ISSN: 1813-0410

Volume 6, Issue 2

Volume 6, Issue 2, Spring 2010, Page 1-475

The Concept of Divinity in Terms of Heavenly and Positive Religions

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 24-47

The concept of divinity underwent different dramatic stages of change, transformation ,development and considering the importance of religion and its solid relevance to politics and society especially that there exists no nation in the whole world capable of ignoring the overall impact of religion for its subjective importance as a spiritual inevitable need for mankind, since there has never been, along the history of civilization, a refined political organization nor a systematic human assembly unless it was associated with or predominated by an image of worship and faith in supernatural powers.
Accordingly, this study deals with the concept of divinity . What draws our attention in observing the concept of divinity in different civilizations was that this concept approaches the notion of oneness and monotheism. As these civilizations advanced , the relationship between the authority and the individual improved ,for this relationship is deprived from its benefits; and on the other hand ,whenever the ideology of divinity was inclined to polytheism , it' true meaning was distracted between the ancestors and natural powers leading to deterioration of civilization and the decline of the relationship between man and authority.
The concept of divinity settled with the emergence of heavenly religions which called for absolute oneness of God in Judaism, Christianity and Islam for the consolidation and identification of this concept; furthermore , the relation between man and God was clarified with the notice of the penetration of many pagan beliefs into the heavenly religions by the nations which embraced these religions but at the same time they maintained some of their idolatrous ideologies and social habits that are historically connected with paganism ; thereby the doctrines of divine immanentism slipped into Jewry while the beliefs of hypostasis , polytheism, trinity and humanity infiltrated into Christianity ; in addition to the idolization and worship of individuals ;also the surfacing of expiatory ideas and doctrines along with the extremist doctrines in the Islamic religion.
Nevertheless, the Islamic religion ,in general, is decisive in this matter considering the specific evident and comprehensive perspective it lays out towards absolute monotheism of the concept of divinity


Rewayda Razaq Mohsin

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 138-143

في هذا البحث قدمنا تعريف بديهيات الفصل الزوجية وتعريف للفضاء التبولوجي الثنائي وناقشنا العلاقة بين فضاء التبولوجي المضاعف وفضاء التبولجي الثنائي من خلال تعميم هذه التعاريف

Study of the changes in some serum electrolytes and trace elements levels in patients with burn injuries

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 235-241

This study was designed to estimate the changes in some electrolytes and trace elements in serum of patients with burn injuries ,since the levels of these substances are very important in letting the health care team to know how the body is responding to the different therapies that being provided and this will help the medical staff for proper management with less morbidity and mortality . The study lasted from October /2008 to April /2009. There are 125 patients and 100 healthy controls (clinically assessed by specialist physician) are taken in this study .The patients were classified in 5 groups according to age group and each group composed from 25 patients .The ages of these groups were divided as follows: the first group (1-<3 years) ; the second group (3-<5 years) ; the third group (5-<10 years) ;the fourth group (10 - <18 years);and the fifth group (18 - 58 years old ) . Those patients were admitted to the burn unit at Al-Hilla General Teaching Hospital with 20 -25 % degree of burn . They were suffering from second to third degree (flame and scald) burn injury . Regarding the serum electrolytes , serum sodium shows a significant decrease before resuscitation and significant increase within 2 days duration after resuscitation while the serum potassium exhibits significant increase before resuscitation and shows significant decrease within 2 days duration after resuscitation for male and female burn patients of all age groups . Finally , the serum of calcium ,copper and zinc shows significant decrease for males and females of all age groups except the males of first and fourth groups and the females of first and fifth group which show significant decrease for zinc only in comparison with healthy controls .

Study and Comparison the Adsorption thermodynamic for Gongo Red and Berlent Green dyes on some metal oxides

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 82-90

In Adsorption Thermodynamics mechanism using for studied the Red Gongo and Green Berlent dyes adsorbed on oxides surfaces (ZnO ,Y2O3 ) , and in this search for purification using of removals from pollutants via oxides surfaces using.
When the oxides (ZnO) and (Y2O3 ) using in this studies are position different in periodic , when Zn are 3d 4s and Y are 4d 5s , as well as notes adsorption different between two surfaces .
The thermodynamic values were calculated for reactions , when also different pH studies and using different concentrations of dyes ( 5 , 10 , 15 , 20 , 25 ) ppm . Using (U.V-visible) Instrument for adsorption isotherm studied.

The effect of different types of chlorhexidine solutions on the compressive strength of dental stone materials.

Nihad Hasan Mohammed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 44-52

Background: Infection control in dentistry is becoming more important , new products and methods are being developed to prevent cross- contamination between dental patients and dental personal via impression ,model ,record base and appliance however ,there is growing concern on dental cast disinfection ,incorporation of disinfection solution in dental stone could provide an effective method to disinfect stone cast.
Methods: this project was under taken in an attempts to study the effect of the disinfection solutions on the compressive strength of dental stone .accordingly , three type of disinfectant solution were incorporated into one brand of dental stone.(60) samples made from dental stone materials divided into( 4) group first group was control mixing dental stone with distil water; the second group was mixed dental stone with(Corsodyl) mouth wash glaxo smith line group of companies united kingdom groupes mixing dental stone with (chlorhexidine digluconate 0.2%), the third group that mixed dental stone with (Zak DNV Syria) mouth wash (chlorhexidine digluconate 0.12%), the foure group that (AL-Mansor) mouth wash almansor company(chlorhexidine digluconate 0.2%).
The properties evaluated was compressive strength the results were compared with those obtained from (Hi-Stone) which was used as control.
Results: the results revealed that incorporation of disinfection solution in stone mixture improved compressive strength of dental stone.
Conclusions: In conclusion, dental stone containing chlorhexidine diglucanate (0.2% Almansor company Iraq) provide to be superior among the other tested groups

Design and Implementation of Digital IC Tester Interface to IBM Compatible Computer

Ali Fawzi Najm AL-Shammari

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 144-154

IC (Integrated Circuit) is important part of electronic circuits, as it has a low cost, small size, high speed, and many other good features. In general, IC’s are classified into analogue IC’s and digital IC’s, the word digital refer that the device can read and write digital signal only which consists of tow levels (logic 0 and logic 1).
This paper discusses the design and implementation of digital IC tester interfaced to IBM compatible computer which enable fast and reliable digital IC testing. Proposed digital IC tester interfaced to computer via parallel port. Device designed to test and analyzes Digital IC behavior in order to verify if it works properly or not.
At many cases, digital IC’s must be tested in order to know the damage location in large and complex electronic circuits,
The software that drives the device programmed in visual C++ which enables fast data transmission through parallel port and gives the user the flexibility to test different kind of digital IC’s and adds their data sheets to program data base in order to increase software capability.

Using Mathematical Optimization Method(Tabu Search) for Edges CrossingPoints Reduction in Graphs

Enaam H. Abd

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 23-36

A graph is an algebraic structure of nodes and edges is commonly presented geometrically by diagrams depicting nodes as dots and edges as curves or straight line segments that connect the dots . Some applications need to reduce the number of edges crossing such as Telecommunications e.g. spanning trees ,Vehicle routing e.g. Roads without underpasses, VLSI e.g. computer chips , and Road networks. This aim of this paper is minimize the number of crossing points in graphs by applying the mathematical optimization (Tabu Search) method. More important results was recorded by implement this method .

Fatigue Behavior of unsaturated Polyester/ Polyvinyl ChloridePolymer system Reinforced with E-glass fibre

EkramA.A; Mohammed K.J; Kawakib J.M

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 203-209

Fatigue behavior of “unsaturated polyester /Polyvinyl Chloride” blends with different weight percentage of PVC(10%,20%,30%),unreinforced and reinforced with one and two laminates of chopped mat E-glass fibre were studied. Bending fatigue loading (Fixed Strain Technique) through out subjecting sinusoidal loading was used to obtain the bending moment mb and bending stress versus cycles number .The effect weight percentage of PVC, and laminates number of E-glass fibre on the fatigue behavior were investigated by determining the fatigue strength and fatigue life from the plotted S-N curves. The results show that the increasing of PVC-content and E-glass fibres laminate lead to increase the fatigue strength and enhancing fatigue life.

