ISSN: 1813-0410

Volume 7, Issue 1

Volume 7, Issue 1, Winter 2011, Page 1-369


The effects of honey on phagocytic activity against Staphylococcus aureus

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 335-339

Bee honey is a natural substance reported to stimulate the human immune system. this study aimed at evaluating the in vitro effects of bee honey in stimulation the phagocytosis against S.aureus .this study included tow human blood groups ,bee honey treated group and control blood group, tow blood groups are inoculated with S.aureus bacteria , after 1hr and 30 min incubation at 37cْ ,phagocytic activity towards S.aureus was assessed by determining the number of ingested S.aureus phagocytes per 100 cells (phagocytes and non phagocytes). The results revealed that bee honey at 1% concentration significantly enhanced the phagocytic activity .

Root Growth of Wheat Plant as Affected by Cultivars, Proline and Field Capacity.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 46-56

Pot experiment was conducted in a private field located on the main road of Kerbala – Babylon , 10 kms eastern of Kerbala during season 2010 -2011 . The aim of this study was to assess the effect of water stress and proline on the root growth of four wheat cultivars . The root growth parameters were root diameter , root length , root volume and fresh and dry weight of the root . Factorial experiment within completely randomized design with four replicates was applied . The experiment included four wheat cultivars ( ie. Fateh , Adnania , IPA 99 and Sham 6 ) , three concentration of proline ( ie. 0 , 20 and 40 ) mg . l-1 and three levels of field capacity ( ie. 25 , 50 and 100% ) .
The results could be summarized as follow :
1- The effect of cultivars was significant on the previous mentioned traits . Fateh cultivar gave the higest root length and shoot fresh weight , ipa 99 cultivar gave the higest root dry weight , whereas Sham 6 gave the highest diameter , volume and dry weight of root . On the other hand , Fateh gave lower values of diameter , length and volume of root , Adnania gave lower fresh weight of root
2- Concerning proline treatment , proline at 20 mg . l-1 was more effective on all studied parameters compared with other concentrations ( ie. 0 and 40 ) mg . l-1 .
3- The field capacity of 100% was the best compared with 25% and 50% field capacities .
4- The interaction between cultivars and the proline was significantly effective on the studied parameters where cultivars treated with 20 mg . l-1 proline gave the highest values compared with the control treatment ( ie. 0 mg . l-1 ) .
5- The interaction between cultivars and the field capacity was also effective on the root growth parameters . cultivars grown with 100% field capacity gave higher values of the root growth parameters . on the other hand , those cultivars grown with 25% field capacity gave the lowest values of the previous mentioned parameters .
6- The interaction between the proline and field capacity was also significant on the studied parameters . the proline at 20 mg . l-1 and 100% field capacity treatment gave the highest values of studied parameters whereas plants grown with 0 mg .l-1 and 25% field capacity gave the lowest values of root growth parameters .
7- Apart from the root dry weight , the interaction between cultivars , proline and field capacity was also significantly effective . Cultivars grown with 20 mg . l-1 proline and 100% field capacity gave the highest values , on the other hand, those cultivars grown without proline application , and 25% field capacity gave the lowest values of root diameter , length , volume and the fresh weight .

A study of 14 MeV neutrons buildup factor in paraffin wax, graphite and lead.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 223-229

The 14 MeV neutrons buildup factor in paraffin wax, graphite and lead have been experimentally determined using the BF3 counter up to a thickness of 2.5 mean free path ( mfp ).The dependence of the secondary neutrons spectrum transmitted from all selected materials on the thickness at the fixed incident neutron energy has also been studied using a liquid organic scintillation detector type NE 213. Results indicate that, the value of buildup factor remains close to unity up to penetration depths of 0.4 mfp and then increases when sample thickness increased. The neutron spectra obtained in this research depends on the material type and thickness. In general, the neutron spectra decrease with increasing sample thickness. Comparison of the experimental results obtained with the previously calculated neutron buildup factor shows a good agreement.

Effectiveness of different cleanser solutions on the microbial contamination of toothbrushes.

Dhifaf Mohammed Saleh

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 302-307

Toothbrushes may become heavily contaminated with microorganisms; these microorganisms may originate not only from the oral cavity but also from the environment where the toothbrushes are stored. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different antimicrobial cleanser solution such as chlorhexidine, hydrogen peroxide and salt solution with tap water as a control group. 32 individual were supplied with the same type and brand of new toothbrush and tubes of toothpaste, and asked them to follow their usual oral hygiene practice. After one week the toothbrushes were collected for assaying the microbial contamination. The result was concluded that the effectiveness of disinfectant solution of chlorhexidine and hydrogen peroxide was reduced the microbial growth as much as 87.5% and 75% respectively comparing with the salt solution which was 25%.

Effect of Lead Acetate in Some Physiological & Genetic Parameters in White Male Rat Rattus rattus

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 295-301

The study was carried out at the department of biology,college of education,university of Karbala. Twenty adult male of rats were divided into four equal groups (5/groups).The first group was investigate with 1 ml normal saline and served as a control group.the second group T1 were investigate orally with (8 mg/kg LA) for 70th day, while the third group T2 were investigate orally with(16mg/kg LA)for 70th.and fourth group T3 were investigate orally with (24mg/kg LA) for 70th. body weight was calculated before and after each experiments. The animals were killed after 24 hours from the last dose of treatment.The blood samples were collected.The levels of hormones were measured.testes,epididymis,prostate,seminal vesicles was removed, weighted,and effecting of lead in sperm count and percent of normality of sperm and effecting of mitotic index
The result revealed that significant decrease (P<0.05) in animals weight and reproductive organs and some accessory glands and effect on levels of Luteinizing hormone and testosterone hormone and sperm count accompanied by an increase(P<0.05) in mitotic index and percent of abnormality of sperm.this study conclude that animal treated & lead acetate have is negative effect on the effectivity of reproductive system where the lead induce oxidative stress and production ROS contribute in hindrance impare the between antioxidant and oxidant

Prediction of Consistency Limits by using some of Soil Physio-chemical properties for chosen soils in Basrah province

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 64-74

This study was conducted to predict the soil consistency limits ( shrinkage , plasticity, liquid limits and plasticity index ) by using the relationship between these limits as functions for some soil properties such as clay fraction ,organic matter , calcium carbonate ,sodium adsorption ratio and electrical conductivity . Eight soil samples type were taken from Al-faw,Al-Seiba, Abu -Alkhasib , Al- Bradaea, Al-Tanuma , Al-Hartha , Al-Deer and Al-Kurna districts .
Results showed that shrinkage limit values were between 2.0 and 8.5 % for Al-Deer and Al-Kurna soils, respectively .where as the averages of plasticity limits were between 22.03 and 25.88 %for Al- Deer and Abu- Alkhasib . The liquid limit values were between 38.0 and 49.00 % and the plasticity index were between 12.43 and 23.12 %for Al- Seiba and Abu- Alkasib soils, respectively
Results olso showed that the clay fraction was between 95.24 and 511.73 g kg -1 for Al- Kurna and Abu -Al Khaseb, respectively . The organic matter amount is 2.68 and 38.85 g kg -1 for the soils of Al-Tanuma and Al-Bradaea respectively . Calcium carbonate amount was 206.20- 427.80 g kg -1
for Al – Bradaea and Al Seiba, respectively . Al- deer soil had the lowest values of sodium adsorption ratio and electrical conductivity which was 3.08 and 5.12 ds m-1 while the highet values were 9.26 and 120.00 ds m-1 for Al-Hartha soil, respectively .

Analysis of Age Categories For women Infected by cervixinflammation by using Variance Analysis(ANOVA)

Afifa Yousif AL- Faham

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 26-32

The research dealt with an applied study about the infection of cervix in women recorded for the years 2005, 2006 and 2007 in AL-Sadir Hospital collected data were arranged and classified into age categories together with causes of infection and then were analysis by variance analysis .The statistical program(STATISTICA) was used to indicate the women of most affection by this disease and which of the causes of most effect on women to be infected by cervix inflammation.

Regular Strongly Connected Sets in topology

Azal Jaafar Musa

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 167-170

This work presents definitions of regular strongly connected sets and regular weakly disconnected sets as well as investigation for the relationship between these sets. Also a definition has been presented for the regular totally weakly disconnected topological space and to introduce a relation between this space and a regular T1 as a separation axiom in topological space .

Quantitative Estimation of Paddy Production Function In Iraqof (1986 – 2003 ) duration

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 320-329

يهدف البحث إلى تقدير دالة إنتاج الشلب في العراق باستخدام دالة القوى والدالة الخطية لمتغير مستقل واحد ، باختيار النموذج اللوغارتمي المزدوج والنموذج الخطي لكلا الدالتين على التوالي ، وباستخدام اختباري الدرجة الأولى والثانية وملائمته لنظرية اقتصاديات الإنتاج الزراعي . إن تطور إنتاجية الشلب للاراضي المزروعة في العراق للمدة ( 1986 – 2003 ) بلغت 2332 كغم / هكتار ، بينما كان معدل الإنتاجية 1564 و 2698.76 كغم / هكتار للمدتين ( 1950 – 1967 ) و ( 1968 – 1985 ) على التوالي ، أي أن هناك انخفاض في انتاجبة الشلب عند مقارنة المدة( 1986 – 2003) مع المدة( 1968 – 1985 ) بمقدار346.76 كغم/هكتار. وقد قدرت المشتقات الاقتصادية التي تمثل دالتي الإنتاج الحدي والمتوسط ومرونات الإنتاج ، فكانت النتيجة أن المرحلة الثانية الاقتصادية من مراحل قانون الغلة المتناقصة مثلت إنتاج الشلب في العراق . إن إنتاجية الشلب تعتبر واطئة عند مقارنتها مع إنتاجية دول العالم المتقدمة . المقترح المهم بذل الجهد للوصول إلى مستوى إنتاج أعلى .

English Definite Article''the '' in Term of Definiteness With Reference to Literary Works:A Linguistic Study

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1-17

This paper is an attempt to investigate the concept of definiteness which is of special interest because it seems to be discourse - pragmatic in nature but it has semantic impact. In English, definiteness is syntactically encoded by the definite article ''the''. The definite article can be discussed on different perspectives: syntactic, semantic, discourse- pragmatic, and cognitive. Much of the research into the meaning of the definite article'' the'' can be clustered under two main headings: theories that analyze the article in terms of unique identifiability and those that analyze ''the'' in terms of familiarity. This paper aims at showing that referential theories provide only partial accounts of the meaning and distribution of the article. In addition to its referential function, the definite article has another function, including notions such as: topic–comment, new–given information, presupposition – focus, prominence, and viewpoint. Focusing principally on the definite article, the paper investigates that literary works may be used to indicate certain entities that have not been mentioned beforehand in the texts. For this reason, evidences drawn from different literary texts have been analyzed depending on discourse-pragmatic and cognitive frameworks which are important for understanding the many subtle shades of meaning conveyed by the definite article.

