article with marked plurals, (8) use of the indefinite article with uncountable nouns, and (9) use of the indefinite article with adjectives.
Unlike earlier error analyses , native language transfer was found to play a role which is at best minimal .The analysis revealed that all errors , except one, are independent of the learners native language . The only type of error which could be traced back to the influence of Arabic, among other sources, was the deletion of the indefinite article.
Developmental factors and common learning strategies like simplification and over generalization were found to account for the majority of learners errors. The use of these strategies was evident among the learners of the four levels who were found to do well on certain items and to have difficulty with others.

A Study of Some Nuclear Properties of a Nuclei with Mass Numbers (A=100,102) using Interacting Boson Model

A.R.H Subber; Mohammed A. Al Sharefi; Ahmed M. Shuaib

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 241-247

In this study, we have employed the Interacting Boson Model (IBM-1 and IBM-2) to determine the most appropriate Hamiltonian for the study of a nuclei in the region (A≈100). Using the best fit values of parameters to construct the Hamiltonian, we have estimated energy levels and multipole mixing ratios (δ(E2/M1)) for some doubly even (A=100,102) nuclei. The results are compared with experimental data and it is observed that they are in good agreement.

Semi –Coercive Function

Alyaa Yousif Khudayir

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 248-252

In this paper ,we introduce the definition of semi-coercive function and introduce several properties of semi-coercive function.

Fuzzy Regular Compact Space

Habeeb Kareem Abdullah; Worood Mohammed Hussein

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 253-262

The purpose of this paper is to construct the concept of fuzzy regular compact space in fuzzy topological spaces .We give some characterization of fuzzy compact space and fuzzy regular compact space . A comparison between these concepts and we obtained several properties .

Diagnostic and epidemiologic Study of fat tail scorpion (Androctonus crassicuada) in Mid -Euphrates region / Iraq

Haider M. Al-Ramahi; Mohammad H. Al-Hasnawi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 263-269

This study was conducted in specific areas in the province of Babil ,Najaf and Al-Qadissiyia in Iraq during the period of March 2010 to November 2010 in search of scorpions on the presence of a thick tail scorpion (Androctonus crassicauda) in addition to studying of stinging of scorpions in same areas.
The results showed that the propotions of fat tail scorpion presence in some areas of in Babil , Najaf and Al-Qadissiyia were 45.91% ,16.73% and 37.37% respectively. Based on months of year found that the highest prevalence of scorpions was significantly (P≤0.05) observed in July(33.07%), while the lowest(P≤0.05) in April (2.33%) with no observation of any scorpion in March and October, with marked prevalent of juvenile scorpion in July.
The data obtained from questionnaire in infested area showed that the scorpionism with A. crassicuada was 76% ,the incidence rates in men ,women and children were 28.57% ,58.44% and 12.98% respectively. The affection rates of different parts of body were vary significantly ,the recorded ratios in upper limbs ,lower limbs ,body and head &neck were 53.24% ,35.06% ,10.38% and 1.29% respectively.

Distal in Topological Transformation Group

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 270-277

Abstract. In this paper we define distal in a topological transformation group and it will given necessary condition for a function to be a distal, and we obtain strongly distal by using the concept of the automomorphism as well as some of it property is studied

OXIDATIVE STRESS ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES SYSTEM IN FOUR WHEAT CALTIVARS UNDER ABIOTIC STRESS. II- EFFECT OF Fe,HCO3 STRESSES IN GROWTH ,YIELD AND ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES IN FOUR DURUM WHEAT CALTIVARS(Triticum durum) .*

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 1-20

To study Genotype difference of Four Durum Wheat varieties under Fe ,HCO3 stress . TOW Experiments were conducted, First experiment uses Hydroponics in this experiment examination four durum wheat varieties (Sinn AL-Jamal, Sinn AL-Fil, Jandolh,Kokart),all varieties are common culture in Iraq
.varieties were exposure to Fe and bicarbonate stress in three levels of bicarbonate (0 , 800 , 1600 µM/L),
Experiment was setup using complete Randomized Design (CRD).experiment was contained at 21 days.
Secondary was field experiment. . All four varieties were culture in calcareous soil , and Foliar application iron in two levels (0 and 30mg/L)from Fe-EDTA . , Experiment setup using split plot design ,Foliar application as main plot and varieties as subplot. Evaluation three antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POD, CAT), Root and shoot Fresh weight, length and diameter of roots active iron , organic acid (Malic, Citric , Oxalic) in Roots and total chlorophyll concentration .
Results showed to superior Jandolh variety to given highest shoot and root fresh weight, chlorophyll concentration , when grown under iron stress or in iron efficient. Bicarbonate levels stress(800 and 1600 µM/L) cause increasing in antioxidant enzymes activity (SOD, POD and CAT).This results showed scavenging of ROS level ,and lessen deterioration of cells compounds ,eventual from varieties grown under Fe,HCO3 stress. Exceed increasing in organic acid concentration (Malic, Citric and Oxalic) of all varieties . Jandolh variety give highest values of this enzymes activity and organic acid concentration, and followed sinn AL-Jamal variety. Kokart variety was give lowest values in all characters. Results of field experiment showed superior durum varieties Jandolh varieties to give highest values in all growth and yield characters ,when grow under(-Fe) or in (+Fe).From this two experiments inference efficiency of Jandolh varieties to tolerance Fe and HCO3 stress compared with other varieties under study. This study suggested capability to use antioxidant enzymes activity as important criterion to separation efficiencies varieties which tolerance Fe,HCO3 a biotic stress which general stress in calcareous soils in Iraq.