Effect of alcoholic extracts of propolis and plant cinnamon on the proportion of hatching eggs greater wax moth,(Galleria mellonella L.) Lepidoptera.,Pyralidae in hives Iraq.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 65-71

The research aimed to study the effect of alcoholic extract for each of the composite Propolis and plant cinnamon and different concentrations included (0.00, 0.50, 1.50, 3.00, 6.00, 12.00)% in reducing the percentage of hatching eggs, wax moth large (Gallera mellonella L.) and different ages are (one day after spawning and the age of one day before hatching), where the results showed that the alcoholic extract of composite Propolis is most able to influence to embryonic development inside the egg, which gave the lowest percentage of hatching of eggs of age one day and one day old before hatching when the concentration (12.00%) was (41.66 , 50.33%), respectively. While the alcoholic extract of the plant cinnamon less effective in giving the lowest percentage of hatching age of first and second and the same concentration of (61.00, 71.33)%, respectively, also compare with the treatment of control and reached the highest rate of egg hatching at the concentration (0.00%) and one day old and the age of one day before hatching was (97.66, 95.00)% for each of the propolis extract and cinnamon leaf, respectively. as well as the primitive egg showed more sensitive to a compound derived from Propolis and cinnamon leaf, compared with developed eggs in a lifetime

A.C Conductivity of (PS-PC) Blends Films

Ahmad A.Hasan; Bushra A.Hasan

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 191-202

Measurements of A.C conductivity of Polystyrene and Polycarbonate
(PS-PC) blends over frequency range (102-106Hz)and temperature range (293-473K) shows that the A.C conductivity fellows the empirical formula σa.c(w)=Aws,where(s) lies between (0.45880-0.6317),the σa.c(w) declared exponentially dependence on the reciprocal of absolute temperature for all samples .The activation energies (Eac) of blends samples were lower than those of pure PS and PC samples. The results were interpreted that the resistivity difference accompanied the PC addition to PS.


journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 10-23

The root of semiotics concerning with the linguistic revolution led by Ferdinand de Saussure in his explanations of the way in which the language works and performs its functions.
semiotics is interested in study systems of language symbols ,and the structures which is underlying in the use of any sign as well as the relationship between these icons and their user (self-produced) , therefore it does not aim to determine the literary meaning in the text, but trying to find the literary meaning between what is familiar or common and what was coded (what the poet wants ).
A criticism literary (ancient and modern) study icon (All Tallal) and this research try to read All Tallal: tradition Archaeological icon in Vagabond poet, particularly in the poetry of (AL Kattal Al Kilabi), to know in which way he use it and in which way it dominated on his poetry
In the same time how the Vagabond _self is Liberated from the using of this Poetic structure (The prevailing and dominant )icon.

The aliment security of arab nations

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 61-75

About four of the previous decades the subject was regard as important affairs in the world. So the governments and world organisations and researchrs depated this affairs. So that number of conferences held to study this subject and they adapting the important arrangement to remedies this subject.
But inspite of all this attempts, the indicators come to light that the provetty increased espically in under developed countties.
As to the security of arab alimental this subject is not belong to the shortage of prodacion of agricultural products, but belong to the mismanage the resources in arab nations.
In addition the alimental gab increased, for many resons, related to increased the population convert to another sectors. Therefor our research build on a hypothesis refer that this subject is not belong to the governments which face this problems but belong to all the nations in the world. Also, arab nations may be fulfill this subject if they work together.
So that the problem of the research, refer the failure of arab nations security is not belong to the shorage in resources, but to mismange the agricultural policies. For the purpose of what we mentioned above we devided our reseach, to the following sections:
The first section devoted to the concepts of alimental security, and the factors effect it.
The second section, devoted to the quality of the foods.
Section three, devoted to the arab alimental security.
In section four we refer to the security of alimental in iraq.
Finally we put some of conclisions and recommendations, which we listed in the end of this research.

SCCC-MCCDMA combination performance over multipath Rayleigh fading channel

Husam A. Mohammed; Aqiel N. Almaamory

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 16-22

This work presents the simulation of a Serially Concatenation Convolution Coding SCCC with Multi-Carrier Code Division Multiple Access (MC-CDMA) system over multipath fading channels. The decoding technique used in the simulation was iterative decoding since it gives maximum efficiency with six iteration. Modulation schemes that used are Phase Shift Keying (BPSK, QPSK and 16 PSK), along with the Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). The channel models used are as specified in the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Technical Specification TS 25.101v2.10 with a channel bandwidth of 5 MHz. this includes the channels are indoor to outdoor/ pedestrian channel and Vehicular channel

Nutrients Levels of Some Wells water in Basrah / South of Iraq

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 6-10

A survey is made to estimate Nutrients of some wells in the South of Iraq: (Khor Al-Zubair, Zubair and Safwan) during 2008. Nine wells are selected with different depths ranged between 5-10 m near Khor Al-Zubair and 22-25 m in Zubair and Safwan. The main aim of this study is to estimate the concentration of Nitrate, Nitrite, Phosphate and Silicate ions. The values recorded from this study were (88.412 µgl) for Nitrate, (12.007 µgl) for Nitrite, (4.902 µgl) for Phosphate and (151.250 µgl) for Silicate in wells with low depths. Low values are recorded (5.718 µgl) for Nitrate and (0.0756 µgl) for Nitrite and (1.024 µgl) for Phosphate and (51.608 µgl) for Silicate in wells with high depths. The recorded values of more than half of the understudy wells are polluted by Nutrients.

Analytical Study for Lead Pollution in some selected locations of Basrah Government / Southern of Iraq

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 1-5

درس تأثير التلوث بعنصر الرصاص وتحديد موقعه للمياه السطحية والرواسب القاعية في مناطق من جنوب العراق في محافظة البصرة على وجه الخصوص في أعلى الخليج العربي عند قمته الشمالية وهي سبعة مواقع : القرنة ، المدنية ، الدير ، العشار ، أبو الخصيب ، الزبير ، أم قصر خلال الفترة من 2007- 2008 على أساس فصلي . اعتمدت الطرق القياسية لتحليل المياه السطحية والرواسب القاعية حيث سجلت أعلى قيمة معدل لتركيز الرصاص في منطقة الزبير حيث بلغت (4.2 ppm) للمياه السطحية و (6.20 ppm) في منطقة أبو الخصيب للرواسب القاعية ، في حين كانت اقل قيمة مسجلة هي (0.5 ppm) في منطقة القرنة ولم تسجل أي قيمة للرواسب القاعيــــة في منطقـــة المدينة .

The Importance of the Process Reducing and Controlling the Marketing Costs in Business OrganizationsAn applied study in Zain Communication Company

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 128-146

Marketing costs are considerd very important to the Business Organizations and essential part of total costs . it has effect on the financial and selling political , total cost and earn profit to the Organizations .
Therefore this study pursued the importance of the process reduce the marketing costs to the study sample.
The main objective of the study is represented the effect on reducing marketing costs to the market share, total costs , profits levels and competitive situation to the study sample .
This study derived importance from the importance and benefits to the process of reducing marketing costs in a study sample and the main role to achieving the organizations goals .
This study was ended with some of conclusions and recommendations, from the theoretical and practical sides of the study, which may contribute to the enhancement performance of study sample and helping them accomplish their objectives properly and as required


journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 200-207

An experiment was conducted during the growing season of 2008/2009 in the fields of the College of Agriculture / University of Basrah to study the effect of nitrogen fertilization and foliar spraying with vitamin C on growth, seed yield of fennel and its essential oils .
This experiment included 9 treatments combination resulted from the interaction between the addition of three levels of nitrogen fertilizer 0 , 75 and 150 kg N/ha and three concentrations of vitamin C 0 , 15 and 30 mg/liter. Randomized Complete Block Design was used with three replications . Revised Least Significant Differences (R.L.S.D) was used. Test was used at probability of 5% to compare mean variations . Result can be summarized as follows:
Increasing nitrogen levels, significantly increased plant height and fresh weights of plant, whereas, the level 75 kg N/ha gave the highest significant increase in number of lateral branches, number of leaves per plant, the number of inflorescence , number of florets/plant, seeds yield/plant and the oil yield/plant. Spraying of vitamin C at 30 mg/L significantly increased number of lateral branches, the essential Oil Percentage, whereas the spraying of vitamin C at 15 mg/L significantly increased the number of inflorescence , number of florets/plant, specific gravity and density of oil . There was a significant effect of the interaction between the two factors on all studdied parameters.