Effect of Chemical Control on Some Properties ,Yield Paddy of Rice and Companion Weeds

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 314-319

اجريت تجربة حقلية في محطة ابحاث الرز في المشخاب في محافظة النجف الأشرف التابعة للهيئة العامة للبحوث الزراعية خلال عام 2008 بهدف مكافحة ادغال الرز بمبيدات الأدغال (Mopanil و Ronstar و Nominee) واثر ذلك في الحاصل ومكوناته وصفات حقلية اخرى . استخدم تصميم القطاعات الكاملة العشوائية باربع مكررات. اثرت المبيدات معنوياً في معظم الصفات المدروسة .سجل المبيد Nominee اقل متوسط لعدد الأدغال بعد 30 و 60 و 90 يوماً من الزراعة بلغ 6.3 و 14.8 و 16.7 نبات.م-2 بتتابع في حين اعطت المعاملة المدغلة اعلى متوسط لهذه الصفة بلغ لنفس المدد 60.7 و 75.7 و 80.3 نبات.م-2 بتتابع وبذلك اختزل هذا المبيد اعداد النباتات بنسبة 89.6% و 80.4% و 79.0% على الترتيب قياساً الى المعاملة المدغلة مما ادى الى تقليل الوزن الجاف لهذه الأدغال بنسبة 85.4% وبالتالي اعطى هذا المبيد اعلى متوسط في ارتفاع النبات 91.6 سم والحاصل البايولوجي 1991.7 غم.م-2 وعدد الداليات 420.6 دالية.م-2 وعدد حبوب الدالية 126.2 حبة وبذلك حققت اعلى معدل لحاصل الحبوب بلغ 966.0 غم.م-2 ودليل الحصاد 48.5% في حين اعطت المعاملة المدغلة اقل متوسط لارتفاع النبات 78.2 سم والحاصل البايولوجي 1236.7 غم.م-2 وعدد الداليات في وحدة المساحة 236.8 دالية.م-2 وعدد حبوب الدالية 95.2 حبة وحاصل حبوب 405.8 غم.م-2 ودليل حصاد 32.8%. نستنتج بان مكافحة ادغال الرز بالمبيدات الكيمياوية يؤدي الى زيادة حاصل الحبوب وان مبيد Nominee كان الفضل في أعطاء مكافحة جيدة للادغال وحاصل عالي لحبوب الرز .

The Study of antioxidant and Anti-abnormality activities for Liquid-Methanolic Extrct of Honey Bee Pollen Grains on White Mice

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 239-247

تضمنت الدراسة الحالية اختبار فعالية المستخلص الميثانولي المائي لحبوب اللقاح كمضاد للأكسدة ولتشوهات النطف , إذ تم الكشف عن التأثيرات الضارة لعقار السايكلوفوسفامايد ومحاولة الحد منها باستخدام هذا المستخلص .
اما عند اجراء اختبار الكشف عن التشوهات في رؤوس الحيوانات المنوية فقد تبين بان الجرعة 5 ملغم / كغم في التداخل الاول والثاني أدت الى حدوث فرق معنوي (P < 0.01) مقارنة مع السيطرة الموجبة . في حين لم يؤدَّ التداخل الثالث الى اختلافات معنوية , وعند اجراء الجرعة 15 ملغم/كغم تبين أن التداخلين الاول والثاني ادى الى حدوث اختلافات معنوي , في حين لم يؤدَّ التداخل الثالث الى حدوث اختلافات معنوية , وعند الجرعة 30 ملغم/كغم فقد ادى التداخل الاول والثاني الى حدوث اختلافات معنوية (P < 0.01) , في حين لم يؤدِ التداخل الثالث الى فرق معنوي .
ومن نتائج الدراسة الحالية يمكن ان نستنتج أن المستخلص الميثانولي المائي لحبوب اللقاح يمتلك فعالية مضادة للأكسدة ولتشوهات النطف عند اعطائه قبل ومع المطفر وبجرع واطئة في الخلايا الجرثومية.

Bob Dylan: A Modern Realistic Vision

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 18-28

Although his family was considered as middle-class, Bob Dylan's choice of writing style and topics tended to be influenced by a smaller-voiced, more suffering group- that of the working class. His lyrics that have included many protest and finger-pointing messages, have always been looked upon as influential in the shaping of cultural views of the time. Because he has used his lyrical poetry to inspire people to make changes, and to right the wrongs of the world.
Most of Dylan's lyrics were dedicated to speaking out against infractions committed by the world at large. And the vast amount of his lyrics has been written with the interest of social justice in mind. His work illustrates working-class literature themes as composing the majority of the people in America in particular and the world in general referring ,also, implicitly to the other suffering classes, such as emphasizing the collective, being experimental in terms of style, being written in working voices, resisting the powers that be, and calling to action those who are reading his messages. And such is his modern realistic vision

LEVEL OF EXPOSURE OF RURAL WOMEN BELONGING TO THE CENTERS FOR COUNSELING FOR WOMEN OF OUTREACH ACTIVITIES IN THE CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1-6

In view of the role of rural women in vegetable production, which tends to attract little attention before the organs of guidance, they also rarely benefit from extension and training services, which can identify is where the modern technologies and the acquisition of knowledge, attitudes and skills in the field of agricultural production, therefore seeks this research to detect on the level of exposure of rural women belonging to the Centers for counseling for women of outreach activities in the cultivation of vegetables. The research was conducted on a sample of belonging reached (60) farmer represented provinces (Najaf, Karbala, Babylon), and the purpose of gathering information prepared questionnaire fit and objectives of the research, which used some statistical methods to analyze the data. The results showed a positive correlation with both variables (educational level, years of membership) as results were recorded and there is a correlation negative variables (age, experience, and marital status) and therefore recommended the researcher should review the overall activities provided and commensurate with the level of education and experience in the field of agriculture

Summation of the Power Series

Hussam A. Mohammed; Mohammed Z. Ramadan

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 236-246

In this paper we development Gauss's idea which put mathematical structure for summation from natural numbers . We introduce mathematical structures for summation of the power series from natural numbers (where natural numbers) and prove these structures by using mathematical induction. Finally introduce common structure for any .

Response of sweet fennel plant(Foeniculum vulgare Mill) to field practices and their effects on growth characters crop yield and the active constituents of the fruits

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 117-125

Two field experiments were carried out during winter season of the seasons 2004-2005 and 2005-2006 at the field of the College of Agriculture; (University of Baghdad at Abu-Graib district. Baghdad, Iraq.
The experiments designed to investigate the effect of field spaces and the fertilization of crops and, their effects on the growth, yield, quantity and quality of the seed harvest of fennel and their content of volatile oil and its specification.
The spaces used were of 10, 20 and 30cm between each plant; two types - of fertilizer were used, the urea with its nitrogen content of 46% and the phosphorous fertilizer with its super phosphate of 48-52% P205. The quantities of fertilizer used were of 30, 60 and 90 kg/hectare.
The results indicate the increasing space between the fennel plants with increasing of fertilizers application caused a significant increase in the parameter value in the two seasons.
Plants grown at 30cm a part, combined with 180 kg and 90 kg of urea and phosphorus fertilizers gave the greatest value of vegetative growth, flowering growth, fruit, and seed volatile oil yield contents as quantity and quality in relation to their physical properties
The volatile oil content of anethole is increased with the increasing of the nitrogen fertilizer, while the percentage of fenchone was correlated with increasing of phosphorous fertilizer.
The highest percentage of anethole 76.97% was obtained at the metrication treatment of the 30cm space and 180kg and 30kg hectare of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer while the highest percentage of fenchone was obtained at interaction treatment of 30cm space and 90kg, and 120 kg of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer respectwely.

Spectrophotometric determination of Total Phenol in Apples, Coffee and Tea

Ahmed Ali Abdulsahib Alkarimi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 284-290

This study aimed to determine the concentration of total phenol in different types of apples (green, yellow and red), tea and coffee from different countries.
Samples were taken from different sources10 samples of each type green, red, yellow, 3 samples of coffee and tea type.
The results shown high concentrations of phenol in all samples of apples, coffee and tea compared with normal value in human body, this increasing of concentration lead to many harmful effect to human health.

Study of clinical signs and blood parameters in male albino mice exposed to toxic doses of the Insecticide cypermethrin

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 175-183

This study has shed light on clinical signs and blood picture to different toxic concentration of insecticide cypermethrin on 60 male albino mice which divided into three equal groups. First group (control group) dipping in distal water, second group: dipping form of cypermethrin concentration 1.6 ml / litter . while the third group : dipping from cypermethrin concentration 1.8 ml /litter , these animals were exposed for 8 weeks and various parameters were utilized in evaluating the effects of the insecticide (clinical signs , body weight , weight of internal organs and blood picture ) . The animals of second and third group Showed different clinical signs included: loss of appetite, sedation, standing still on corner of the cage, rubbing its nose and face with both hands no response to external stimulants, increased salivation, shivering, paralysis of limbs and diarrhea. These signs increased with the increasing doses and time of exposure, while the control group didn’t show any clinical signs. Second group showed significant decrease at p ≤0.05 in body weight of exposure till the end of experiment. While the decrease in the body weight appeared at first week of exposure for the third group. There was significant increase in mean liver weight of both treated groups but the third group record higher means in comparison with the second and the control group. Average weight of spleen showed significant decrease in both treatment groups in comparison with the control one. The average weight of lymph nodes showed significant increase at( p ≤ 0.05) when animals were dipped with cypermethrin concentration at 1.6 ,1.8 ml/litter in comparison with the control .The white blood cells count WBCs, showed significant decrease at( p ≤ 0.05) of both treatment when compared with the control group while the decrease in differential WBC in treatment group , while the decrease was more in third group than second one in comparison with control group . The decrease wase variable in count of neutrophils , monocytes , esinophils according dose of insecticide .