Influence of foliar application of Nitrogen and Zinc on growth and yield of Fenugreek plant (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 39-45

Pots experiment was conducted in the green house of Biology Department , College of Education Ibn-Al-Haitham , Univesity of Baghdad , during the growing season of (2010-2011) to study the effect of foliar application of four concentrations of Urea (Zero ,500 , 1000 , 2000) mg /L , and three concentrations of Zinc Sulphate (Zero , 25 , 50 ) mg /L and their interactions on the content of nitrogen , phosphorus , potassium , calcium and magnesium and (No.of grains/pod) , (wt.of grains/pod) of fenugreek cultivar(Indian) . The experiment design was a Completely Randomized Design(CRD) with three replications.
Results indicated that, foliar application of nitrogen and zinc and their interactions gave significant effect on the growth and the yield of plants particularly, in the case of the concentration of 1000 mg /L Urea and 50 mg /L of Zinc Sulphate that gave the highest values of the previous mentioned characteristics .

“factorial experiment of two factors with interaction between them by interference by replicates of variables using (Completely Randomized Block Design )”

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 52-65

في ألواح زراعية تجريبية في كلية الزراعة – جامعة بغداد في منطقة ابي غريب أقيمت تجربة عاملية من رتبتين ( عاملين ) في دراسة تأثير نوعين من السماد (طن/هـ) يمثل العامل الأول A ، و (كغم/هـ) يمثل العامل الثاني B ، والتنبؤ بعدد النباتات الناتجة بوجود تفاعل تداخلي بينهما [عدد النباتات – الوزن (طن/هـ) – الوزن (كغم/هـ)].
تكونت معالجات التجربة )المعالجة العاملية –Factorial Treatment ) من توافيق مستويات العاملين ( مستويين للعامل الأول A وثلاثة مستويات للعامل الثاني B )، في التجربة الأولى حصل التفاعل مابين (Periods * Class )، وفي التجربة الثانية حصل التفاعل مابين (Class) والتفاعل (Periods * Class) وعدد المعالجات العاملية سيكون مساوٍ الى جميع التوافيق الممكنة بين مستويات العاملين.
وقد أنجزت التجربة بثلاثة مواعيد وبأربعة مكررات وجعلها تجرى بقطاعات تنجز بنفس الأسلوب في كل قطاع واتخاذ قرار احصائي بشأن فرضيات تتعلق بالتنبؤ بعدد النباتات الناتجة عن تأثير العاملين (كغم/هـ) و (طن/هـ) والعلاقات المتبادلة بينهما.
استند التحليل على مجتمع أحادي معتمد ( التحليل بالتجزئة) وأثر العوامل والتفاعلات مابينها على تحليل الانحدار وتحليل التباين بموجب النموذج الخطي العام الأحادي (GLM _Univariate Procedure) وتقدير معلماته ، ومجتمع متعدد المتغيرات معتمد بعاملين وبعدة مستويات وإجراء اختبار التفاعلات مابين تلك العوامل كما هو عليه الحال في حالة التحليل أحادي المتغيرات آنف الذكر ووفق النموذج الخطي متعدد المتغيرات المعتمدة (GLM-Multivariate ) بإحصاءة اختبار(Lawley Hotelling's trace) وباستخدام الحزمة الاحصائية statigraph .
من خلال اختبار استقلالية العوامل بين معاملي ارتباط بيرسون وسبيرمان ان هناك علاقة عند مستوى دلالة 0.01 ذات دلالة احصائية و ارتباط قوي مابين المتغيرات (كغم/هـ) وعدد النباتات مقدارها(o.614,o.628)على التوالي .ون هناك تجانس الانحدار في تباين الخطأ بينهما ايضا.
وفي ضوء التجربة العاملية Factor Experiment المتكونة من عاملين تجمع مستويات كل عامل مع مستويات العامل الآخر ومن خلال نتائج التحليلات باستخدام الحزم الاحصائية Statigraph. تبين في جدول تحليل التباين الأحادي " ANOVA " Univariate Analysis ان العامل كغم/هـ ، والتفاعل بين العاملين فقط لها دلالة معنوية او تأثيرات رئيسة معنوية،ومن نتائج تحليل التباين أحادي المتغير المعتمد عدم تحقق مغزى معنوياَ عند عامل التفاعل في حين في تحليل التباين متعدد المتغيرات المعتمدة Multivariate Analysis بعدم وجود اية فروق معنوية لأي من العاملين او التفاعل بينهما
وتحقق المغزى المعنوي عند مستوى الدلالة المعتمدة وعند عامل التفاعل مابين العاملين وبذلك يتضح عدم تطابق نتائج التحليلين .
هدف البحث: يهدف البحث الى تشخيص خطأ التجزئة في الظواهر ذات الأبعاد متعددة المتغيرات المعتمدة ( الإنموذج المتزن ) Multivariate بتحليل النموذج الخطي العام احادي المتغير المعتمد.