(Agreement on the withdrawing of U.S. troops from Iraq: a vision in the strategic dimensions and the future caveats)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 112-127

The agreement of withdrawing the U.S. troops from Iraq may pave the way to liberate Iraq from the seventh chapter which had been knuckled after its occupation for Kuwait in 1991,also it will find a legal and future cover to the American forces.
Because of these importance , the agreement has been prelatised for many strategic reviewing among the internal and external powers.
In this laden climate, the hard birth occurred for this agreement on a base of getting the possible outcome in order to progress another step to change the station and achieve the security in Iraq.
According to these context, we can make our hypothesis which stress that : "the positive outputs of this agreement wouldn’t pass with out losing our sovereignty and our interests"
We divided our research in to six parts, the first part displayed the historical roots of relations of two countries.
The second part dealt with the manner of concluding the agreement according the Iraqi constitution and the realistic of the political operation
As to the third part, we explained the content of agreement to investigate the strategic damnations of it in the fourth part of our research .
Then we examined the future pitfalls of these agreement in the fifth part.
At last, we studied the political positions and the strategic maneuver of the internal and external powers toward the agreement.

Calculations of the Energy Levels and the Electric QuadrupoleTransition Probabilities of the 148,150,152,154,156,158 Sm IsotopesUsing IBA-1and IBA-2 Model

Mohammed Ali Radhy; Nawras Mohammed Shaheed Al-Dahan; Fadhil Ismail Shrrad Al-Taie

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 342-352

The level scheme of the 148,150,152,154,156,158Sm isotopes have been investigated using both IBA-1 and IBA-2 versions of Interacting Boson Model (IBM). IBA-1 and IBA-2 Hamiltonian parameters are obtained as well as the extraction of the energy levels. Also, the electric quadrupole transition probabilities B(E2; Ji →Jf) of the Sm isotopes were calculated. In calculations, the theoretical energy levels and the electric quadrupole transition probabilities have been obtained by using PHINT code. Very good agreement was found from comparison between the calculated energy levels and the electric quadrupole transition probabilities B(E2) of the Sm isotopes with the experimental data.

Genetic persistency on milk production in Holstein Friesian Cows

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 29-33

This study was carried out at the Faihaa Station (20 km north of Babel), and over period 2007 and 2008, using 310 records product by 119 cow analysis statistically. The aim of this investigate the estimation of genetic persistency on milk production from the difference between genetic estimation to produce 280 days from genetic estimation to produce first 60 days of milk season in Holstein Friesian cows after studying the effect of fixed factors and estimation heritability to produce 60 and 280 milk day.
The overall mean of milk production of the first 60 and 280 days of milk season was 625.16 and 2300.34 kg respectively. Highly significant effect of parity and season of parturition in milk production of 60and 280 days, Heritability of this traits 0.25 and 0.22 respectively. There wide variation in genetic values estimation of bulls of 60 and 280 days milk production. The maximum estimation of genetic persistency was 30.27 while the minimum was – 10.04 , depending of above mentioned estimations will increase gain and later the economically in the herd.

The Effect of Tilt Angle on the Solar Panel Output

Emad.Jaleel.Mahdi; Sahib.N.Abdul-wahid

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 75-82

In this project we study how the effect of changing tilt angulations of the solar panel and (1) the variations in the incident sunlight affects the amount of electrical output from the (2) on the efficiency of solar panels in Baghdad location. The correct installation position will allow solar panels to be exposed to direct, unobstructed sunshine from 7am to 4pm every day ,this study determined that the optimum tilt angle for a PV panel changes throughout the year, we installed solar panels in four angles (20ْ,35ْ,45ْ,55ْ) as a fixed solar panel in august 2009 and in January 2010 . The results showed that the gains in the amount of solar radiation throughout the year received by the PV panel mounted at 350 for fixed solar panel to Baghdad location for all days year.

Reading in dr fadhil Al-samarais Lamasat Bayaniya fi nusuus min Al- Tamziil

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 1-9

Dr-Fadhil Al-Samarai is one of the Iraqi professors who tried to better understand the Quranic text , particulary in his writing s on the Quranic expressions, meaning s, and wording which have a good reception in the minds of the readers.

Nots on this particular book pay Al-Samarai ,stimulated pay his opinion that writers opinions should be checked pay the Quran itself: matching with the Quran these opinions should be accepted ,disagreeing with it , they should be left and abandoned.
This traditional method of research was built by the prophet and his progeny .
The researcher wants also to prove what Al-Bakhilani had said that language of the holy Quran varietes from the language of the Arabs , and this what distinguishes-Quran from the other teats – The distinction between creators words and his creatures is the measure that Al-Mutazilah depended on in their judgement and Ibn Abbas had preceeded then to them to this measure befor.

Strongly Prime Fuzzy Ideals

Areeg T.H. Abou-Dareb

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 115-125

The main aim of this paper is to extend and study the notions of (ordinary ) prime ideals into prime fuzzy ideals .This lead us to introduce and study other notions of fuzzy ideals and fuzzy homomorphism .
Moreover , we study some of prime fuzzy ideals and its relationships with strongly prime fuzzy ideals .

On Artin Cokernel of the Group Dnh When n is an Odd Number

Maany Abd Al-Moneem Said; Hussein Hadi Abbas

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 407-428

The group of all Z-valued characters of G over the group of induced unit characters from all cyclic subgroups of G forms a finite abelian group, called Artin Cokernal of G ,denoted by AC(G)= (G) /T(G)
The problem of finding the cyclic decomposition of Artin cokernel AC(Dnh) has been considered in this paper when n is an odd number , we find that if n = p .p ...p , where p1,p2,…, pm are distinct primes and not equal to 2 , then
AC(Dnh)= C2
= AC(Dn) C2
And we give the general form of Artin's characters table Ar(Dnh)when n is an odd number.

Study on the parasitic fauna of Acanthopagrus latus in Al-razzaza lake

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 61-64

Examined a total of 161 Acanthopagrus latus from AL-Razzaza lake, Karbala province during the period from April` 2006 till September 2006 for parasitic fauna. The inspected results showed the occurrence of three species of protozoa which included of Trichodina ovonucleata, Tetrahymena pyriforms, Chloromyxum dubium. The Acanthopagrus latus is considered as anew host in Iraq. The percentage incidence of infection with the studied protozoa varied according to different months

A biochemical study of the effect of Neonatal Jaundice on bilirubin concentration level in newborns

Saba Abd Almunam; Rehab Jasem; Master; Rehab Jasem; Mohammed Nofill; Saba Abd Almunam; Areeg Shihab Ahmad; Areeg T.H. Abou-Dareb; Haider Y. Hammod; Adnan H. Ali; Rawa K.Ibrahim; Rewayda Razaq Mohsin; Rewayda Razaq Mohsin; Ali Fawzi Najm AL-Shammari; Alaa M.Alrubae; Rashid J. Abdulah; Ahmed Abdulhadi Ahmed; Haider Galil Al-Qurabi; Ali Abdulhussien Hassan; Eman jabbar K. Alghizzi; Rajaa Jabbar Kadhum; Nadia A. Al-Assady; Sahera G.Sayyah; Ayad I. Haddad; Ahmad A.Hasan; Bushra A.Hasan; EkramA.A; Mohammed K.J; Kawakib J.M; Mohammed J. S. Al-Haidarey; Dafer A. Al-Kufi; Meison A. Al-Selamy; Ibrahim M. Jassim; HASSANEEN JABBAR ABD; Taghreed M. D. Musa; Salam A. H. AL- Ameri; Reyadh M. Ahmed; Ali Aziz Abbas; Shaymaa A. M. Alhashimi; Mustafa T. Al-Kifae; Rassul M. Almaini; Firas Mohamed Abdul Ghani; Ali Farouk; Ahmed Sabeeh Abid Ali Al- Zubaidi; Eman Talib Kareem; ABDULJALEEL HUSSAIN ABD; SALAH NOORI ABBOOD; Hameed Aswad Mohammed; Mohammed Ali Radhy; Nawras Mohammed Shaheed Al-Dahan; Fadhil Ismail Shrrad Al-Taie; Ahmed Ali Abdulsahib Alkarimi; Muhanad Hayder; Sharifi; Hussein Ali Mohammed Al; Saher Ahmed Mohammed Al-Bassam; Maany Abd Al-Moneem Said; Hussein Hadi Abbas; Sareaa Maseer Gatya Al-Mayahie; Muhsen Cadem motleb; JawadKadhim Ali; Hassan Fadhil Al-Husseiny; Buthainah A. Ahmed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 83-89