GROWTH AND PERFORMANCE OF BROAD BEAN AS INFLUNCED BY IRRIGATION WITH SALINE WATER

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 327-334

A field experiment was carried out at the fields of Kerbala government, during the growing seasons of 2008-2009 and 2009-2010. The aim of this experiment was to determine the influence of saline water on some growth characteristics and yield of three broad bean cultivars. The experiment was arranged as a split–plot with a randomized complete block design .Saline water included 4.7 and 7.8 ds.m-1for the first season and 4.3 and 7.6 ds.m-1for the second season. Whereas, the controls level of salinity were 1.8 and 1.7 ds.m-1 (river water) for two seasons respectively , arranged in the main plots. Local cv , Luz De Otono cv and Zaina SGARAVATI cv arranged in the sub plots . The Results showed that Irrigation with saline water significantly reduced plant growth , chlorophyll content, yield and its components in comparison to the control .However, the yield considerably was decreased about 65.78 and 61.77% for two seasons respectively in treatment received saline water more than 4.7 ds.m-1 in contrast to the control .The Luz De Otono cv and Zaina cv gave the highest seed yield in all treatments especially with irrigation by river water 5681 and 5406 kg/h respectively for the first season and 5942and 5673 kg/ha respectively for the second season. The highest percentage of determination coefficient with seeds yield was obtained from number of pods per plant in both seasons .According to the results it can be recommend to grow Luz De Otono cv and Zaina cv and using a number of pods per plant as a best selection indicator for high seeds yield under saline water irrigation .Also we can use saline water for irrigation with electrical conductivity not more than 4.7 ds.m-1 with decreasing the yield not exceeded than 18.06 % .

Evaluation The Ability Of Alcoholic Extract Of Pomegranates Husks To Control Early Blight Disease On Tomato

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 84-89

This study was implemented to evaluate alcoholic extract of pomegranates husks against the causal agent of early blight disease on tomato A.solani under laboratory and field conditions.
The results showed that the inhibition percentage was increased significantly with raising concentration. Effected Dosge (ED50) was 0.06% and the Minimum Concentration Induce Complete Inhibition And Visible Growth (MIC) was 0.12% for alcohol extraction consequently.
In field experiment the alcoholic extract at 0.12% concentration gave significant reduction in disease percentage and disease intensity 4.31, 1.96% consequently with control treatment 33.78, 17.93% consequently.

-Base for a tritopology

Neeran Tahir Abd AlAmeir; Asmhan Fleih Hassan Al-Zuhairy; Alyaa Yousif Khudayer

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 344-352

In this work , we introduce a new definitions for -Base for the -Neighbourhood system of a point ( - Local Base ) , -Base for a tritopology and -sub Base for a tritopology . And we gives the basic specifications for the new definitions .

Effect of salt stress on shoot multiplication of Mentha piperita L. in some biochemical character , and menthol production in vitro .

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 209-218

An experimental was carried out to study the of peppermint plant () by tissue culture technique. The effect of different concentrations of NaCl (0 , 2 ,4 , 6, 8 ) g/ l ed to MS medium on multiplication rate of Mentha piperita shoots and on some biochemical properties In vitro produced shoots .The Results showed that the lower concentrations of NaCl ( 2 g/ l ) in culture medium caused a significant increase in multiplication rate ; fresh and dry weights of shoots , chlorophylls, potassium ions and menthol content , compared with the control treatment and higher concentrations of salt .
Concerning the multiple shoots content from sodium, chloride , proline and carbohydrates these constituents were increased when the concentrations of NaCl increased in culture medium

Adsorption of eosin Y dye on Iraqi clay

Rasha A.D; Salah M.A; Zainab N. M

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 171-178

The adsorption characteristics of eosin Y dye dissolved in water on Iraqi clay has been measured in terms of the amount adsorbed, the heat of adsorption and PH of solution.
The adsoption isotherm of eosin was found to conform to the Feundlich and Dubinin – Radushkevich equations.
The adsoption process was exothermic and physisorption in nature with an enthalpy change ∆H of (-11.87)kJ/mol and ∆G (0.8-2.05) kJ/mol at initial con. = 13.2 ppm.
∆S values showed that the process is accompanied by increase in disorder and randomness at the solid- solution interface due to the reorientation of water molecules and eosin around the adsorbent surface.
The optimum PH value for eosin Y removal was found to be 3,7,11. The dye was adsorbed on Iraqi clay decrease with increasing the PH of the solution . The eosin Y dye was removed by (25% - 42%) along the whole range of initial concentration at PH equal 3.

Kinetic of controlled release study (2,4-Dichloro and 4-chloro phenoxy acetate )from Zn/Al-layered double hydroxideDepartment of chemistry ,faculty of science-Karbela University

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 269-278

Soil Pollution by herbicides or other pollutants then poured in to ground water is consider as the most important reasons that effects on human health to control this problem we study presents release of phenoxy herbicides 2,4-di chloro and 4-chloro phenoxy acetate as nano hybrids from layers double hydroxide (LDHs) to different aqueous solution as carbonate , phosphate and chloride for different concentration by using direct method of ion exchange . As kinetic study effect know of all aqueous solution on release rate both anionic in same time from layer double hydroxide . was found to be controlled by whole process is governed by pseudo-second order rate expression. The rate release both anionic was found higher than 2٬4-D > 4-CPA.The rate release in to aqueous solution carbonate > phosphate > chlorate .
The aim of this study is the release of phenoxy herbicides agrochemicals from the nanohybird compounds can be controlled by ion exchange process to reduce environment pollution .

Toward Distinguish Educational Evaluation by UsingPsychological Engineering" Applied Research on Many Technical Institutes in Baghdad "

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 17-38

Educational Evaluation is the basis to show how far the educational institutions are successful or failure and the range to achieve the objectives of these institutions . So, it is recommended to invest every modern system in this aspect . This paper comes to explain the concepts and to built curriculum and to display the basic of educational evaluation. Additional , to identify the range to use psychological engineering system that works as a fundamental to of human psychic structure and to deal with it by using practical methods and means that has effect on perception , conceivability , ideas and senses . Consequently , it has impact on conduct , skills and human performance . In order to find relation between educational evaluation and psychological engineering , a questionnaire was used to collect opinions of chairmen of Baghdad institutes in Technical Education . The questionnaire was analyzed with favorite mathematical mediators , standardized deviation and connection coefficient that gave its recommendations to sustain the investment of experience in psychology and educational, and to encourage the workers to conduct developing educational evaluation researches .

Evaluation of G-ST, GOT and GPT activities in Sera of leukemic patients before and after treatment.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 216-222

The activities of G-ST, GOT and GPT were measured in 50 patients with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, CML of males and females before and after treatment with Glevic and compared to 50 healthy controls were included in this study.
Serum G-ST activity was found in leukemic patients (males and females) before and after treatment were significantly higher than control groups. Serum G-ST activity before treatment was significantly higher than that of after treatment.
Serum (GOT and GPT) activities in males and females before treatment were found significantly higher than that in control groups, but has no significant difference as compared to that found in control groups after treatment.

Induction of indirect somatic embryogenesis for two hybridsof Lycopersicon esculemtum Mill.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 302-309

أظهرت النتائج بأن زراعة الأوراق الفلقية في وسط الـMS المجهز بـ 80 غملتر من السكروز وتوليفة من BA وNAA بتركيز 0.1 و 3 ملغملتر على التوالي لهجيني الطماطة الشروق و GS-12 أعطى كالسا" جنينيا" هشا" بوزن طري يقل عن 200 ملغم للمكرر الواحد والذي استخدم في أوساط استحثاث النشوء غير المباشر للأجنة الجسمية. أشارت النتائج الى أن التداخل بين BA و IAA بالتركيز 2 ملغملتر لكل منها أعطى أعلى معدل لعدد الأجنة الجسمية المتكونة من كالس الهجينين والبالغة 6.500، 2.100 جنين جسمي على التوالي، في حين أعطى التداخل بين الـ BA و2,4-D بتركيز 2 ملغملتر لكل منهما معدل عدد أجنة جسمية بلغ 9.500 جنين لهجين الشروق و 9.700 جنين جسمي لهجين الـ GS-12.

Characterization of Aeromonas hydrophila Isolated from Patients with Diarrhea

Hadeel Abdu-Alateef Majeed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 33-42

Aeromonas hydrophila was isolated from 12 (5.3%) of 225 patients with acute gastroenteritis.The present study was determined the virulence of A. hydrophila obtained from patients with diarrhea, among 12 A. hydrophila isolates obtained from stool, 83.3%, 91.6%, 83.3%, 75%, 75%, 50% produced β-haemolysin, protease ,phospholipase, DNase, slime(viscous glycoconjugate material), and have the adhesion, respectively. The isolates were tested for their susceptibility to 21 antibiotics, high level of resistance was observed to Penicillin, Carbenicillin, Amoxicillin/Clavulanic acid, followed by high level of susceptibility towards Azithromycin 100%, Ofloxacin 100%, Meropenem 100%, Cefepime 91%, Streptomycin 91%, Aztreonam 91%. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of A.hydrophila isolates to certain antibiotics, azithromycin, ofloxacin, chloramphenicol and cefepime, was done by agar dilution method, azithromycin and ofloxacin have the lowest MICs 1-32µg/ml, 1-128µg/ml, respectively. Exposure of A. hydrophila to sub-MICs of such antibiotics azithromycin , ofloxacin, chloramphenicol and cefepime, reduced the percentage of haemolysin, protease ,phospholipase ,DNase and slime production.

New Formula of Linear Interpolation

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 258-262

In this paper we have developed the method of Linear Interpolation which is considered the simplest way of the interpolation methods. We have been able to deduct a new interpolation formula that termed (New Formula of linear Interpolation). It has been proved, through the new formula that the results obtained are more accurate than the results obtained by using the Linear Interpolation. Moreover there is no need to reduce the value of (h) to have a good approximate value.

For comparison purposes, other methods were used like: Lagrange Interpolation, Taylor Interpolation and Linear Interpolation.

On the other hand, the researchers have used the Law of Error of interpolation.

RESPONSE OF STRAWBERRY OF GROWTH AND FLOWERING TO GIBBERELLIC ACID AND BENZYLADENIN

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 115-122

An experiment was conducted at the lath house/ Department of Horticulture /College of Agriculture/ University of Baghdad at fall season 2008-2009 to investigate the effect of Gibberellic acid (GA3) and Benzyladenin (BA) application on some features of vegetative growth and flowering of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) cv. Albion. Three concentrations of gibberellic acid; 0, 150, 300 mgl and three concentrations of benzyladenin 0, 900, 1800 mgl Randomizd Complete Block Design was adepted with three replicates and the comparison was done using L.S.D at 5% level of significance according to SAS programm. Results showed that Gibberellic acid at 300 mg/L increased number of runners , number leave up to 1.41 runner/plant and 14.41 leaves/plant as compared with o.13 runner and 12.37 leaves for control plants respectively . The highest level of benzyladeenine decreasing number of runner and number of leaves per plant, while, it gave the highest number of crowns up to 2.30 crown/plant as compared with control treatment which gave 2.09 crown/plant . The influence of growth regulators used in this study showed that GA3 at a rate of 300 mg/L induced a significant increases in the number of flowers and fruit per plants up to 18.91 flower/plant and 6.74 fruit/plant, respectively, as compared with 10.26 flower/plant and 6.44 fruit/plant, respectively, in the control treatment . Treating strawberry plants with BA increased the number of flower per plant while 1800 mg/L BA decreased the percentage of fruit setting to 39.74% and the number of fruit to 6.00 fruit/plant as compared with 54.38%, and 7.52 fruit/plant, respectively

Viscosity Study of Molecular Association in Binary Mixtures of Acetone with Some Aromatic Hydrocarbons at Different Temperatures

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 315-326

The viscosities η, and refractive indices, n, of binary mixture for acetone +benzene, +toluene, +p-xylene and +mesitylene, cover the whole mole fraction range have been measured at 298.15, 303.15, 308.15, 313.15, and 318.15 K. From the experimental data, the deviations in viscosity, Δη, and deviations in molar refraction, ΔRm, have been calculated. The variation of these parameters with composition and temperature of the mixtures have been discussed in terms of molecular interaction. The effect of the number of the methyl groups in these aromatic hydrocarbons on molecular interactions has been discussed. The free energies ΔG*, enthalpies ΔH*, and entropies ΔS*, of activation of viscous flow have also been obtained using Eyring viscosity equation. The ΔH* values were found independent of temperature.