Effect of spraying with different concentration of Boron and Iron on vegetative growth characters of Apricot seedling (Prunus armeniaca L.)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 66-72

An experiment was conducted in lath house at the College of Agriculture , Kerbala University during the growing season of 2011 to study the effect of different concentration of Boron and Iron on shoot system of Apricot seedling . Three replicates were used for each treatment. Boron was used at three levels 0 , 10 , 20 mg/L and three levels of Iron 0 , 10 , 20 mg/L . The seedling were sprayed at two intervals , 15/4 and 30/4/2011 , and they were also sprayed with urea (1g/L) one day before spraying dates. An experiment was conducted according to the Completely Randomized Design (C.R.D.) . and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was based on the least significant difference (P = 0.05) . All measurements were taken at the end of June . Results showed that :-
1- The concentration of 20 mg/L of Boron treatment singnificantly surpassed all other concentrations regarding most studied characters . ( height of seedling ,stem diameter , chlorophyll content in leaves , and dry weight of shoot system ) . at this concentration reached 11.67 cm / seedling , 1.89mm , 32.55 SPAD and 1.99g / seedling respectively . while, there was no significant effect of Boron on the fresh weight of shoot system .
2- Iron treatment at 20mg/L concentration significantly surpassed all other concentrations regarding all studied growth characters . Height of seedling , stem diameter , chlorophyll content in leaves , fresh and dry weights of shoot system, at this concentration reached 11.78cm/ seedling , 1.68mm , 32.78SPAD , 3.52g/ seedling and 1.82g/ seedling , respectively .
3- The interaction between Boron and Iron had no significant effects on the most characters of growth including stem diameter , chlorophyll content , fresh and dry weights of shoot system . However , the only significant effect of this interaction was on Height of seedling where its highest mean was 15.67cm/seedling at the concentration of 20mg/L of Boron and 20mg/L of Iron .

Histological Study of Proximal Segment For Vas Deferens in the indogenous Mature goats

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 85-90

The present study was carried out on thrity of mature male goats (three years )old . vas deferenses , involved the proximal segment . the present study was revealed that the proximal segment of vas deferens composed of three histological layers , mucosa lined by stratified columnar epithelium ,from the mucosal layer , many folds which extended .the second layer was muscular layer , consist of smooth muscle fibers bundle , arranged in three layer , the layer toward internal was poorly development , and composed of thin smooth muscle fibers bundles and arranged in circular pattern , the middle layer was good development , and consist of smooth muscle fibers arrangement in circular direction , and external muscular layer . consist of smooth muscle fibers , longitudinal in the arrangement . adjacent to adventitia .so the third histological layer of goat vas deferens was represented by adventitia that consist of collagenous and elastic fibers bundles , there is among them middle diameter arteries and veins , the present study was revealed the indogenous goats vas deferens had thik muscular wall , and characterized by narrow lumen , from mucosa , many folds were projected ,with submucosa absent in this proximal segment of mature indogenous goats

The relationship between Follicular diameter and Oocyte diameter and Maturation on Awassi ewes

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 91-97

This study was conducted at department of animal technical production , AL-Musaib Technical college from 1st September 2008 to 1st September 2009 to investigate a relation between follicular dimeter with maturation and dimeter of oocyte . A total of 150 pairs of ovaries were collected from adult ewes from slaughter house of AL- Musaib city/Babil province and ovaries were transported to the Laboratory with in 1–2 hours . The number of follicular ovaries reached to (1205 ) follicle . Follicles were classified in to 6 groups according to the follicle dimeter (1-2,> 2-3, >3-4, >4-5, >5-6, and>6-8) and Follicular fluid was aspirated from follicles . The results showed presence of highest percentage of mature oocgtes when the follicular diameter was between 2 – 3 mm and oocyte diameter ranged from 115 – 120 microns . The oocyte diameter increased significantly (p> 0.01) with the increased thickness of Zona pellucida and number of follicles . The correlation coefficient between follicle diameter and oocyte diameter was positive and it was highly significant (p>0.01) , while the coefficient was negative and it was highly significant (p>0.01) between follicle diameter and its maturation. Showed presence a significant difference (p>0.01)on follicular activity among seasons which increase follicular activity and number of follicles at spring and Autumn while decrease number of follicles during winter and summer .