تم تصميم هذه الدراسة للتحقق في تأثير مرض اليرقان الولادي على مستوى تركيز البيليروبن الكلي والغير مقترن في مصل الأطفال ألحديثي الولادة المصابين باليرقان الولادي (أبو صفار). ولتحقيق هذا الهدف تمت الدراسة على 60 طفل مريض, وقد دلت النتائج على زيادة معنوية ملحوظة (0.005 (p Keywords

Effect of Organic Matter on the Release and Availability ofPhosphorus and Their Effect on Spinach Plant.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 45-49

A green house experiment was conducted at the Technical institute of almusyabe to study the interaction effect between organic matter and different sources of phosphate fertilizer on the growth and uptake of nutrients by spinach plants. Results showed that dry weight of spinach plants at different stages of plant growth and improved the chemical properties of super phosphate and rock phosphate. The addition of organic matter to the soil increases the N – uptake by the spinach plant at the different stages of plant growth, and that due to the beneficial effect of organic matter in improving the nutritional status particularly nitrogen from the soil, and also observed that super phosphate application increased P, K and Fe amounts in the tissues of studied plants due to the fertilizer value of added super phosphate.

Learning the Neural Network using New Evolving Method to Solve Prediction Problems

Saher Ahmed Mohammed Al-Bassam

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 395-406

The meaning of the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) refers to a relatively new family of algorithms that may be used to find optimal (or near optimal) solutions to numerical and qualitative problems. Neural Network is an information processing system that has been developed as generalization models of human cognition of neural biology.
In this paper we learn the neural network using PSO method in the field of prediction to solve XOR problem in 4 parities (2, 3, 4, and 5) instead of using Back Propagation (BP) or Genetic Algorithm (GA) methods.
The suggested method is found to learn the NN by modifying the NN weights, this is done by calculating the fitness value which is considered as a threshold value.

Propagation of Rosa dumetorumThuill.`laxa` andR. rugosaThunb. from root cuttings.

JawadKadhim Ali

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 451-463

Shoot production on roots of R. rugosaThunb. showed some seasonal variation, fewest being produced in April and May. The application of 1 and 10 mg litre-1 BA to the whole segment of root cutting increased the number of shoot-buds. Increased shoot production also resulted from the application of 1500 mg litre-1 BA and 100 mg litre-1 IBA to the proximal and distal ends respectively. Root segments 0.3-1.5 cm thick and 15 cm long produced more shoots than shorter segments butthe number of shoots cm-1 was similar. Isolated roots of R. rugosa responded better to treatments than did those of R. dumetorumThuill. 'laxa'.

Complications of closed reamed intramedullary nailing inDiaphyseal closed fractures tibia.

Firas Mohamed Abdul Ghani; Ali Farouk; Ahmed Sabeeh Abid Ali Al- Zubaidi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 299-304

Fractures tibia are common and many modalities for the treatment are available the most recent one is intramedullary nails with closed and reamed method, however other modalities like casting are still used.

Objectives: To evaluate the complications of closed interlocking intramedullary nailing in closed diaphyseal fractures of tibia regarding the infection rate, time for union, malalignment and knee joint pain and stiffness.

Design: Prospective study.
Setting and Timing: Department of orthopedic surgery in Al-Kadhmiya Teaching Hospital from Dec. 2007- Dec.2009.

Patient and Methods : All the patients admitted to the emergency department of the hospital and operated within 72 hours . The study is based on 35 patients including males and females having closed tibial diaphyseal fractures of skeletally mature persons (closed proximal and distal physes)

Results: Out of the thirty five (35) patient, follow up was missed in two patients, the other (33) patients were followed for a period of one year. The mean time for union was 14.4 weeks. Union rate was 91 %, delayed union in two patients (6 %). Non union in one patient (3%). Infection was noticed in three patient (9%). Loss of the reduction in two patient (6%) in a proximal third fracture. Knee joint pain in four patients (12.1%) all of them of mild grade and easily ignored.

Conclusion: From the study we concluded that closed intramedullay nailing of closed tibia diaphyseal fractures is advantageous because of early mobility, low risk of infection, good union rate, low risk of malalignment and low risk of significant knee joint pain.

Interaction of Cysteine in aqueous Dimethylformamide Solutions at different temperatures.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 8-15

Densities ρ and viscosities η of cysteine (Cys) in 2.5% and 5%(w/w) Dimethylformamide (DMf)-water mixtures have been measured at different temperatures 298.15, 303.15, 308.15 and 313.15 K. From the experimental data molal volume , limiting partial molal volume , the slop , Jones-Dole B and D-coefficients, Gibbs free energy of activation for viscous flow of solution were calculated. The nature of solute- solvent and solute- solute interactions have been discussed in terms of the values of , , and B-coefficient.

Studding effect of loading on human resources allocation and smoothing for Building Project of scientific departments , practical application in TechnicalInstitute of Babylon

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 183-199

This research dealt studding and analyzing networks of the constructing building one scientific department project in the technical institute of Babylon with using the critical path method by determination of required activities and guessed work times for carrying out it, with using number of workers as another resource of loading which was arriving it by seeking of help from engineering staff supervisor on that building with purpose arriving for critical path that determination total duration of time to carry out of the project.
This research aims to first, use Gantt chart to present initial loading planning for estimated durations so as to arrive distinguished durations and number of labors which required for every duration. Second, use histogram to present loading mean and initial loading planning of distinguished durations to analyze the type of loading if excess or deficient or equivalent loading with the aim of arriving to an optimal loading planning and this through studding possibility of reloading to elastic activities during of final duration of time to carry out of project. Results appear final duration of time to carry out of project is equal (495 day) and loading mean during allocation and smoothing is (60 labor/day) and value of variance before smoothing is equal (56 %) and after smoothing is equal (40 %).

The Futuristic Positive Outcomes of Sustainable Environmental Development

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 50-54

This research studied in detail how the notion of sustainable environmental development evolved and developed, which is one of the bases of sustainable development including social and economic development.
The research also took into consideration scrutinizing the future outcomes of sustainable environmental development and discussed opinions and ideas launched to back the methods of achieving sustainable environmental development.
The research indicated that sustainable environmental development was not just a term publicized theoretically and empty from principles and understanding which has a strong relation to environmental protection and other aspects of sustainability on top of them saving our resources which are limited and irresponsible behavior in consumption would lead eventually to disastrous consequences.
There are those who are concerned about whether sustainable environmental development is achievable, and this research indicated and explained that all evidences pointing out that sustainable development would not be fulfilled without achieving sustainable environmental development very much related to environmental protection and saving environmental resources.
Most of the questions on the possibility of achieving sustainable environmental development were discussed and all responses were with no doubt that it is possible to achieve sustainable environmental development if all conditions were met.

Dynamics of meromorphic family λ with non-critically finite

Hassan Fadhil Al-Husseiny; Buthainah A. Ahmed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 464-475

In this paper, a one-parameter family Ƭ = { = λf(z), λ > 0} with f(z) = , m is Natural number is considered, it is obtain that family has non-critically finite. The dynamics of the meromorphic transcendental functions fλ  Ƭ is studied in detailed. It was found that the bifurcations in the dynamics of the functions fλ(x) occur at parameter values λ1 and λ2 where λi = Φ (xi), (i = 1, 2), and Φ(x) = with x1 is the solution of the equation coth x = while x2 is the unique positive roots of the equation Φ′ (x) = 0.