The effect of additive weight type on maximum ploughing depth and soil bulk density

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 310-313

نٌفِذَ البحث في منطقة الراشدية ببغداد لبيان تأثير نوع الوزن المضاف للعجلات الدافعة للجرار (أقراص حديدية و ماء) على مؤشري العمق الأقصى للحراثة والكثافة الظاهرية للتربة وأستخدم ثلاثة سرع للحراثة (4.2,6.5,8كم/ساعة) ومحراث قرصي .
لتحليل النتائج تم أستخدام التحليل الإحصائي الخاص بتصميم القطاعات العشوائية الكاملة لتجربة عامليه بعاملين وبخمسة مكررات وبمستوى احتمالية 5 % .أعطت معاملة إضافة الماء للعجلات الدافعة للجرار إلى زيادة العمق الأقصى للحراثة وانخفاض قيم الكثافة الظاهرية للتربة مقارنتا بإضافة الأقراص الحديدية ولجميع السرع المستخدمة وأدت زيادة السرعة إلى انخفاض معدلات العمق وزيادة في معدلات الكثافة الظاهرية. كان لتوليفة إضافة الماء مع السرعة 8كم/ساعة تأثير معنوي بمستوى أحتمالية 5% على عمق الحراثة حيث تم الحصول على أعلى عمق حراثة وهو25.8 سم وعلى أقل كثافة َظاهرية وهي 1.35 غمسم3.

Study of anti mutagenic and anti oxidant activity of clove plant extract in male white rats

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 345-358

This study was designed to test the antioxidant and antimutagenic activity of methanolic water extract of clove. The extract has been described by using thin layer chromatography TLC, the results which showed the presence of more than one component of this extract and when examining the activity of antioxidant by beta carotene spray process , It was observed appearance of the antioxidant
activity in several bands .
The antioxidant activity was determinated for these bands through the retention of the color yellow, which indicates the existence of effective antioxidant in some components of clove extract. When rats treated with 2 mg/kg of MMC lead to increased the level of DNA fragmentation and the interference treatment of extract at 500 mg/kg (with) and (after) the mutagen performed decrease the level of fragmentation,Thes results may indicate that the extract works as desmutagenic agent, while when given befor the MMC, the extract may works as antimutagenic agent. So the result of the oral gavage of mixing the extract with mutagen for five weeks reducing the level of the crash in the DNA compared with negative control. The results of MI of the interference treatment with extract (with) and (after) the mutagen performed a best result in the raising of median MI to 2.43 , 2.13 respectively compared with the positive control 1.16, while the extract before the treatment with mutagen did not posses any significant differences 1.68 compared with positive control .The result of the oral gavage of mixing the extract with mutagen for five weeks had been showed, in the first week led to raise the median MI. The result of chromosomal abnormality CA of mice stem cell possessed a high significant difference in the positive control 26.0 compared with the negative control 5.33, while in the interference between the extract and mutagen the result showed a decrease in the median of abnormality to both treatment (with) and (after), while the treatment ( before) did not posses any significant difference compared with positive control . Also the results of median chromosomal abnormality of the interference treatment (with) to five weeks showed a decrease in the median of CA. The results of this study refer to that the clove extract have antioxidant and antimutagenic activity In vivo and In vitro.

Laparoscopic retroperitoneal deroofing of simple renal cyst in coparism with open surgery

Malic H. Al-shukry; Muntader Easa Mahdi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 308-314

Background: Is to evaluate efficacy and safety of laparoscopic retroperitoneal deroofing of 11 cases of simple renal cyst in comparison with 15 open deroofed cases.
Patients and methods: Over period between February 2008 to October 2010 , 11 patients with symptomatic simple renal cysts (pain recalcitrant to available analgesia), the mean cyst diameter was 9.1cm ±2.7SD, mean age was 46.6 years ±12.9SD, 6 patients were males(54.5%), 6 on left (54.5%), 8 on upper or middle poles (79.3%) underwent laparoscopic retroperitoneal deroofing and another 15 patients with same symptoms, the mean cyst diameter was 11.8 cm ±3.7SD, mean age was 50.8 years ±9.2SD, 9 patients were males (60%), 8 on left (53.3%), 10 on upper and middle poles (66.6%) underwent open deroofing.
Results: Insignificant difference between both procedures regarding operative time, blood loss, recurrence rate, with better results for laparoscopic retroperitoneal deroofing regarding hospital staying(p≤0.01) and convalescence period.
Conclusion: Laparoscopic retroperitoneal deroofing of simple renal cyst is safe and effective procedure with minimal complications in comparing with open one.

Passive protection of mice against the lethal challenge of Citrobacter freundii

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 101-107

تم استخلاص عديد السكريد الشحمي من جرثومة C. freundii بطريقة الفينول الساخن وتنقيته جزئيا بالترشيح الهلامي وحقنت الارانب به للحصول على المصول الممنعة وقدرت الاضداد النوعية له في تلك المصول و كانت بعيارية 1280:1 باستخدام تقنية التلازن المباشروبعياربة 640:1 عند استخدام تقنية التلازن الدموي المنفعل,واستخدم المصل الممنع في وقاية الفئران ضد الجرعة القاتلة LD100 من جرثومة C. freundiiواظهرت النتائج ان المصل الممنع غير المخفف (Neat) والتخفيف 3:1 يقي الفئران من الجرعة المهلكة LD100 للعالق الجرثومي ولا يقيها عند تخفيفه إلى 10:1 و30:1 و100:1. وذلك بالمقارنة مع السيطرة السالبة والموجبة.

Effect of The Elevated Temperature on the Tensile Strength of Cold Cured Acrylic Denture Base in Comparison to Heat Cure Acrylic

AMAL ABDUL-LATIF RASHID; LAYLA MOUSA Ouda

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 126-133

Acrylic denture base materials were possessing adequate mechanical strength to with stand the load of mastication. The strength properties of cold cured is lower than that of the heat cured. Studies were done to increase the strength of cold acrylic resin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the tensile strength of cold cured when polymerized by elevated temperature and compare to those polymerized by conventional methods also to compare it with heat cured acrylic polymerized by the same methods.
Sixty specimens, thirty from cold cured acrylic and thirty from heat cured acrylic were prepared, flasking and packing procedure were done according to manufacturer direction and divided according to polymerization as follow:20 specimens(10 from cold cured and 10from heat cured acrylic)were polymerized by ivomat curing device containing water under air pressure 30 Pascal for 15 minutes at37˚C. 20 specimens (10 from cold cured and 10from heat cured acrylic) were polymerized by microwave oven; the power level was set at 50% to get 500 watts output for 3 minute and 20 specimens (10 from cold cured and 10from heat cured acrylic)were polymerized by water bath (fast cycle).All specimens were tested for tensile strength.
Result showed that the cold cured acrylic have high value of tensile strength when processed by elevated temperature (by water bath and microwave) in comparison to those processed by conventional methods (Ivomate)with highly significant differences P<0.01, There was no significant differences P=0.11 between cold cured acrylic groups that polymerized by water bath and heat acrylic groups that polymerized by microwave. Heat cured acrylic that polymerized by water bath show the maximum value for tensile strength followed by heat cured acrylic that polymerized by microwave, then by cold cured acrylic groups that polymerized by water bath ,while the least group for the tensile strength recorded by heat cured acrylic that polymerized by Ivomate. Also show there was significant and highly significant differences between all groups (cold and heat cured acrylic) processed by three methods (Ivomate, water bath, microwave).

Quantitative Estimation of Corn Production Function In Iraqof (1986 – 2003 ) duration

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 320-329

يهدف البحث إلى تقدير دالة إنتاج الشلب في العراق باستخدام دالة القوى والدالة الخطية لمتغير مستقل واحد ، باختيار النموذج اللوغارتمي المزدوج والنموذج الخطي لكلا الدالتين على التوالي ، وباستخدام اختباري الدرجة الأولى والثانية وملائمته لنظرية اقتصاديات الإنتاج الزراعي . إن تطور إنتاجية الشلب للاراضي المزروعة في العراق للمدة ( 1986 – 2003 ) بلغت 2332 كغم / هكتار ، بينما كان معدل الإنتاجية 1564 و 2698.76 كغم / هكتار للمدتين ( 1950 – 1967 ) و ( 1968 – 1985 ) على التوالي ، أي أن هناك انخفاض في انتاجبة الشلب عند مقارنة المدة( 1986 – 2003) مع المدة( 1968 – 1985 ) بمقدار346.76 كغم/هكتار. وقد قدرت المشتقات الاقتصادية التي تمثل دالتي الإنتاج الحدي والمتوسط ومرونات الإنتاج ، فكانت النتيجة أن المرحلة الثانية الاقتصادية من مراحل قانون الغلة المتناقصة مثلت إنتاج الشلب في العراق . إن إنتاجية الشلب تعتبر واطئة عند مقارنتها مع إنتاجية دول العالم المتقدمة . المقترح المهم بذل الجهد للوصول إلى مستوى إنتاج أعلى .