Total elemental analysis of soils under different vegetation cover north of Iraq

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 98-108

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of forest tree types on total elemental analysis on some selected forest soils located in northern Iraq. Ten forest soil sites were chosen(oak , green grain , pine , almond and wild pears ). Some of physical and chemical properties were determined , total elemental analysis was determinate which used to calculate four molecular ratios of elements in mineral lattice include which showed variation within ( ، ، ، )

horizons of some pedons especially in the forest soils also this trend vary in the different forest tree types inside and between forest soils and control soils in other side . The molecular ratio ranged from ( 1.85-8.31 ) , the lowest value in the first horizon for control pedon in sarsank , while the highest value in the first horizon of green grain forest . For ratio ranged from 1.98-8.61 the lowest value was found in the first horizon of almond pedon and the highest value registered in the second horizon for pine forest . In general,the lowest values of these ratios were found within surface horizons as compared with subsurface horizons for studied soils . The ratio ranged between (1.29-5.33) and the lowest value was noticed in the first horizon of almond forest while the highest value was found in the second horizon for sarsank forest also this ratio distinguished by increasing with depth . The result of ranged from (0.07-0.64) the lowest value was in the first horizon of wild pears forest in mergasur and the highest value was registered in the last horizon of wild pears forest and this ratio decreased within surface horizon or followed which consider the major zone of microbial activity.

The effect of culturing media and spraying of Licorice root extract on growth and flowering characteristics and seed production of Calendula officinalis L.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 109-114

This experiment was conducted at a nursery belonging to Holy Najaf province during the period of 2009.The aim was to study the effect of three types of different medium and spraying of three concentrations of Licorice root extract on the vegetative growth and flowering of marigold plants.Randomized Complete Block Design (R.C.B.D) in three replicates was adopted .Least Significant Differences(L.S.D) of 0.05 probability level to compare the means.
The resulted showed that culturing media had significant effect of the vegetative growth and flowering , the treatment (1max:2petmos) highest increase in number of branches , leaves , the leaf contents of total chlorophyll and number of flowers reaching (5 branch. plant-1 , 31.66 leaves. plant-1 , 15.18 mg. 100g-1 fresh weight , 38.88 flower. plant-1 ) respectively, also was sprinkle of extract of Licorice roots had a significant effect on the sprinkled plants with concentration 2gm.L-1 ) giving the highest increase in number of branches , leaves , the leaf contents of total chlorophyll , number of root branches , the dry weight of roots , number of flowers and weight of 100 seeds reaching (5.77 branch. plant-1 , 34.33 leaves. plant-1 , 14.64 mg. 100g-1 fresh weight , 17.11 branches of root. plant-1 , 5.61 gm , 43 flowers. plant-1 , 6 gm. 100 seeds-1) respectively, The interactions between agricultural medium and sprying of extract of Licorice roots gave significant differences in these characteristics

The effect of magnetic field in (germination characteristics for each wheat(Triticum aestivum) and broad bean (Vicia faba)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 124-127

Laboratory experiment ( germination in pettrydish ) by using C.R.D. design was conducted. The experiment consisted of the study of the magnetic force effect on some germination characteristics of wheat and broad bean seeds by the treatment (magnetic seeds and unmagnetic seeds ) by passing them through magnetic field ( 3500 gaus ) with five replications & comparison between the effect of magnetic field on monocots seeds for wheat &dicotyledons seeds of broad bean using ten seeds in each treatment , the experiments lasted for 12 days .
Results indicated that the magnetic had significant effect on germination characteristic (germination period, germination %, and germination rate) for each wheat and broad bean seeds .The treatment had a great effect on the monocots seeds compared with the dicots seeds.

Effect of Insect Growth Regulation by Spraing & Injection Treatment Methods on Larvae of Dubus Bug Ommatissus lybicus DeBerg ( Homoptera : Trupiduchidae)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 128-135

Aseries of field experiments were conducted in different date palm fields ⁄ Babylon province to evaluted the effects of growth regulators ( Applaud , Trigard and Dimilin ) in the mortality of spring nymph stages of dubas bug insect O. lybicus DeBerg by two treatment methods ( spraying methode with 1.0 , 0.5 and 0.6 g/ L. cocentration and injectionn methode with 200 g/ L. con. for each regulator ) also low concentration ( 0.2 and 0.5 g/ L. ) of these regulators were uesed to study their efficiency on the longivity and fertility of the females . the results showed :
The different concentration of of growth regulators ( Applaud , Trigard and Dimilin) were very effected in the mortality of early nymph stages of O. lybicus insect.By spraying treatment the number of nymph stages reduced from 11.6 , 25.0 and 15.4 nymph / leaf befor treatment to 1.8 ,1.6 and 1.0 nymph / leaf after treatment respectivily . Trigard growth regulator more effective than other in both spraying and injection methodes , but unsignificantly . high mortality rates of 92.8% when trating with Dimilin by spraying methode , while the lowest mortality reached 39 .9 % when injection same regulater in to trunk of the tree.The number of ggs by each female were reduced to one egg per each female and reducing age of both male and female especially with 0.5 g / l. con. when treating with Applaud regulator .