Study the effect of some different colour lights on some of the Biological aspects of Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricus)(Coleoptera:Bruchidae)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 150-152

This study aimed to investigated the effect of some colors on the biological aspects of Callosobruchus maculates by treated with green, yellow, red and blue lights, in addition to control (dark).
The result revealed that the blue color was the most effective on egg hatching, larval stage, pupal stage and adult emergence,it gave value 97% for egg hatching compaired with control which it gave 100%, and (16.96,18.17)day for larval and pupal stages respectively,compared to the control that was 10,9 day for larval and pupal stages respectively .
The result revealed that the blue color was the most effective on the number of adults emereging and sex ratio was 40%compared to control 80%.


journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 90-97

Median finding is an essential problem in statistics, it is provides a more robust notion of average than the mean. The measure location median was suggested to find the middle among collection multinomial ordered values. Bayesian procedure to select the median population is presented .prior distribution and linear loss function to find the Bayes risk are used. When the number of observation is odd.

Effect of use different Levels of Zingiber officinale on Proteins and Blood Sugar in Awassi Ewe’s Blood

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 177-182

This study was conduced in Animal Farm , College of Veterinary Medicine , Baghdad University with 8 weeks ( 8/3/2010-22/4/2010 ) to study effect of use different Levels of Zingiber officinale on total proteins , Albumin , Globulin and Glucose in Awassi Ewe’s blood.Nine Awassi Ewes aged one years and half were divided into 3 equal treatments as followed : Treatment A were given 10 gm Zingiber officinale / animal daily with diet While treatment B were given 20 gm Zingiber officinale / animal daily with diet and treatment C considered as control without given Zingiber officinale with diet , The results showed that total proteins and Albumin level were significantly increase (P<0.05) in blood in treatment B during weeks of study compare with the treatments A and C , Zingiber officinale in treatment B play an important role to increase Globulin significantly (P<0.05) compare with treatments A and C ,We found that Glucose level was decreased significantly (P<0.05)in blood in treatment B during weeks of study compare with the treatments A and C .In general we conclude , that given 20 gm of Zingiber officinale / animal daily in diet will increase Total proteins , albumin and Globulin and decrease glucose level in ewe’s blood and play a good role in enhancements of animal hygiene and become healthy from diseases

Some volumetric properties of aqueous solution of Polyvinyl alcohol over temperature range 298.15-328.15K.

Eman Talib Kareem

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 305-312

The densities of aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol with molecular weight (14kg.mol-1) have been determined over temperature range298.15-328.15K.From these data, the volumes for the binary mixtures studied here were calculated .The volumes have been found linearly dependent on the solute molality (PVA), from this dependence , the partial molar volumes at infinite dilution ( ) were determined and it was found that the ( ) concentration independent and slightly increase with increasing temperature .The thermal expansion coefficient ( )of aqueous solution of (PVA) at 298.15K was calculated and it was found that the values of ( )were higher than the value ( ) of pure water .

Using Buffer Saline in High Dilution to Measure the Concentration of Conjugated and Total Bilirubin in Newborn

Alaa M.Alrubae; Rashid J. Abdulah

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 155-163

In this work conjugated and total bilirubin in infants were measured using microliter of blood. Such measurments are quite valuable in jaundice of newborn when very small volumes of serum can be used ( about 10µl ). This method relys on using buffer saline to dilute small amount of infant's blood in order to measure the concentration of conjugated and total bilirubin. Such method has the advantage of preventing exposing the newborns the risks of blood aspiration.

Design and Implementation of Java Media Player

Muhanad Hayder

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 371-383

As the technology evolving the need for media communication and interchangeability increased, Result in introduce a vast variety of media files with different type and format incurring different software for processing these files.
As the name suggests this paper presents the design and implementation of Media Player which is software used to play different media files (audio and video). It's accept media file format like (mp3, wav, mpg, mpeg, mov,…etc). This Media Player can works on any operating system (Windows, Linux, Mac,…..,etc) because it is written in J2SE (Java 2 Standard Edition) language which is a platform independent language, along with JMF (Java Media Framework) class library for supporting a wide rang of media files.
The aim to design media player as possible as like Windows Media Player but it have owns characteristics likes changing the speed of the player with different speed, can also change the size of the video screen in different scale (big, small, full screen), can also playing online stream media file from Internet, and other features. The prerequisite of the System JMF install for respective operating System (JMF available for most operating system).

Measuring the position of Entrepreneurial Marketing in small business organizationsA prospective study in a sample of mineral water plantsin the Kurdistan Region - Iraq

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 76-101

Entrepreneurial Marketing in business organizations is a philosophy of organizational-oriented organization, and in this light, the organization was directing its efforts and its marketing to focus on the customer and the logistics involved. However, these organizations do not there is usually a specific section of the marketing or person responsible for the marketing function, and the reason for this is that near the organizations leading sites and market centers (due to the small size of these organizations) makes it able to touch the customer needs and desires and demands without the need to invest in conducting market research a costly period of time, as well as without the need to create a special section on marketing despite the need for its existence.
In order to reach the such of objectives is revealing the extent of application of plant mineral water researched the Entrepreneurial Marketing of the seven, namely, (a focus on the customer - create or configure value - raise the value of Resources - Risk Management - Innovation - Driving the opportunities and guidance - Support effective) show that those plants generally did not support such operations in accordance with the views of the sample researched by only a year (% 39.47) and return for an agreement negatively on the rate (33.15%) and the rate of neutral-General (27.35%) and enhanced these results the value of the mean and of (2.04) and the response rate was ( 68.46%). The best dimensions of Entrepreneurial Marketing and contributed effectively to enrich the overall rate is still the leadership opportunities, direct and effective support or after the effective activities.
The research was presented a number of conclusions and recommendations serve the factories researched when adopting Entrepreneurial Marketing in business and marketing plans.

Prediction Downpull Force on Tunnel Gate with Different Gate Lip Geometry

Shaymaa A. M. Alhashimi; Mustafa T. Al-Kifae; Rassul M. Almaini

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 273-288

Vertical lift tunnel gates are subjected to hydrostatic and hydrodynamic forces produced as a result of operating condition over a wide range of partial openings, discharge and heads. Among these forces is the unbalanced vertical hydrodynamic force resulting from the difference between the downward force on the top of gate within the gate shaft and the upward force on the gate bottom, the net resultant of these two forces is termed as a downpull force. The estimation of downpull force requires the determination of the top and bottom pressure coefficient (KT and KB) which affected by the geometry of gate bottom and the rate of flow passing over the top surface of gate. A two-dimensional CFD model is applied to predict a downpull coefficient (KT and KB) which is named as FLUENT program. The finite volume method is employed on a Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The turbulence effects are simulated using the standard (k-ε) model. The simulation model is used for relevant experimental data obtained from hydraulic model tests conducted in laboratory for nine gate lip shape with nine gate openings for each gate lip geometry. The procedure is applied to estimate the pressure coefficients (KT and KB) for different gate bottom geometry. The results illustrate that the inclined gate lip shape with angle of (θ = 35o) given a minimum positive values of downpull force. Also, the downpull coefficient depends mainly on the magnitudes and the distribution of (KB) for a given value of (b2/b1). A general statistical model is built to predict the bottom pressure coefficient for any gate lip geometry.



journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 313-323

Many researches that deal with the torsional vibrations phenomenon in crankshafts are considered constant inertias connected to sections of mass less shafting taking into account variation effects of torques only on crank units during running. In reality, crank mechanism with slider piston vibrates with varying inertias and this will lead to additional torsional vibrations depending on the number of cylinders in internal combustion engines.
In this research, inertias of crank mechanisms with different number of cylinders are studied. By solving the ordinary differential equation of torsional vibrations caused by inertia continuous deviation using mathematica and matlab computer programs, graphs of crankshafts torsional oscillation was sketched to compare among torsional vibrations of different internal combustion engines with different number of cylinders.