Effect of various electrical voltages on the vegetative growth and the production of the active substances with medicinal properties in theAloe vera

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 13-23

أجري البحث في الظلة الخشبية التابعة لقسم البستنة / كلية الزراعة – جامعة بغداد. زرعت شتلات الصبار Aloe vera في أصص بلاستيكية قطر 28 سم معباءة بتربة مزيجية مدروسة الصفات.تضمنت التجربة معاملة النباتات بفولتيات كهربائية مختلفة وشملت معاملات التجربة E0 = معاملة القياس ، E1 = تعريض النباتات الى 50 فولت ولمدة ساعة ،E2= تعريض النباتات الى 75 فولت ولمدة ساعة ، = E3 تعريض النباتات الى 100 فولت ولمدة ساعة ، كرراعطاء التيار للمعاملات أربع مرات والمدة بين معاملة وأخرى أسبوع وبمعدل ثابت للتيار بمقدار نصف أمبير لكل المعاملات .بينت النتائج ان تعريض نبات الصبار لفولتيات كهربائية مختلفة لم يكن له تأثير معنوي على صفات النمو الخضري . وأن اعطاء 50 فولت لنبات الصبار ادى الى زيادة انتاج الالوين والباربولين وبلغت 84.47 و376.36 مايكروغرام / غم على التوالي قياسا" بمعاملة المقارنة 72.33 و 150.11 مايكروغرام / غم ، أما عند استخدام 75 فولت فقد أدى الى زيادة انتاج حامض السيناميك والالو ايمودين وبلغت 200.41 و17. 147 مايكروغرام / غم على التوالي قياسا" بمعاملة المقارنة 47.630 و17.263مايكروغرام / غم ، أما المعاملة 100فولت فلم تظهرتاثير معنوي في انتاج المواد الفعالة لنبات الصبار.

Effect of Cultivar, Proline and Field Capacity on Shoot Growth of Wheat Plant .

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 279-294

A pot experiment was conducted in a private field located on the main road of Kerbala – Babylon , 10 kms eastern of Kerbala during the season of 2010 -2011 . The aim of this study was to assess the effect of water stress and proline on the shoot growth of four wheat cultivars. The shoot
growth parameters were plant height , tillers number , leaves number , flag leaf area , fresh and dry weight of the shoot , absolute growth and relative growth rates . Factorial experiment within completely randomized design with four replicates was applied . The experiment included four wheat cultivars ( ie. Fateh , Adnania , IPA 99 and Sham 6 ) , three concentrations of proline ( ie. 0 , 20 and 40 ) mg . l-1 and three levels of field capacity ( i.e. 25 , 50 and 100% ) .
The results could be summarized as follow :
The effect of cultivars was significant on the previous mentioned traits ,and proline at 20 mg . l-1 was more effective on all studied parameters compared with other concentrations ( ie. 0 and 40 ) mg . l-1 , and the field capacity of 100% was the best compared with 25% and 50% field capacities .
The interaction between cultivars and the proline was significantly effective on the studied parameters where cultivars treated with 20 mg . l-1 proline gave the highest values compared with the control treatment ( ie. 0 mg . l-1 ) , and the interaction between cultivars and the field capacity was also effective on the shoot growth parameters . Cultivars grown with 100% field capacity gave higher values of the shoot growth parameters . On the other hand , those cultivars grown with 25% field capacity gave the lowest values of the previous mentioned parameters , and the interaction between the proline and field capacity was also significant on the studied parameters . The proline at 20 mg . l-1 and 100% field capacity treatment gave the highest values of studied parameters , whereas plants grown with 0 mg .l-1 and 25% field capacity gave the lowest values of root growth parameters .

Mass spectrometric Determination of Boron Stable Isotopes And Its Application on Some Geological Materials.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 84-92

جرى قياس نظائر البورون المستقرة (B11,B10) باستخدام مطياف الكتلة ذو التآين الحراري, حيث استخدم تياري التبخير والتآين (1.7-1.5) امبير عند كتلتي (89,88) والتي تنطبق على قياس الايونات و على التوالي. ان قياس النسبة النظائرية للبورون (B11,B10) تم تعيينها لمجموعة من المركبات عند انحراف قياسي بمعدل (1- 7 × 10-5). ان طريقة الـ pyrohydrolysis استخدمت لاستخلاص البورون لمجموعة من المركبات مثل كاربيد البورون , اوكسيد البورون والبورون العشوائي (غير المحدد).

Effect of different types and concentrations of Sugars and Benzyl adenine ( BA) on the shoot formation of Euphorbia tirucalli L. grown in vitro

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 138-143

Three different sugars : sucrose , glucose and mannitol in three concentrations (3,5 and 7)%were examined with or without addition of BA (0.0,1.0,3.0,5.0 or 7.0) mg/L to the MS nutrient medium, on which the single noedes containing lateral buds were cultured .
The results showed that no shoot proliferation without BA treatment ,even when all types of sugars were used at a concentration of 3% or mannitol at a concentration of 5% and 7% .
The highest mean number of shoot (2.36) was found when a combination of 5% glucose +5mg/L BA was used , whilest the shoot elongation has significantly been induced (37.25mm) when a combination of 7% glucose+ 5mg/L BA was used . Mostly no response was found when mannitol used with any combination of BA .

Predictive value for achievement of the movement in terms of achievement of stability for the students of the Faculty of Physical Education effectively throwing the weight.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 93-102

The high level of advanced achievements of sports is linked with significantly different development of science and scientific progress, and where such a relationship contributed to the qualitative development to solve many problems in sports, including:
Athletics, and study the significance of the prediction by providing us with information on how to select the right players and their achievements through the development of mathematical equations Astenbatih facilitate the prediction and the study called for by this research. Descriptive approach was used style surveys and studies, and relational sample included 60 students from the Faculty of Physical Education and after treatments of statistical data obtained through the test, major Albahathan concluded to the following conclusions:

1-There is significant relation between the achievement of stability and movement when members of the research sample effectively throwing the weight.
2-Spatial use of simple linear regression equation to predict the accomplishment of the movement in terms of achievement of stability, effectively throwing the weight

Thermodynamic functions and IR modes Calculation for newly Azo compounds by Using DFT Model

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 246-264

تضمن البحث اعتماد برنامج كاوس (Gaussian 03) لاستخدام طريقة الحساب التام على وفق نظرية دوال الكثافة (DFT) وبأسلوب (B3LYP) وباستعمال عناصر القاعدة (STO-3G) وذلك لغرض حساب الأبعاد الهندسية (أطوال وزوايا التآصر) عند الشكل الهندسي المتوازن ، الشحنات ، الدوال الثرموديناميكية وكذلك حساب وتصنيف الأنماط الاهتزازية العائدة لطيف الأشعة تحت الحمراء تكافؤياً وتماثلياً وبعدد (3N-6) لاثنتين من جزيئات الآزو الغـــير محضرة سابــــقاً ( التي يرمز لها اختصاراً A , B) ، كــما وتم اعتماد برنامج الموباك (MOPAC 2000) لاستخدام طريقة الحساب التقريبية شبه التجريبية (PM3) لحساب حرارة التكوين ، عزم ثنائي القطب ، طاقة المدارات (HOMO, LUMO) وطاقة التأين . وقد وجد إن المركب (B) أكثر استقراراً لكونه يمتلك اقل حرارة تكوين وأيضا اقل انتروبي ويكون أسهل تأيناً ، كما تبين من خلال ملاحظة النتائج بان ذرات النتروجين العائدة للمركب (B) تكون أعلى كثافة الكترونية أي أكثر منح للالكترونات لذا نستنتج عند سلوكه كليكاند يكون معقدات أكثر استقرارا .كما أظهرت النتاج بان التردد الأعلى لكلا المركبين (A, B) يكون للمط الاهتزازي الأساسي لمجموعة إلـ (O-H) .

Isolation of Parasitic causes of digestive system infection from primary rural school in a Reghala Village in Babylon City

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 170-174

This study was conduct to exam stool samples from students of Ausama Bin Zaid primary school which lie in the Al- Reghela Village in Babylon Governorate .
Two handrid fifty random stool samples of males and females students from different stages were examined directly .
Results showed 126 samples (males and females ) were infected with parasites from total samples which represent 50.4% ,diagnosed as 74 (29.6%) males while 52 (20.8%)females .
Results showed increasing in the rate of Giardia lamblia infections in comparing with other enteric parasitic causes , there were 71 (28.4%) males and females students in this study were infected with Giardia lamblia ,from which 38 (15.2%) for males infections, while in females were 33 (13.2%) .
This study was recorded presence infection of 19 (7.6%) males and 15 (6%) females students with Entamoeba histolytica and 34 (13.6%) in total ( males and females ).
Infection with Hymenolepis nana were recorded in 9(3.6%) males and 2 (0.8%) females students .
Finally there were 8 (3.2%) males and 2 (0.8%) females have mixed infection with Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia.

Laminar Natural Convection of Air In a Square Cavity With a Vertically/Horizontally Located Heated Plate Inside It

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 102-116

A numerical study has been performed for laminar natural convection in a square cavity containing a heated plate located at vertical and horizontal situations by using finite difference method. Top and bottom of the cavity are adiabatic, the two vertical walls of the cavity have constant temperature lower than the plate’s temperature. The flow is assumed to be two-dimensional.The significant parameters are Grashof number(Gr),aspect ratio(A) and position of the thin plate(A1,A2).Grashof number is varied from , while aspect ratio and positions of the heated plate were studied(A=0.25,0.5,0.75),(A1=0.25,0.5,0.75) respectively.Air was chosen as a working fluid(Pr=0.7).In present study, the effect of the position and aspect ratio of heated plate on heat transfer and fluid flow are reported.From the present analysis it is found that with the increase of Gr, the heat transfer rates(Nusselt number) increases in both vertical and horizontal positions of the plate. When aspect ratio of the thin plate decreases, also decreases.For vertical situation of the plate, heat transfer is more enhanced than for horizontal. The numerical results of average Nusselt number values have been confirmed by comparing it to similar known previous works using the same boundary conditions. Good agreement is obtaine.

Effect of Zinc application on vegetative growth and toxic accumulation of Sodium chloride on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) under salinity conditions

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 219-226

An experiment was conducted in one of the plastic houses belong to the Kufa Technical Institute during the growing season of 20092010 , to study the effect of different concentrations of Zinc on the toxicity of Sodium chloride for tomato plants grown in soil that suffer from Zinc deficiency.
The experiment included three conc. of Zn i.e.(Zero, 3, 12) mgZnKg. Soil and three conc. of NaCl, i.e.(Zero%,0.5% and 1.5%) ,which added to irrigation water . After 60 days from growth, plants had harvested. Dry matter, Zn, Na, K, P and K/Na ratio were determined.
Results showed that there was highly decrease in the amount of Zn in the soil which reflected its effect in the decrease of growth, particularly in highly salty condition (1.5%). Increasing in NaCl resulted in a decrease in the amount of vegetative parts dry matter, this reduction was higher with soil that treated with 3 mg ZnKg soil compared with soil that treated with 12 mg Zn Kg soil. Addition of Zn from 3-12 mg ZnKg soil caused an increase in K conc. from 37.8 to 40.9 ; 25.6 to 30.6 ; 21.0 to 22.9 mgg dry matter, respectively, and a decrease in the Na conc. from 3.6 to 0.7; 8.7 to 5.4 and 28.7 to 21.9 according to the conc. of NaCl that used (i.e. Zero, 0.5 and 1.5%), respectively . Consequently , K/Na ratio of plants were highest in the highest Zn application conditions .
Result of experiment also revealed that importance of Zn to improve plant tolerance to soil salty conditions and the use of suitable amount of Zn causes an absorption increase of Na by roots in salty conditions.
It could be concluded that the use of suitable amount of Zn of importance for plants survival at convenient degree of growth at salty conditions.