Assessment of Some Bacteriological and Ecological Characteristics in ( Bany-Hassan) river and one of its branches /Karbala-Iraq

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 136-151

Three stations has been selected, tow of them are located in Bany-Hassan river in Karbala city ,the rest located in one of its branches : (Abo Sefen), to study some physical, chemical and bacteriological characters Monthly for a full year starting from January 2007 until December 2007. The results showed that water temperature which was between (10-34)C affected by surrounding air temperature. The water of area study was moderately alkaline with pH ranging between (7.3-8.3). Turbidity and the electrical conductivity of Abo Sefen stream water was higher than that of Bany-Hassan river, salinity values were recorded between (0.795-0.855)‰ and (0.736-0.790)‰ Respectively. The total hardness ranged between (210-820) mg CaCO3/L, which was classified as very hard water. It was showed that cations and anions in Abo Sefen sream were founded in higher concentrations . in this study It was found that SO4-2(422-200) mg/L was dominate among Cl-1 (104-172) mg/L and Ca+2(126-160) mg/L values which was more than Mg+2 (10.2-27) mg/L. Dissolved oxygen value ranged between (4.29-9.8) mg/L, while no case of over saturation with oxygen was recorded in this study. Unlike the River Bany Hassan the water in the Abo Sefen stream considered as a bad source of raw water according to BOD standards. The nutrients showed clear fluctuation in their concentrations. Nitrate values were (120-940) μg/L and nitrite values were (0.5-91) μg/L, while reactive phosphate values were (15-45.6) μg/L. The water in this study was not matching to the Iraqi and the international standards for drinking water and some other indicators according to the levels of the total number of bacteria and coliform bacteria and fecal coliform bacteria, recorded between (55-2438) cell /ml and (42-1522) cell/100ml and (25-788) cell/100ml respectively for all mentioned bacterial groups .

Effect of overlap between the sodium chloride andproline acid in bearing tomato plant (Lycopersiconesculentum Mill.) Some of the nutrients using hydroponic system *

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 152-161

The experiment was Carried out using hydroponic unit mside the glass house belonging to the Department Biology, Faculty of Education (Ibn al-Haytham) / University of Baghdad during, the growing season 2010-2011 in order to study the effect of concentrations of sodium chloride and proline and their interaction on the content of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium , calcium and magnesium of shoot of two cultivars of tomatoes (Hymar F1, Olga F1).The concentrations of sodium chloride used was 0.100 and 150mM/L and prolineconcentrations was 0, 15 and 30 mg/ liter. A factorial experiment within completely randominzed design (CRD) was used with three replicacates. Means were compared using LSD test at 0.05 probability level. The letel experiment units were
(3x3x3x2) when equals to 54. Plants were grown in or plastic container hydroponically (static hydroponics). Hutrientsolution were changed 48 hours intervals. The pH of the nutrient solutions was adjusted, aerates wae used by using compressor. Plants were sapled at 32 and 54 days from transplanting to the hydroponic system, which up rested H1-D32 and H2-D53. Results revealed the superiority of Olga F1 cultivar on the Hymar cultivar of all studied dements

The Contamination of Wards and Operating Rooms of Al-Hussein General Hospital in Karbala City by Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ( MRSA )

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 162-168

Methicillin – resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most bacteria that cause hospital – acquired infections. The source should be determined to control it and prevent spread.
The study included 14 isolates being isolated from 197 samples taken from wards and operating rooms of Al-Hussein General hospital in Karbala city from different sites ( beds ,floor , tables , walls , equipments and surgical tools ) from January to May ,2009.
The isolates were diagnosed according to cultural, microscopic characteristics and biochemical tests, the diagnosis has been verified by using Api-Staph system.
The results showed that the beds and floor of hospital`s wards and operating beds of operating rooms were the most contaminated sites of MRSA.
The highest of MRSA prevalence among hospital`s wards was in internal medicine ward 26.08% while the lowest was in urology ward 11.11% , otolaryngology ward 9.52%, surgical ward 8.69% and emergency ward 7.14% . The burn units and orthopaedic ward were not contaminated.
The highest of MRSA prevalence among hospital`s operating rooms was in burn and orthopaedic operating room.
The results of antibiotics sensitivity test showed that the highest percentage of antibiotic resistance of all MRSA isolates was to Lomefloxacin 57.14% and Kanamycin 50% while the lowest percentage was to Imipenem 7.14%.