Statistical and Epidemiological Study of Infection with Cutaneous Leishmaniasis that Caused byLeishmania tropica Parasite in Karbala City

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 208-215

This Epidemiological study was conduct to detect the numbers of patients and morbidity rates of parasitic cutaneous infections in the general Hussain hospital in Karbala city during the period between 132009 and 2822010. 2389 patients was examined to diagnosis Leishmania tropica via direct microscopical examination and confirm by used immunoflorescent test in additional to case history and clinical signs that appear on the patients.
The results were compared according to patient sex , age , and address as well as the weather.
Results showed that there were no significant differences between males and females so had been recorded infection of 57 cases by Leishmania tropica with rate 1.73% from which 31 males and 26 females with rates 54.39% , 45.61% respectively .

The age group (21-30 years) in males there was 11 infection cases with the highest rate 73.33% , and the morbidity rate was decreased in the age group(41-70 years ) that in which there was one infection with rate 33.33% , but in females the morbidity rate with younger age group (one day – 10 years)was increased which was11 cases in compared with that ages ranged between (41-60 years) which was 2infected females with rates 68.75% and 66.67% respectively ,while there was no any infection in the group age of (61-70 years).
The infection was increased in the high density regions that have poor medical services and presents of intermediate host of the parasite as in AL- Hur region was 7 cases with rate 12.281% but infection rates was decreased in other regions that have good live conditions .
Finally the cold months of years was record higher infections in which there were 7 infection cases in males with rate 50% and in female we found the same results that which recorded in males during December in compared with that hot seasons of years.

Determination of Co2+ and Ni2+ by using2-[(6-Methoxy-2-Benzothiazolyl) azo ]-4-methoxyphenol

Ahmed Ali Abdulsahib Alkarimi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 353-370

A 2-[(6-Methoxy-2-Benzothiazolyl)azo]-4-methoxyphenol (MBTAMP) ligand was used to determine Co2+ and Ni2+, the chelating complexes of these ions with (MBTAMP) ligand were also prepared using mole ratio and continues variation methods, metal to reagent were (1:2) for two complexes. The complexes were identify by using UV-Vis spectrophotometry and (FTIR) spectra.
The wavelengths of maximum absorption of two complexes are (512 nm) and (605 nm) for Co-MBTAMP and Ni-MBTAMP respectively.
The optimum condition of pH and temperature were studied, the molar absorbitivty (ε) was 3.84x 104, 3.9 x 104 for Co2+ and Ni2+, detection limit was (0.0002), (0.0010) ppm,
The interferences of ions, and suitable masking agents for two complexes was studied.

Evaluation Of Post Insertion Problems Of Complete Denture According To The Recent Classification .

Areeg Shihab Ahmad

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 105-114

The objective of this study aimed to diagnose and compare the problems of complete denture after insertion into the patient's mouth .
This study was carried out on 40 Iraqi patients with an age range between ( 55 – 65 ) years .
Each patient asked about the problems arises after insertion of complete dentures . The questions were asked to the patients is listed according to the recent classification of post insertion problems .
Results showed that the percentage of patient's complaint from adaptation problems on wearing complete denture was higher than looseness problems and discomfort problems as followed . The percentage showed that 62.1% complain from adaptation problems , 61.3% complain from looseness problems and 39.3 % complain from discomfort problems .
So treating the patient requiring complete dentures is one of the most challenging and demanding aspects of dentistry and assessing the psyche of patients is extremely complex .

The effect of oral folic acid supplementation on the course of acute infantile diarrhea

Eman jabbar K. Alghizzi; Rajaa Jabbar Kadhum

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 177-182

To evaluate the effect of folic acid on the course & management of acute infantile diarrhea to decrease the burden on the families & health services,150 infants aged 2-24months with history of acute diarrhea of 1-10 days duration were randomly selected from Al-zahraa teaching hospital in Najaf city .75 patients were received folic acid in a dose of 5mg at 8 hrs intervals in addition to the hospital treatment of acute diarrhea & the other 75 patients did not receive folic acid & left as a control group. The admission characteristics were comparable in both groups. Both groups were followed up during hospitalization for signs of improvement or complications & the period of hospitalization .the mean period of hospitalization ± 1SD was 3.09 vs.3.04 days for the folic acid vs. the control group respectively. The findings, therefore, should suggest the prevention of unjustified use of folic acid to shorten the hospitalization period of hospitalized infants with acute diarrhea.

Effect of different levels of urea and superphosphate fertilizers on some morphological and physiological characters of fenugreek plant (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 171-176

An experiment was conducted using pots (capacity of 4 kg soil/pot) in the glasshouse of Biology Dept. College of Education (Ibn Al-Haitham) University of Baghdad during 2008-2009 growing season, in order to determine the effect of different levels of urea fertilizer (Zero,0.1,0.2,0.4 gm/4 kg soil in pot) these equal to (Zero,100,200,400 kg/ha) and different levels of superphosphate fertilizer (Zero,0.1,0.2 gm/4kg soil in pot), these equal to (Zero,100,200 kg/ ha) on some morphological and physiological characteristics of fenugreek plant . This experiment was conducted using Completely Randomized Design (C.R.D) with three replications and the experiment included (36) pots. Results indicated clear increase in all studied characteristics with increasing urea and superphosphate levels added to pots. The levels (400 kg urea/ha and 200 kg superphosphate/ha) were best giving high values of these characteristics (dry matter weight, absolute growth rate, biomass duration and total chlorophyll content) compared with other levels of treatment.

Ectoparasites of seven fish species from Al-Husainia Creek, Karbala province, Mid Iraq*

Abid Ali J. Al-Saadi; Furhan T. Mhaisen; Hadi R. Hasan

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 1-7

Seven fish species (Aspius vorax, Barbus grypus, B. luteus, B. sharpeyi, B. xanthopterus, Cyprinus carpio and Liza abu) were collected from Al-Husainia creek, Karbala province, mid Iraq during the period from May 2005 till April 2006. Upon their inspection, these fishes were found to be infected with 26 ectoparasite species which included two ciliated protozoans, 16 monogeneans, metacercariae of one digenetic trematode and seven crustaceans. The case of single infection was noticed in 12 parasite species, followed with the double infection (in six parasite species) and the triple infection (in five parasite species). B. luteus harbored the highest number of parasite species (16 species), followed with both A. vorax and L. abu (8 species each), both B. xanthopterus and C. carpio (6 species each), B. sharpeyi (5 species) and B. grypus (4 species). The study revealed the occurrence of five monogeneans for the first time in Iraq as well as the record of 10 new fish hosts in Iraq for eight ectoparasite species.

Ectoparasites of seven fish species from Al-Husainia Creek, Karbala province, Mid Iraq*

Abid Ali J. Al-Saadi; Furhan T. Mhaisen; Hadi R. Hasan

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 1-7

Seven fish species (Aspius vorax, Barbus grypus, B. luteus, B. sharpeyi, B. xanthopterus, Cyprinus carpio and Liza abu) were collected from Al-Husainia creek, Karbala province, mid Iraq during the period from May 2005 till April 2006. Upon their inspection, these fishes were found to be infected with 26 ectoparasite species which included two ciliated protozoans, 16 monogeneans, metacercariae of one digenetic trematode and seven crustaceans. The case of single infection was noticed in 12 parasite species, followed with the double infection (in six parasite species) and the triple infection (in five parasite species). B. luteus harbored the highest number of parasite species (16 species), followed with both A. vorax and L. abu (8 species each), both B. xanthopterus and C. carpio (6 species each), B. sharpeyi (5 species) and B. grypus (4 species). The study revealed the occurrence of five monogeneans for the first time in Iraq as well as the record of 10 new fish hosts in Iraq for eight ectoparasite species.


journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 37-43

This study aimed at assessing the effect of two times curing by Ivomat on the porosity of cold cured acrylic resin denture base at the center and the periphery of the specimens for (15) and (20) minutes, and comparing that with cold cured acrylic resin polymerized chemically on air (Control group). 30 samples specimens of (65 x 62 x 64 x 61 mm), with (3 mm) thickness according to (ADA specification No.12) . There were 3 experimental groups, (n = 10 per group): G1) cold cure acrylic resin (chemical curing- 45 minutes) as a control group; G2) cold cure acrylic resin (Ivomat curing technique- 15 minutes); G3) cold cure acrylic resin (Ivomat curing technique- 20 minutes). The porosity test was assessed after specimens were completely cured, finished and polished, and then immersed in black ink and the pores counted in a microscope. Generally the results revealed that the cold cure acrylic specimens which processed in Ivomate for (15) and (20) minutes introduced less porosity level in the periphery than that of the center, and the cold cure acrylic specimens which processed in Ivomate for (15 minutes) have porosity level more than cold cure acrylic which polymerized for (20 minutes) in spite of the same processing technique, while the cold cure acrylic specimens which processed in Ivomate showed less level of porosity than that cold cure acrylic polymerized chemically on air and under hydraulic press.