Electrical and Optoelectronic Characterization of CdTe¬1-xSex/ZnTe Heterojunction

Mohsin.K.Abd; Boraq.Y.Kadhum; Raheem G.Kadhu

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 353-362

Electrical and optoelectronic properties of CdTe¬1-xSex/ZnTe Heterojunctions(x=0.1,0.2,and 0.3) have been investigated .C-V characteristics suggest that the fabricated heterojunction was abrupt type, built in potential determined by extrapolation from C2 V curve to the point (V=0). Also from C-V measurements, we deduced that the built- in potential and the depletion layer width increases with increasing the value of x,while the charge carrier concentration decreases. The current-voltage characteristics of CdTe¬1-xSex/ZnTe Heterojunction for the forward bias at dark condition shows that the ideality factor values varies with varing the value of x. Both the short circuit current and the open circuit voltage increases with increasing the value of x.The spectral responsively has peak at (840)nm wavelength

Reducing Bacterial Strains from Polluted Water Using Zizyphus Spina

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 75-83

Ziziphus spina leaves alcohol extract in concentrations of 250, 500, 750 and 1000 ppm and aqueous infusion of leaves in concentrations of 20000, 40000, 60000, 80000 and 100000 ppm were used to reduce Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and total bacterial account from wastewater in laboratory conditions of 37 oC, pH 6.5 and 5-48 hr treatment period. Concentrations of leaves alcohol extract 250-1000 ppm showed high ability to reduce the bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus account by 36%-100% in 18 hr period treatment, while, leaves aqueous infusion in concentrations of 40000-100000 ppm showed its ability to reduce Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus by 34%-93% in 24 hr period treatment. Leaves alcohol extract in concentration of 1000 ppm showed high ability to reduce Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by 100% and TPC by 63% in 18 hr while leaves infusion 100000 ppm reduce the same bacteria by 100% and TPC by 28% in 48 hr treatment period.

Structural Stucly of the Sciatic Nerve in Diabetic RafsTreated with Alium Sativurn

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 75-83

الهدف الرئيسي من هذا البحث هو إيجاد قيم التكاملات الثنائية البعد عددياً مكاملاتها مستمرة أو معتلة المشتقات الجزئية أو معتلة في نقطة واحدة أو أكثر من منطقة التكامل , وإيجاد صيغة عامة لصيغ الخطأ حسب سلوك المكامل وبأسلوب جديد مغاير للأسلوب الذي اتخذوه باحثون آخرون محمد[14], الطائي [9] , ضياء [12]. وبالاعتماد على حدود التصحيح التي وجدناها قمنا بحساب تكاملات ثنائية بالنسبة لكل حالة من حالات المكامل , فوجدنا إن الطريقتين و (الاولى هي الطريقة مركبة من استخدام قاعدة سمبسون على البعدين الداخلي والخارجي والاخرى من قاعدتي النقطة الوسطى على البعد الخارجي وسمبسون على البعد الداخلي (مع تطبيق طريقة تعجيل رومبرك عليهما عندما عدد الفترات الجزئية التي تجزأ إليها فترة التكامل الداخلي مساوية لعدد الفترات الجزئية التي تجزأ إليها فترة التكامل الخارجي أي ان حيث إن تعني المسافات بين الإحداثيات السينية و هي المسافات بين الإحداثيات الصادية اذ يمكن الاعتماد على الطريقتين اعلاه في حساب التكاملات الثنائية حيث أعطتا دقة عالية في النتائج بفترات جزئية قليلة نسبياً وبوقت اقل مما احتاجه الباحثون اعلاه الذين تعاملوا مع الموضوع نفسه

Effect study of space configuration on the nuclear structure of nucleus 30P by applying nuclear shell model

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 227-238

Surface Delta Interaction(SDI) have been used to calculate the energy levels of phosphorus nucleus 30P in both configurations mixed and pure. an over all agreement with experimental data is obtain for the low energy level in pure configuration in this work .Also the result of high level agree very well with mixed configuration.

FINDING THE SEPARATION CONSTANT ( ) FOR LINEAR PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

Noor Ali Hussein

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 179-188

Our aim in this search is to find the values of separation constant ( ) for the complete solution without using any conditions for some classified of the linear second order partial differential equations for all cases which contains the case or or since that is not easy to find the values ( ) without using any conditions for an application homogenous linear partial differential equations (L.P.D.Es) which is solving by separation of variable method.

Environmental study for sample of well water in Babylon City

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 90-100

The study included a field scanning and water analysis of (15) wells in Babylon government, all of these wells are used for crop irrigation and some for drinking and domestic use. The results indicated that the wells water is not suitable for drinking due to the high concentration of Sulfate (SO4-2), Chloride (Cl-) and total hardness compared to the international accepted levels. For irrigation use, the water wells were divided into two types, the first one is irrigation water with high salinity suitable for irrigation crops which can resist specific level of salinity, and second one was a very high level of salinity and used to crops of high capability to withstand such water with a condition of good drainage system. Finally a method of treatment was suggested to improve the wells water specifications using activated carbon.

Control some fungi isolated from pomegranate fruits after harvest that used some of extracts plant

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 33-40

أجريت الدراسة في مختبرات قسم علوم الحياة – كلية العلوم/ جامعة الكوفة والتي تناولت دراسة تأثير المستخلص المائي لنباتي الحناء والزعتر والكحولي لنبات الثوم وقدرتها في خفض نسبة الإصابة بالفطريات التي تم عزلها من ثمار الرمان بعد الجني والتي تضمنت sp. Penicillium ، Aspergillus terrus و Rhizopus stolonifer ، وأثبتت نـتائج هـذه الدراسة كفاءة المستخلصات النباتية سواء كانت مائية أو كحولية في تثبيط النمو ألشعاعي للفطريات المعزولة وذلك من خلال استخدام التراكيز المختلفة لكل نوع من هذه المستخلصات ، حيث تم استخدام ثلاثة تراكيز لكل مستخلص وهي ( 1 ، 2 ، 3 % ) وقد كان المستخلص الكحولي لنبات الثوم هوالاشد تأثيرا على الفطريات المعزولة مقارنة بالمستخلصات المائية لنباتي الحناء والزعتر وخاصة عند التركيز 3% إذ بلغت نسبة التثبيط عند هذا التركيز 100 % في حين كانت نسبة التثبيط بالنسبة إلى المستخلص المائي لنباتي الحناء والزعتر بنفس التركيز 88.88 و 77.77 % على التوالي ، كما أثبتت الدراسة التفاوت في حساسية الفطريات المعزولة من ثمار الرمان للمستخلصات النباتية فكان الفطر Aspergillus terrus هو الأكثر تأثرا بالمستخلصات المستخدمة مقارنة بالفطرين sp. Penicillium و Rhizopus stolonifer حيث بلغت نسبة التثبيط لهذا الفطر عند استخدام المستخلص الكحولي للثوم والمائي للحناء والزعتر بتركيز 3% (100 ، 83.33 ، 72.22) % على التوالي في حين كانت نسبة التثبيط للفطر Penicilliumعند استخدام نفس المستخلصات 88.88 ، 66.66 ، 61.11 % على التوالي وللفطر Rhizopus stolonifer 94.44 ، 77.77 ، 66.66 % على التوالي من نفس التركيز.

Strategical interdependence between productivity and employment in manunfuring in dustry : Iraq as a case study

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 84-92

After the correlation between productivity and employment of the important things that should stand then the fact that the interaction between productivity and employment, output, and expansion of production capacity through re-investment economic variables addressed in some economic models important such as a form Harwood Doumar determined correlation between productivity and employment by several factors including the accumulation of capital and human capital and research and development , because the variation of employment rates and productivity in the economy, creates imbalances sectoral and economic problems such as inflation and balance of payments deficits and the threat of economic growth in developing countries with style production intensive work item to the value added explain the element of operation compared with developed countries that Tksr value-added productivity, assessed Iraq there is a discrepancy between production and employment during the eighties and the mid-seventies in all branches of manufacturing industry excluding food, chemical, and oil production, with respect to the direction of light industrial branches as specialized branches operational direction light.

Derivation of formulaes evaluating double integrals and their error formulaes using Mid-point and Simpson‘s methods

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 11-32

The main aim of this search is to find the values of the double integrals numerically, Its integrals either continuous or continuous but its partial derivatives are singular or the integrals are singular in one point or more of region of the integrals and to find the general form of the errors (correction terms ) to any case of the behavior of integrands with different style that another researchers used it Mohammed [14] , Alttai [10] and Dayaa [12] .
And by using the correction terms that we found it , we applied it to find the values of double integrals for each case of cases of integrands ,we yields that the two methods with Romberg acceleration canbe able on it to find the values of double integrals numerically with high accuercy little subintervals and smaller times that the above researchers needed to it.

Effect of various electrical voltages on the vegetative growth and the production of the active substances with medicinal properties in the Aloe vera

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 108-114

An experiment was conducted in the lath house in the the Department of Horticulture . College of Agriculture,University of Baghdad. seedlings of Aloe vera plant were planted in plastic pots filled with sandy loam soil plants were treated with the following electrical voltage : E0, E1 = 50 volts, E2 = 75 volts, = E3 100 volts, treatment were repeated 4 times at weekly intervals .the electric power was 1/2 Ampere . The results showed that the different voltase treatment have no significant effect on vegetative growth.treatment with 50 volts increased the production of aloin and barbolin to 84.47 and 376.36 micrograms/ gm, respectively, compared with control produced 72.33 and 150.11 micrograms/ gm.Increasing the voltage to 75 volts increased the cinnamic acid, and Aloe emodin to 200.41 and 17.14 mcg respectively, compared with control 47.630 and 17.263 micrograms/ gm .Increasing electric voltage to 100 volts have no significant effect on the production of the active substances

Effect of sodium perborate on reproductional aspects of females of Mesocyclops hyalinus ( Copepoda: Cyclopoida)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 123-130

The effect of different concentrations of Sodium perborate on reproductional aspects of females of M. hyalinus, Order Cyclopoida was studied, including mean number of nauplii/cluth and nauplii/female, mean number of nauplii grown to stage Copepodid /clutch and nauplii grown to stage Copepodid / female and the percentage of nauplii grown to stage Copepodid, mean clutch/female and clutch's time interval, Using the concentrations 0.006mg/l, 0.008 mg/l, 0.01mg/l, 0.02mg/l and 0.04mg/l, used 10 females in each concentration and the control treatment .
The results showed decreased in mean number of nauplii/clutch reached to 0.20 nauplii/clutch in 2nd clutch at concen. 0.02 mg/l compared with 37.80 nauplii/clutch in 1st clutch in the control treatment, the number of nauplii/female was 227.8 nauplii/female in the control treatment compared with lowest mean 0.40 nauplii/female at concen. 0.04 mg/l.
On the other hand, the mean number of nauplii grown to stage Copepodid/ clutch was decreased to 0 nauplii/clutch at concen. 0.01 mg/l, 0.02 mg/l and 0.04mg/l, while the upper mean was 32.10 nauplii/clutch in 1st clutch in the control treatment. The higher percentage of nauplii grown to stage Copepodid was 18.6% in the control treatment in 1st clutch and decreased to 0.66% in the 2nd clutch at concen. 0.008 mg/l, The higher mean number of nauplii grown to Copepodid/ female was 172.4 nauplii/female in the control treatment and decreased to 0 nauplii/female at concen. 0.01 mg/l, 0.02 mg/l and 0.04mg/l. The lowest mean number of clutches between females was 0.3 clutch/female at 0.04mg/l while in the control treatment was 8.8 clutch/female. The upper mean time interval for clutches was 61 hrs in 1st clutch in the control treatment and the interval increased by increasing the concentrations to reach the higher mean 109 hrs. in 2nd clutch at concen. 0.02mg/l.