The effect of electromagnatic current on Mitotic Index for cell of apical marestiems for roots of Cucumis sativus L.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 175-181

The experiment was conducted at physiology laboratory of the higher studies in the department of Biology at Ibn Al.Haitham – College of Education-Baghdad University on the 15th 82010. The experiment was designed as Completely Randomised Design(CRD) The seeds of 3 species of American cucumber,they were:-1- Lot Number (EM285),2- Hyrid Super Green F1,and 3-ToCAEEN F1 were exposured for 2 types of physical effects, they were : 1- 4 frequencies of electric current (0,1,2, 2.5)Am for 5 min. for each freq.( 2-4) exposure periods to UV (0,30,60,90) sec.in (254)nm of frequency.The cucumber seeds were planted in pettry dish that contains a layer of wet cotton 10 seeds for each exposure,and after 7 days the apical roots , had kept in Carnoys fluid.Then they were put in tubes contains 3 ml. of HCL(1N) then in a water bath.After that, it dyed with Folgen stain then some of the cytological characteristics had been studied :- divided cells, Mitotic Index.Results showed that, the species(3) had a significant increase in the studied chara- cteristics compared with 1and 2 species,under the frequency 2.5Am and the exposure per- iod forUV 90 at all interaction

Studying of qualitative Properties of garlic ,sunflower and olive oils and effect of the preservation at refrigeration on their chemical properties

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 182-191

Qualitative Properties of garlic,sunflower and olive oils were studied. such as odour,colour, refractive Index, density, viscosity, meltting, boiling,somking, Flash, Burn Points and acid value, peroxide value, saponification number, unsaponifiable matter, iodine number , thiobarbituric acid value . cholesterol was also determined.
Results showed that, odours and colors were differ among oils because of compounds which responsible on color and odour.
Refractive index from sunflower oil and olive oil were very close between them ,but were higher than refractive index of garlic oil . It was observed that the density of both garlic oil and sunflower oil were very close between them ,but they were lower than density of olive oil .Also viscosity of the three oils were different and the olive oil was the highest. The melting and boiling points for oils , were very close and sunflower oil was the highest,but olive oil was lower than that ,garlic oil was the lowest.
Somking,flashing and burn points were different and olive oil was the highest.The results observed that, chemicals indicators were studied. showed that sunflower oil was the most acidic and it was higher in unsaponifiable matter , iodine number and thiobarbituric acid .While, olive oil was highest in peroxide and saponification values.There was no cholesterol in these oils.On the other hand,it was found, that all studied chemical indicators of oils were increased when refrigerating period increased.

Effect of defferent Aphids density on dvelopment of larvae and morphological charactres of adults of two Coccinellid species

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 169-174

The effect of defferent number of aphids ( 0,2,4,8,16,32 and 64 ) daily supplied to 1st larvae instar of C. septempunctata L. and C. undempunctata L. were studies during spring season 2008 , the results showed :
The average life – sparn of each larval instar was reduced signaficantly as the number of daily supplied aphid increased . The size of emerged adult ladybird beetles resulted from feding on different aphid densities were signaficantly different .The number of eggs from each femal resulted from feding on differen aphid densities were increased when 1st larval fed on 64 nymph .There was a relationhip between the averge of coccinellidadult length and weight with densities of aphid supplied daily to 1st larvl instar . The average life –sparn of each adult stage was increased signaficantly as the numbe of aphid supplied daily increased .preoviposition period was reduced signaficantly as the number of aphid supplied daily increased

A study of the effect of thickness and Gamma Ray on the optical properties of Polystyrene – Kaolinite Composite

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 192-199

A study of the effect of thickness on the optical properties of Polystyrene – Kaolinite Composite of thickness (0.86,0.92,1.11) mm prepared by introduction of filler material (kaolinite) to matrix material (polystyrene) after toasting to powder with temperature degree(100 ͦ C)and drying and choose partical size (D<100 μm) and have been used also binder material poly vinyl chloride (PVC) and had been added to dissolved polymer matrix material in benzen with the state ratios and study of effect of thickness for samples after and befor irradiation γ- Ray irradiation from Co60of average energy (2.5 Mev) with radiation dose of (250 KGy) on optical properties for composite material and absorption increase but the transmission decrease as a data of waving length with increase the thickness, as well as it is found that the absorption coefficient of these samples increase with decrease thickness and also calculation of the optical constant carried out such as extinct coefficient , refractive index, reflectance ,real and imaginary part of dielectric constant after and befor irradiation.

Electronic Sources and their importance in scientific research: an analytical study for agricultural intellectual product in Iraqi Virtual scientific Library (IVSL)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 200-209

The research aims to identify the characteristics of intellectual production provided by the Iraqi virtual scientific library in the field of agricultural production in various languages for the years (2000-2011) in the form of periodicals and journal articles, specialized scientific and research conferences, databases, and analysis of formal, objective and time to identify the characteristics and stages of growth, weakness, the documentary analysis methods has been used it to achieve the aims of this study. Farming techniques in general and (Plant Tissue Culture Techniques) and ((Soilless culture Technique)) and (Genetic Engineering Technique) in particular.