Synthesis of New Type of Sugar Ligands Starting from D-Glucose And Screening Their Biological Activity

Adnan I. Mohamad Al-saadi; Ahmed Jasim M. Al-karawi; Dhafir T.Ajeel Al-heetimi; Faleah Hassan Ali

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 53-60

This work includes two parts; the first one is the synthesis of two ligands starting from D-glucose, reaction of glucose with acetone in the presence of iodine afforded 1,2:5,6-di-O-isopropylidene-α-D-glucofuranose(1), when (1) reacted with benzoyl chloride in pyridine gave 1,2:5,6-di-O-isopropylidene-3-O-(benzoyl)-α-D-glucofuranose (2), selective deprotection of (2) in 80% acetic acid yielded 1,2-O-isopropylidene-3-O-(benzoyl)--α-D-glucofuranose (3), the cleavage oxidation of (3) using sodium periodate gave the aldehyde (4), the reaction of (4) with 4-methylthiosemicarbazide and o-aminophenol afforded the sugar ligands (5) and (6) respectively.
The second part of this work contained the biological screening of the prepared sugar ligands against Gram + ve bacteria Staphylococcus Aureus (ATCC 25923), Gram – ve bacteria Escherischia Coli (ATCC 225922), Pseudomonas Aaruginosa (ATCC 27853), and against fungi Candida Albicans (ATCC 10231), this part of our study showed that only compound (5) exhibited activities against + ve bacteria Staphylococcus Aureus and Gram – ve bacteria Escherischia Coli at concentration of 5 ppm.


Amjad M. Abood

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 61-74

Infinitely variable transmission system, is the system which allows for continuous (un discreet) variation of transmission ratio including zero transmission ratio. In this paper, the geometric design and kinematics analysis for a novel cam based infinitely variable transmission system are presented. The proposed system has a number of identical units, each unit contains three dimensional cam (camoid), cam follower, grooved wheel, and one way clutch(ratchet). Through each unit the rotational motion is converted to an oscillatory linear motion of variable amplitude and then rectified to rotational motion again. The mathematical expressions for the kinematics analysis are formulated and simulation is established according to this formulation. It was concluded that at fixed transmission ratio, the system produces uniform output for uniform input. On the other hand, during transmission ratio variation there is a little fluctuation in the values of the output angular velocity and acceleration. This fluctuation is decreased when the number of units is increased. Also it was concluded that the maximum transmission ratio of the system depends on the geometric design factors.

A biochemical study of the effect of Neonatal Jaundice on bilirubin concentration level in newborns

Rehab Jasem; Mohammed Nofill; Saba Abd Almunam

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 83-89

The present study was conducted to verify the effect of neonatal jaundice in infants newborns on serum bilirubin concentration level, to achieve this aim, 60 infants patients complained of neonatal jaundice were subjected to the study. The results showed significant (p< 0.005) increase of total and unconjugated bilirubin concentrations in infants patients when compared with those of the healthy infants (after treatment). The evaluation of the sex differences did not exhibit effect significant variation in serum bilirubin concentration of infants patients. The age and treatment, were found to have effect on serum bilirubin concentration level in infants patients of neonatal jaundice.

The synthesis of alkyl Uracil by using Microwave irradiation and evaluated biological activity

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 98-104

The aim of the present study was firstly to synthesize alkyle Uracil 1,3-di(prop-2-ynyl)pyriimide-2,4(1H,3H)-dione Using micro wave irradiation and to evaluate it's biological activity on serum alkaline phosphatase in breast cancer patients.
The preparation of the compound took only (20min) in DMF as solvent the identification was carried by FT-IR. The compound showed effect on serum alkaline phosphatase.
The type of inhibition was found to be non comparative with Km=0.36×10-2 M and Vmax is 10.0 U/L for the uninhibited enzyme and 6.3 U/L for the inhibited enzyme.

Propagation parameters of semiconductor laser

Haider Y. Hammod; Adnan H. Ali; Rawa K.Ibrahim

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 126-137

A typical shape of the spot laser diameter have been surveyed and measured it`s dimensions and compare the results with the theoretical calculation. As well the intensity distributed along this spot was measure by using (Si) detector . Relative power also have been calculated versus the beam radius for different values of distance from the aperture of diode laser source to the target . it is clear from the empirical results that the increasing of laser power at small values of distance faster than that at large distances , and the spot diameter for different values of distance have smallest value near the source ( distance 20mm ) but it expanded progressively for far distances from the source.

Design And Evaluation Of MANETs Connected To Internet

Ahmed Abdulhadi Ahmed; Haider Galil Al-Qurabi; Ali Abdulhussien Hassan

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 164-176

The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) was designed to provide reliable end-to-end delivery of data over unreliable networks. In practice, most TCP deployments have been carefully designed in the context of wired networks. Ignoring the properties of wireless ad-hoc networks can lead to TCP implementations with poor performance. A mobile ad-hoc network is a collection of nodes that is connected through a wireless medium forming rapidly changing topologies.
In this paper, two MANET (Mobile Ad-hoc NETwork) networks are connected across an IP-Based internet network. The MANET is connected to the IP network through a MANET gateway that is running a MANET routing protocol and an IP routing protocol (or static routing) on one of its interfaces. A MANET gateway is any wireless LAN router that has its MANET Gateway attribute enabled. The MANET routing protocol that used is AODV(Ad-hoc On Demand Distance vector) and the TCP variants that used is Taho, Reno and NewReno and the number of mobile nodes will be 3, 5, and 7 for each scenario that used in the simulation.
After running the simulation, the results showed that the max throughput was in the scenario that has 5 nodes. This means that when increase the number of nodes above 5, the throughput will decrease.
The simulation environment is designed and modeled and the result is collected under the powerful network simulation tool that called OPNET Modeler 14.

Preparation and Evaluation of Anti-viral Topical Gel Formulations Containing Salicylic Acid for the Treatment of Common Warts

Nadia A. Al-Assady; Sahera G.Sayyah; Ayad I. Haddad

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 183-190

In this study, we developed a new product for assessing antiviral activity for treatment the human wart, this product include gel containing a salicylic acid with oxidant agent. Thirty patients were treated. The treatment involved application of the gel each day by the patients. Every 1-2 weeks under the supervision of Dermatologist, the percentage of patients cleared of warts is 100%.

Exploration About Fecal-Coliform bacteria of Al-Hawizeh Marsh Shorelines / Basrah / Iraq

Mohammed J. S. Al-Haidarey; Dafer A. Al-Kufi; Meison A. Al-Selamy

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 210-218

Triplicate samples were collected in 250 ml sterile glass bottles from 13 wet stations in shoreline of Al-Hawizeh Marsh, during June, ِAug, Dec (2008), and March (2009) for investigated the total count of bacteria (TC), most probability number of Coliform bacteria (MPN), and some water parameters includes: electrical conductivity (EC), salinity (Sal), dissolved oxygen (DO), and pH were determined.
The results shown that the TC of bacteria were significant elevation in station 13 (5.167 × 103 CFU/ ml during Dec to 13.9× 103 CFU/ ml during March), when compared with station 10 (0.031 × 103 CFU/ ml during Dec. to 0.327 × 103 CFU/ ml during Jun). However, E coli elucidate significantly in stations 5, 7, and 13 when compared with stations 3, 9, and 10 (varied between 1.7 × 103 CFU/100 ml in station 13, to 0.008 × 103 CFU/100 ml in station 10).
The significant differences between all sites for all months was clarified by the analysis of variance (ANOVA). The correlation between TC and MPN of bacteria with dissolved oxygen and pH were negative significant , with salinity and electrical conductivity were positive significant in level 0.01.