Determining the typical cultural conditions for production of inulinase enzyme from local isolate of A. niger.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 199-208

The cultural conditions for inulinase production from local isolate of Aspergillus niger were studied. The results showed that the optimum conditions were using a medium containing leek extract 1.5% supplemented with magnesium sulfate 0.1%, adjusted to pH 4.2,and inoculated with 1.5×106 spore/ ml of medium .

Quantitative Estimation of Corn Production Function In Iraq of (1986 – 2003 ) duration

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 248-257

The objective of the research is to estimate the production of corn by using power and linear functions for one depended variable, choosing the double log model and linear model , then testing them by first and second statistical tests , they must be suitable for agricultural production economic theory . The development of corn productivity in Iraq in the ( 1986 – 2003 ) duration was 2310 kg/ha ., while were 900.4 and 1600 kg/ha in (1950 – 1967 ) and ( 1968 – 1985 ) durations respectively . Thus their was vertical expansions. There was horizontal expansions of corn production too. The economic derivatives were estimated , they represent the marginal production and the average production functions , and production elasticities . The main result was the noneconomic first stage of the law of diminishing returns represented corn production in Iraq . The productivity was low when it compared with the productivity of developed countries. Thus , the important suggestion is to do our best on reaching to higher production level.

REQUIREMENT MODEL FOR E-COURSES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN IRAQI UNIVERSITIES: A CASE STUDY AT THI-QAR UNIVERSITY

Meeras Salman Juwad Al-Shemarry

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1-25

The aim of this study is to construct and utilize a requirement model as basis to develop e-Courses Management System (eCMS) so as to overcome all courses issues in the university in a proper and effective way. This case study which focuses on e-courses activity as the domain of study was conducted at Thi-Qar university. So hopefully that this constructed model will help system developers to understand the requirements to build the system that includes concept, flow and procedures in managing e-courses activities. The observation, interview, and requirement model analysis were used in this study as fact-finding techniques to define the requirements, Unified modeling language (UML) have been used to construct this requirement model that consists of certain model diagrammatical such as use case diagrams, class diagrams, activity diagrams and interaction diagrams (sequence diagrams and collaboration diagrams) and supported by certain textual information like use case specification and requirements list that consisted of 32 functional requirements and 12 non-functional requirements that were needed to construct requirement model for eCMS. However, in this study only functional requirements be captured. This model is validated by using test script technique and sample system (prototype). eCMS is proposed to be a web-based system that enables better communication regardless of time, and location of users. This study provided a better solution to develop eCMS that can be implement at all universities as well as the related education organizations in Iraq.

Derivative and analysis of the amplitude detection peak (ADP) for direct detection of digital optical receivers and determining the range of noise effect on the system

Mohanned Hassan Ali; Ibrahem K. Aouda; Amer H. Abbas; Nadia Abd AL-Sataar Abd AL-Majeed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 43-51

In this paper, the equations which limit the (ADP) for receiver circuits by the effect of noise had derived. The effect of laser intensity on the direct detection of digital optical communication system is also analyzed and studied. We found that, a best performance gain is obtained depending on the maximum value of the signal to noise ratio (S/N). optimizing the (ADP) gain reduces the impact of the this noise on the system performance and power penalty bit error rate (BER) and yields a power penalty which is relatively less affected by ionization rate of the detector. The Mat lab language is used to clarify the graphics in this work .

Plastic Bottles cause Cancer as reviewed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 52-59

The chemical Bisphenol A (BPA) was first synthesized in 1891; in 1930 a study found that BPA mimics estrogen. Today bisphenol A (BPA) is manufactured in excess of six billion pounds per year. BPA is most commonly used as the building block of polycarbonate plastic for products such as baby bottles and water bottles, epoxy resins (coatings that line food containers), and white dental sealants. It is also an additive in other types of plastic used to make children’s toys.
BPA molecules are bound by "ester bonds” to form a polymer used to make polycarbonate plastic. As the building block of polycarbonate, BPA is the primary chemical in polycarbonate, and it does not exist in only trace amounts. While plastics are typically thought of as stable, scientists have known for many years that the chemical bond between BPA molecules is unstable. The bond is disrupted by heat and acidic or basic conditions that release BPA into food or beverages in contact with the plastics.
Now, there have been over one hundred studies that link BPA that can cause cancer and other health conditions in exposed people. Pregnant woman who absorb a common chemical from everyday plastic products such as water bottles and other containers could be putting their unborn children at a risk of developing cancer and other diseases when they reach adulthood. Animal studies found that exposure in the womb to Bisphenol A caused changes associated with obesity, cancer and diabetes.
This chemical is banned in Canada, some states in U.S, other European countries, in the last two decades, more and more breast cancer in Korea has been related to BPA. Now, breast cancer is ranked the leading cause of cancer in Korean woman.

APPLICATION OF ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESS FOR REDUCING THE VOLUME OF AN AERATION TANK OF A CONVENTIONAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 60-69

Iraqi government is actively promoting wastewater reclamation because of urgent water needs. Wastewater reuse is governed by stringent regulations to protect public health against waterborne diseases and any other adverse environmental effects. This study is aimed at determining the type and level of advanced treatment needed for effective treatment of 60000 m3.day-1 domestic wastewater of an Iraqi city without major modification of plant layout. An urgent request by the Iraqi government to implement nutrients and phosphorous removal units for an under construction project. Extensive investigations were carried out to size and add both Phosphorus & Nitrogen (P & N) removal units into the plant layout. Due to limitation of site land, it was found itself obliged to work on redesigning the aeration basin of the WWTP. The aeration basin consists of eight cells of (25x25x5) m3volume. The redesign approach adopted here involved two main objectives; one objective is to utilize part of the aeration basin as Phosphorus & Nitrogen (P & N) removal units while the second objective is to raise the efficiency of the aeration basin to handle the original influent with the remaining cells to deliver the standard effluent specifications. A cost effective study was carried out to use Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) based on Fenton's process to achieve both objectives mentioned above. Fenton's process using H2O2 to react with wastewater in the presence of Fe++ prior to the aeration tank resulted in considerable reduction of BOD entering the aeration tank. The study has revealed that AOP is effectively accomplishing the target, and reducing the volume of the aeration basin to less than 60% of its original volume (capacity). The cost analysis shows a cut in per unit cost from (0.17 $/m3) to (0.16 $/m3).

Solve Inverse problem ofFractal Rendering 3D Shapes.

Mushtaq Kareem AbdalRahem

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 70-74

The inverse problem of fractal shapes can be considered as the main difficulty in fractal geometry, because the problem of determining and identifying the parameters of the affine mappings that constitute the Iterated Function System (IFS).
The purpose of this paper is to formulate and solve the inverse problem of Fractal Rendering 3D Shapes using a new approach in optimization theory. This can be made by finding and generating parameters of a set of affine maps, contractive mapping; which is IFS forpatches; that repeatedly iterative numerically by using the random iteration algorithm

Synthesis and Studies The Biological Activity of New Azo Compounds

Zeinab N.M; Hamid H. M; Istabraq M. A

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 75-83

The cyclohexanone was subjected to Hantzsch synthesis by treating with iodine and thiourea to give an intermediate 2-amino-4,5,6,7- tetrahydrobenzothiazole. This was then diazotized and coupled with various phenols and naphtholes derivatives to give a series of new disperse dyes. These azo derivatives were characterized by spectral methods 1HNMR , FT-IR, UV-VIS..
These derivatives were tested against three microorganisms Klebsiella, Pseudomonas aeuroginosa and Escherichia Coli. Some of azo compounds was slightly and non active while azo-2-naphthol was highly acive against all the bacteria species tested.

Mass spectrometric Determination of Boron Stable Isotopes And Its Application on Some Geological Materials.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 84-92

Boron isotopic composition measurements were carried out by using a thermal ionization mass spectrometer. The evaporation and ionization currents were employed in the range of 1.5 – 1.7 ampere. Masses 88 and 89 which were detected are corresponded to the ions and respectively. The isotopic ratio measurements of boron isotopes (B10, B11) are determined for numbers of compound standard deviation of measurements are in the range of (1- 7 x 10-5). A pyrohydrolysis technique is being used for recovery of boron from some materials like B4C , B2O3 and boron amorphous.

Preparation of New Copper (II) – PVC Membrane Sensor Based on Phenyl Disulfide

Aayad Ammar Sayhood

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 93-101

Membrane of phenyl disulfide as an ionic membrane carrier in poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) based matrix have been used for preparing Copper selective electrode. The electrode exhibits according to Nernst equation response for Cu2+ ions over a wide concentration range from 1.0x10-6 to 1.0x10-1 M with a slope equal to 29.2 mV/decade, r=0.9988 and a detection of limit 4.4x10-7 M. The response time measured was 8 second. It was found to be selective and useable within the pH range of (2.0-7.0) and the temperature equal to 293 K to 303 K. The lifetime of membrane sensor prepared could be used for at least 3 months. The electrode was successfully used as an indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of Copper ions with EDTA.