The Research results:
1. Totaled electronic sources provided by the Iraqi virtual library scientific in the area of intellectual production in agriculture (324) and specialized patrol (10) databases.
2. Plant Culture won a good share of attention and the balance of this category of subjects (122 779) articles and Paper conferences, (2000-2011) It's presents 40.3% of the total subjects, articles , Papers of conferences in other disciplines.
3. The number of articles were published on the Plant Tissue Culture Techniques: since (2000-2011) / (139) article. The number of articles were published on the subject of Soilless culture Technique since (2010-2011) / (2) article only, the number of articles were published in the techniques of genetic engineering (576), and (283) article were published in different scientific magazines , (293) Papers in different Conference.
4. Most of the articles and research available in the Iraqi Virtual Library is the product of a collective, and considering that the research resulting from Co-Authors of the best individual research.

Effect of oil Newcastle disease vaccine on thyroid gland hormones T3,T4

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 210-214

This research was conducted to investigate the effect of vaccination by oil Newcastle disease vaccine on T3 and T4 level of thyroid gland in broiler chicken. For this purpose 100, one day old chicks, Hubbard were used in the experiment, chicks were allocated randomly in to two groups, and each group was containing 50 chicks. Chicks in the first group were vaccinated by oil Newcastle disease vaccine during 10th day old, were as, chicks in the second group was left with out vaccination, regarded as control group. Body weight and weight gain were recorded every two weeks of the experiment. Antibody titer level was evaluated by HI test. Mean while, T3 and T4 level were evaluated by ELISA. Result were indicated an increase of antibody titer ( p<0.01) and T4 level (p<0.05) in chicks which were vaccinated oily ND vaccine. Where as, T3 level was non significant difference in to two groups, in addition, there no significant difference in mean Body weight and weight gain in the two groups. It was concluded that oily Newcastle disease vaccine resulted in elevation of Antibody titer and T4 in broiler chicken.

Effect of the partitioning of potassium fertilizer and magnetized water on the growth and yield of maize ( Zea mays L.)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 222-228

A field experiment was conducted at Hussainyah Province of Karbala/Iraq to study the effect of the partitioning of potassium fertilizer and magnetic water on growth and yield of Maize (Zea mays L.) var.synthesiser 5012. The experiment included studying two factors. Firs factor included two types of water (magnetic & non magnetic) diameter with 1500 gauss. Second factor partitioning of potassium fertilizer applied in soil of five batches (1,2,3,4 and 5). The experiment was designed as RCBD.
The result showed the following points:
1. The magnetized water significantly affects the height of plants, dry matter weight and grain yield.
2. The fragmentation of potassium fertilizer gave significant effect on the height of plants, 500 grain, dry matter weight and grain yield.
3. The interaction between magnetized water and partitioning of potassium fertilizer was significantly increased the plant height, 500 grain, dray matter weight and grain yield.

Using of nutshell pomegranate, Alum Solution to remove adhesive substance from common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) Eggs during artificial reproduction.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 229-233

This study hael been established in aheatchary private / Babylon province from 9 April to 25 April 2011, in order to study the possibility tannins substitute (which is used in artificial propagation for elimination of adhesive substance from eggs of Cyprinus carpio ) by alum solution or grenacle punnic granetun and their effects on both hatching and fertilization.
Four different concentrations of punnic granetun ( 1, 2, 3 and 4 ) g/L and another four concentrations of alum solution ( 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 ) g/L with acontrol solution
( 0.5 g/L Tannin ) for each experiment at 3 replicutes .
The Results showed that there is not signefcet differente ( p < 0.05 ) between punnic granetum 2 g/L and control solution wherease averages of hatching ratio ( %70.97 ) ، ( % 71.09 ) respectively also there is not any scgnificat between alum solution ( 1g/L ) and the control solution ( %71.41 ) , ( %70.88 ) respectively for hatching ratio, that is mean they are the best to use in stead of tannins solution.

Influence of nutrient medium components ,sucrose and tyrosine on callus induction , papaverine and noscapine alkaloids production on Papaver somniferum In vitro

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 243-254

A study was conducted at the tissue culture lab.College of Agriculture /University of Baghdad and Drug Research Center /Health Ministry during the period Sep. 2008 till Oct.2009 . Result indicated that MS medium was superior in both fresh and dry weights of callus 155.1 ; 14.54 mg respectively , compared with B5 medium that gave 127.4 ; 11.81 mg for both fresh and dry weights of callus, respectively .Results showed that MS medium supplemented with 0.3 mg/l BA and 0.5 mg/ l of NAA gave the highest values of fresh and dry weights of callus 357.4 ; 33.71mg, respectively compared with B5 medium supplemented with the same concentration of BA and NAA which gave 253.3 ; 23.4 mg for both fresh and dry weights of callus ,respectively . Results indicated that MS medium supplemented with 30g/l of sucrose gave the highest values 548.5 ; 51.6 fresh and dry weights of callus ,respectively . However, values of both parameters were reduced with the increasing of sucrose concentration up to 60 ; 90 and120 g/L , it gave 445.5 ; 333.3 and 257.8 mg and 45.7 ; 34.1 and 24.0 mg for both fresh and dry weights of callus, respectively. MS medium supplemented with 30g/L sucrose and 20 mg/L tyrosine gave the highest values 598.5 ; 53.9 mg of both fresh and dry weights of callus, respectively . MS medium supplemented with 90g/L sucrose and 30 mg/L tyrosine gave the highest values 3.9 ; 5.9 mg/g of papaverine and noscapine for fresh callus weight, respectively . While, the lowest values of papaverine and noscapine 2.3 ; 2.5 mg/g for fresh callus weight respectively of control treatment.