Determinations of lead, zinc, cobalt, and iron concentrations in sera of industrial workers (Occupational exposure)

Narjis Hadi Mansoor Al-Saadi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 134-140

All metals are potentially toxic, but, some metals are essential for life. Heavy metals become toxic when they are not metabolized by the body and accumulate in the soft tissues. Heavy metals may enter the human body through food, water, air, or absorption through the skin when they come in contact with humans in agriculture and in manufacturing, pharmaceutical, industrial, or residential settings. Industrial exposure accounts for a common route of exposure for adults [1]. We get exposed to these metals from our surroundings whether our immediate environment or our place of work.
This study focused on the workers that worked in industrial field and they are always keeping touch with minerals like Fe, Pb, Zn and Co. These minerals may be poising if they were overdose and causes many healthy problem if the concentration of these elements increased in human body more than body requirement. The occupational exposures for these elements by inhalation or touching or orally are very risk on the healthy. So the present study included twenty four tinkers, and mechanic subjects that work in tin, solder and car repaired and fifteen subjects that were non-worker as control group. The elements, lead, zinc, iron and cobalt were determined in serum of each subject. The results revealed highly significant increase (p<0.0001) in concentration of Pb, Zn, Fe and Co comparing with the control. The worker subjects were classified into groups according to age, smoking, period of working, and obesity depending on body mass index (BMI) then studies their effect on the concentration of these elements. The results showed no any significant differences between each group. There is no significant differences between subjects their age (18-40)year and those (41-60) year in addition no significant differences between smokers and non-smoker groups, obese and non-obese group and no significant differences between workers that works within the period (1-5) year and (6- 15) year.
The aim of this object was investigated the association between the elements, Pb, Zn, Fe, Co as a risk factors and workers that work in industrial field and they are always touching with these element.

Photo-degradation Study for Some 4-aminoantipyrine derivatives by used (Cs-137) as Gamma-Ray Source

Thaer Mahdi Madlool

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 141-154

The compounds {4-Benzylidene-amino)-1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-1,2-dihydro-pyrazol-3-one} , {4-[(4-Hydroxy-benzylidene)-amino]- 1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-1,2-dihydro-pyrazol-3-one} ,and {4-[(2-Hydroxy-benzylidene)-amino]- 1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-1,2-dihydro-pyrazol-3-one}were prepared as [4-aminoantipyrine] derivatives by condensation reaction . These compounds were characterized by FTIR spectra , UV.-Vis. Spectra, and melting point measurement .The bond constant (K) for active group that characterized by IR spectrum was calculated .Also ,solvent effect on UV.-Vis. Spectrum was studied which appeared the prepared solution compounds were influenced by solvent polarity .
Photo study for compounds was carry out by used Cs-137 as Gamma Ray source for (24 hour) . IR spectra and UV.-Vis. Spectra after irradiation didn’t appear clear bands for compounds spectra that refer all compounds were gotten a photo-degradation because of they absorbed Gamma Ray. The mean external exposure [ X(R)] , the dose rate in air [ Daire (rad)],and the dose rate in compound [Dcompound (rad)] were calculated .

Effect of dietary omega 3 essential polyunsaturated fatty acid on reproductive system of male rats that exposed to acrylamide

Shaima Amore Jabbar; Morug Salih Mahde

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 155-166

Acrylamide(ACR) has a range of toxicological hazards including reproductive toxicity, So in this research we studied the effect of acrylamide on male reproductive system of rat that drenched with omega 3 poly unsaturated fatty acids at the same time. We used 40 laboratory male rats provided by AL- Nahrain infertility center, They were housed in plastic cages in animal house at Karbala University/ Education College, however these animals divided randomly in to four group( group 1 control, group 2 drenched with acrylamide10% and omega 3 according to body weight, group 3 treated with omega 3 only according to body weight and group 4 drenched with acylamide10% only ). The results showed that there are significant decreases P≤0.01 in testosterone hormone in forth group as compared with other groups in the same time there are a significant increase P≤0.01 in third group as compared with others, while the pathological changes in testis slide section in forth group demonstrated un recover degeneration (necrosis) and acute inflammation characterized by present of inflammatory cells in stroma and seminiferous tubules as compared with other groups.

Indirect Spectrophotometric Method to Determination of Capoten In Pure Form and Commercial Tablets Based on The Chelate Formation with Nickel (II)

Mohanad Hazim Naji

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 189-198

A simple and accurate spectrophotometric method for the determination of capoten is applied. The procedure was based on the chelate formation with nickel(II) in acidic buffer medium. The complex has a maximum absorption at 617 nm. The optimum conditions for the complex formation were ascertained and the method was developed for the determination of capoten in the concentration range of (20–60) mg/L. The empirical formula of the formed complex was determined, by applying different spectrophotometric methods, at optimum pH of (3-5) and an ionic strength of µ equal to 0.5 M. The stoichiometric ratio was found to be 2:1 of Capoten-Nickel (II) complex as calculated by continuous variations and the mole ratio methods. The continuous variations method was applied for the determination of the conditional stability constant of the formed red complex and was found to be 3.27x107. The proposed method was found to be suitable for the determination of capoten in pure form and in its commercial tablets.

Synthesis and characterization of Eesterthiourea chloral acrylate resin and their Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs).

Hadi.Z. Al-Sawaad

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 199-207

Esterthioureachloralacrylate resin was synthesized by condensation reaction between chloral and thiourea which then react with acrylic acid to form the mentioned resin. Several new IPNs based on new resin of epoxy were polymerized i.e.,. (1:1, 1:2, 1:3) portions of epoxy hardeners respectively, have been prepared . curing of the new IPNs was studied by DSC as a function of temperature, several curing parameters were determined i.e.,. rate of curing , curing energy and activation energy, according the optimum curing conditions were found. The obtained results showed that the curing energy of new resin decrease in presence of different portion of epoxy: hardeners and initial temperature of curing decrease as epoxy: hardeners portion increase

Effects of Three Different Types of Separating Medium on The Compressive Strength of Cold Cure Acrylic Resin.

Sukiena Dhari Ali

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 208-215

Background: In the present study evaluation of the effect of three different types of separating medium of the effect of compressive strength of cold-cure acrylic resin material cured at room temperature.
Methods: Forty five cylinder design of cold cure acrylic were fabricated in order to provide an a standardized dimensions of tested specimens (11 x 22 mm). These cylinders were invested by either cold mold seal or glycerin or tinfoil group.
Results: The results of this study revealed that there was highly significant differences on the compressive strength of cold-cure acrylic resin material lining with both glycerin and tinfoil separating medium in comparison with cold-mold seal separating medium.
The aim of this study was to study the effect of three different Types of separating medium (cold mold seal, Tin foil and glycerin on compressive strength of cold cure acrylic resin material.
Conclusions: it can be concluded that when the mold lined with glycerin and tin foil separating medium the degree of compressive strength showed highly significant differences in all cold cure acrylic resin specimens. In comparison with cold mold seal.

Epidemiology Study of Toxoplasmosis to Patient Women of Middle Euphrates Hospitals of Iraq

Maher Ali AL-Quraishi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 230-235

During the period between 1st of may 2005 to 24th of march 2006 we collected and examined 102 blood samples from different group and ages of women in middle Euphrates area order to investigates the presence of Toxoplasmosis by using immunological assays such as IFAT and Latex Fixation test in the laboratories of clinical pathology department/Kufa technical institute and center of infectious diseases control (C.D.C).
A total of (102) women were examined in this study found 36 cases (35.29%) carried this disease, The results of the research follows( 47.54% )in abortion women, (19.04%) in non abortion women while (15%) in ladies who are not married), This results proved that T. gondii is widely spread in the middle Euphrates area .We studied total serum protein , Serum Albumin , Serum globulin and Alb/Glb ratio in women who had infected with Toxoplasma and calculated the ratio of Alb/Glb before and after four months treatment. Its {S.Alb. (o.039), S.Glb.(0.086)and Alb/Glb(0.033} LSD value before treatment and {(S.Alb (0.041), S.Glb (0.059)and Alb/Glb(0.044)} LSD value after treatment . We have seen decreased in S.Alb and increase S.Glb and Alb/Glb ratio after treatment its significantly increasing under (p<0.05) in Total S. Protein in high values than control group and increased level of T.S.P and S. Albumin and Alb/Glb in all patients who have appositive Toxoplasma.

Thermodynamic functions and IR modes Calculation for newly Azo compounds by Using DFT Model

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 247-264

Depended on (Gaussian 03) program for using Density Function Theory calculations (DFT/B3LYP) have been done after complete optimization of geometry on the newly azo (A, B) molecules . The geometric parameter (bond lengths and bond angles) , charge , thermodynamic data and the fundamental vibration frequencies (3N-6) along with their assignments and the corresponding IR absorption intensities for each one of the two molecules where , also, The MOPAC Computational Packages (semi-empirical method , PM3 model) employed through out this study to compute the heats of formations, dipole moments, orbital energies (HOMO, LUMO) and ionization energies . The compound –B is more stability because it has less heats of formation and entropy , and easier ionization than compound-A , the shown results that each one nitrogen atom of compound-B highest electron densities than compound-A . The higher frequencies values for the (O-H) stretch fundamental vibration mode.

Synthesis and characterization of Some New Tetrazole and 1,3-Oxazepine Derivatives

Rahman Tama Haiwal

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 265-283

In this work new Schiff bases [3-4], tetrazole [7] and [10] and 1,3-oxazepine [5-6] and [8-9] derivatives were prepared starting from azoaldehyde derivative 5,5'-(3,3'-dimethylbiphenyl-4,4'-diyl)bis(diazene-2,1-diyl)bis(2-hydroxybenzaldehyde) [2] and the primary amines 5-Amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol and 2-Amino benzothiazole.

Azo aldehyde derivative [2] was prepared via coupling reaction between o-Hydroxy benzaldehyde and diazonium salt which was formed via reaction of toluidine [1] with concentrated hydrochloric acid and sodium nitrite .The new Schiff bases [3] and [4] were prepared by reaction of azo aldehyde derivative [2] with each primary amines, 5-Amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol and 2-Amino benzothiazole,respectively , in presence of glacial acetic acid as catalyst .The new 1,3-oxazepine derivatives [5] , [6] and [8], [9] were obtained from treatment of each prepared Schiff bases derivatives [3] and [4] with each maleic anhydride and 3-nitro phthalic anhydride , respectively ,in dry benzene .Treatment of each Schiff bases [3] and [4] with sodium azide in dry dioxan resulted the formation of new tetrazole derivatives [7] and [10] ,respectively .These new synthesized derivatives might have some biological activity.
All new derivatives were characterized by (C.H.N.) elementary analysis and FT-IR spectra.

New Approach for Solving Inverse Problem of Fractal Image.

Mushtaq Kareem AbdalRahem

journal of kerbala university, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 340-343

Finding solutions to the issue of the inverse of the fractal forms of a difficult topics to some extent in the field of engineering fractal. And theories that speak on this subject may be few in relation to the importance of this subject.
In this paper, we tried to introduce a new method to solve this problem by taking the results of the first method a method (place-dependent IFS method) and make an initial valuesof the second method (optimization method).Summary ofnumerical methods with an example presented in this paper.