In The Bases Of The Phonetic Method For The Arabic Structure Presentation And Evaluation

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 1-23

(In The Bases Of The Phonetic Method For The Arabic Structure Presentation And Evaluation)
This study aims to define the structure of the Arabic word and direct workmen to the changes happen to it because of stress or unstress or the transfer from one picture to another because of al-alal or exchanging or what happens to the verb if it is connected with pronouns, phonetically. According to the modern phonetics. It is a balance study to what the modern phonetics has reached in the structure and what it was to the Arab scientists. It is a discussion to the most important problems and their reasons that lead to the separation between the old phonetics. And the modern phonetics. All this is achieved by presenting the book of Dr. Abid el- Sabur shaheen: (The Phonetic method for the Arabic Structure, New Look In The Arabic Morphology) , and I do my best to discuss what comes in this book. The researcher puts himself in a theoretical background which form the main basis to the research. It is the results of the modern phonetic to give the research a legal of filiation to the theoretical direction helps which is known for its efficiency especially in linguistics. This theoretical direction helps to understand and at the same time gives a theoretical form to the essential concepts that I will work with.

THE ROL ECONOMY OF THE PUBLIC BUDGET IN IRAQ THE PERIOD (1988-2007)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 24-38

The public budget is considered of the most important tools of the fiscal policy that aims at the realization of the required growth rate, increasing the national income and then increasing investments and employment, in addition to reducing unemployment under stable financial balancing and thus supporting sustained growth . It has also great economic significance for developed and developing countries alike.
The importance of the study is that Iraqi public budget, as one of the tools of the fiscal policy, plays an essential role in tackling the problems facing Iraq on one hand, and the limited number of studies undertaken in designating and studying the role of government in the economy on the other hand.
The problem lies whether or not the public budget has achieved its economic and social objectives and the reasons thereof ; and the criteria for evaluating and studying the public budget.
The study aims at analyzing the components of the budget and evaluating its economic and social role by using a number of indicators and arrive at conclusions and suggestions that the researcher feels , would help improving the performance of public budget and correcting the economic and social path .
The study assumes that public budget is a reflection of distorted economic structure, lacking economic and financial policies, ambiguity of development objectives; thus leading to its inefficiency and fail to achieve its objectives.
Finally, the study reaches at a number of conclusions and suggestions

"Al – Ain Sound in Arabic"

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 53-67

This paper talks about what the sound is in Arabic vocabulary, and according to the grammarians. It clarifies that the speaker should work hard with his organs in order to get sounds, that is scientifically proved as felt vibrations in the air waves which launches from the sound side and vibrates out through its exported factories. Then, it talks about the old vocal Alphabet that Ain sound was specialized with and made it different from the others Arabic sounds. Then, this paper shows the scientist’s different opinions about the nature of Al-Ain sound and how it is articulated. So this sound is attributed with many characteristics: "silent", "guttural", "voiced" , "mustafil" , "weakened" between "weakening and intensifying", it is neither stressed nor unstressed, but it is called medium sounds or (liquid). It is articulated by pushing the air through the larynx to move the two vocal cords till it reaches the middle of pharynx to narrow the air flow, and according to that there is a kind of rustling when it is articulated in the middle of the pharynx.

Administrative Corruption In the Perspective of learning Theories

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 0, Pages 147-166

Administrative and financial corruption of the phenomena that destroy communities through Deviant behavior and corrupting effects, so the current study focused on several targets are as follows :-
1- Verify the extent of the phenomenon of administrative and financial corruption in Iraqi ministries .
2- Identify the most prominent learning theories that explain learning behavior spoiler
3- Clarify the role of education in the fight against corruption
And so that accomplish the objectives of the current study, the researchers adopted a descriptive approach in the context of the application for this search.
Research community is composed of four Iraqi ministries in the province of Babylon for the year 2009:- the Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Electricity, Ministry of Municipalities and Public Works, Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs .
The tools of study to prepare a questionnaire for the detection of the phenomenon of financial and administrative corruption, which is composed of 25 paragraph has been verified its reliability .
The present study dealt with in the framework of a theoretical range of learning theories that explain how to gain corrupt behavior, as well as reference to measures to ensure the reduction of this phenomenon is educationally .
The researchers used appropriate statistical tools to address the results statistically, then researchers concluded a number of results that showed the existence of this phenomenon in the reverent ministries and at different rates ,then researchers concluded conclusions and recommendations and proposals .