Determination of Mercury concentration in the sediment and blood samples of fuel stations area using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry

Ibrahim M. Jassim

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 219-224

A cold mercury vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy (CVAAS) Technique has been used for the determination of mercury in both of blood and sediment samples. After the blood Samples were digested in a mixture of (3:2:1) [Nitric, Perchloric and sulfuric concentrated acids] respectively and a sediment samples were digested in a mixture of (1:1) [Nitric and Hydrochloric concentrated acids] , a 25% (W/V) of Tin Chloride has been added as a reduction agent also a 1% (W/V) of Potassium dichromate have been added in order to improve sensitivity of measurements.
The results show that average of mercury contents in the fuel stations worker blood samples are in range [22-36] ng/ml; whereas its contents in the fuel station area sediment samples are in range [30-48] ng/g.

Numerical Simulation of Temperature Distribution during Short Pulse Laser Processing of Aluminum Thin Films


journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 225-234

Fourier equation does not accurately predict the transient temperature during microscale laser heating of thin films. Therefore, non-Fourier behaviors may be significant for such microscale applications as pulsed-laser processing of metal and semiconductors, thin-film applications, and even laser surgery. A numerical model is developed to represent the temperature distribution during ultra short pulsed laser processing of aluminum thin films. The model developed is based on the solution of non-Fourier heat conduction problem with different thermal fluxes using explicit finite differences method. A computer program Quick-Basic language was built to perform the solution. The results of Non-Fourier heat conduction equation were compared with the results of Fourier heat conduction equation and showed that when the time increased Non-Fourier equation will be Fourier equation. The results showed that when increased the heat flux greater than the problem convert from one-dimensional non-Fourier heat conduction to one-dimensional non-Fourier phase change.

Synthesis and Characterization of a Quadridentate Ligand Type N4 and Their Complexes with Some Metal Ions

Taghreed M. D. Musa; Salam A. H. AL- Ameri; Reyadh M. Ahmed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 242-254

A quadridentate ligand type N4 has been prepared by reaction of one equivalent of di-ethyl phthalate with two equivalent ethylene diamine under N2 atmosphere , which gives one equivalent of [N, N`-Bis-(2-amino- ethyl) Phthalamide] (I), then reaction of the condensation of product (I) with [ 2,5- hexane- dione] under N2 atmosphere gave quadridentate ligand [H2L] type N4,(10,13-Dimethyl-6,7,8,11,12,15,16,17-octahydro-6,9,14 ,17-tetraaza-benzocyclohexadecene-5,18-dione ) . Complexes of the ligand [H2L] with Cr+3 , Co+2 ,Ni+2, Pd+2, Cu+2, Zn+2, Cd+2 and Hg+2 ions in general formula [MLXn]m were prepared Where M=Cr+3, X =Cl, n=2, m=+1, and M= Co+2 , Ni+2, Pd+2, , Zn+2, Cd+2 and Hg+2 ions, X=0, n=0, m=+2, and M= Cu+2 , X=Cl , n=2, m=0. The Ligand and it's complexes have been characterized by microanalyses of elements, CHN along with conductivity measurement and magnetic moment, spectroscopic methods, (UV-Vis) IR and flame atomic absorption spectroscopy . The results showed that the suggested and proposed molecular structure for Cr+3 and Cu+2 complexes was octahedral, and for pd+2 and Ni+2 complexes was square planner, while for Co+2, Zn+2 ,Cd+2 and Hg+2 complexes are tetrahedral.

Modified Thermal Insulator

Ali Aziz Abbas

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 255-264

In this search new modified phenolic resin was prepared by introducing boron and nitrogen atoms through chemical reactions. This modified resin was characterized by infra- red spectroscopy technique. The results showed that boron and nitrogen atoms presence in the resin. Moreover this resin used as matrix for carbon filler in order to prepare composite material .Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and the pyrolysis parameter like ablative time, erosion rate, were determined .The results showed that modified resin higher thermal stability than unmodified resin, moreover addition of carbon filler to modified resin increase the thermal stability.

Evaluation of Traffic Flow Along Arterial Street in Ramadi City

Hameed Aswad Mohammed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 324-341

The increase in traffic volumes along urban arterial is one of the important problems that makes difficulties in the operation management and movement then leads to traffic congestion in these facilities.
The present paper was dealing with the objectives of evaluation of the level of service along the 17th July arterial in Ramadi city, and use many improvement strategies to overcome the traffic operation problems. To achieve these objectives, the study was comprised of two stages. First stage was related to data collection by field survey where, the arterial street has two unsignalized intersections and traffic volume data were collected manually during 15-minute interval for each intersection of the arterial for both directions WestBound (WB) & EastBound (EB).Second stage included the analysis and evaluation of the arterial street with two cases. In the first case, the arterial was analyzed as street with unsignalized intersections (existing conditions). The arterial street was evaluated by computing its level of service based on the travel time and travel speed data which were measured by license plate method, while in the second case, the arterial was analyzed as street with signalized intersections therefore, Highway Capacity Software 2000 ( HCS 2000 ) program was used to evaluate the level of service for the arterial street. To improve its performance, three scenarios were proposed and applied theoretically. Accordingly, the level of service was improved from E to C for both directions (WB & EB).

Cryptanalysis of Stream Cipher System Using Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

Sharifi; Hussein Ali Mohammed Al

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 384-394

The meaning of the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) refers to a relatively new family of algorithms that may be used to find optimal (or near optimal) solutions to numerical and qualitative problems.
Stream ciphers are an important class of encryption algorithms. Shift register sequences are used in both cryptography and coding theory. There is a wealth of theory about them; stream ciphers based on shift registers have been the workhorse of military cryptography since the beginnings of electronics.
This paper aims to implement cryptanalysis attack algorithms on stream cipher systems using plaintext attack (or part from it), choosing one Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR), since its considered as a basic unit of stream cipher systems, in the performance of PSO by solving Linear Equations System (LES) for any number of variables of the output of LFSR.
The application divided into two stages, first, constructing LES’s for the LFSR, and the second, is attacking the variables of LES’s which they are also the initial key values the of LFSR.

Detection of Fimbrial Adhesins of Escherichia coli Isolated from Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women with Symptomatic Genital Tract Infection as a Risk Factor for Urinary Tract, and Neonatal Infections: a Comparison Study.

Sareaa Maseer Gatya Al-Mayahie

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 429-438

Fifty two (17.3%) Escherichia coli isolates were obtained as a causative agent of symptomatic genital tract infection, from 299 (pregnant 156 and non-pregnant 143) patients aged 18-45 years. There is no significant difference between the two patient groups regarding the prevalence of E. coli which was isolated from 14.1% of pregnant and 20.9% of non-pregnant. As a whole 26.9% of this study isolates showed MRHA of human RBCs and 88.4% caused MS agglutination of Baker's yeast. The difference is not significant between pregnant and non-pregnant women’s isolates regarding the expression of Type 1 fimbriae (86.3% and 90% of pregnant and non-pregnant women’s isolates, respectively); P fimbriae (27.2% and 26.6% of pregnant and non-pregnant women’s isolates, respectively) and Dr fimbriae (0% in both patient groups). While the difference is clear for the expression of S fimbriae. S fimbriae were expressed only by non-pregnant women’s isolates (6.6%) whereas none of the pregnant women’s isolates expressed this type of fimbriae. All the S fimbriated isolates were P- (2/2: 100%) and Type 1-fimbriated (2/2: 100%). In pregnant, all of the P-fimbriated isolates were also Type 1-fimbriated (6/6: 100%) while in non-pregnant, seven P-fimbriated isolates were also Type 1-fimbriated (7/8: 87.5%). From the present results it can be concluded that as vaginal E. coli may be one of the possible causes leading to UTI and neonatal infections, both pregnant and non-pregnant patients with genital tract infection caused by E. coli, have the same chance to contact UTI and there is a low frequency of neonatal infections caused by these patients' vaginal E. coli.

Some Studies in Nature of Excited states of Isotones Nuclei (180Hf ,182W ,184Os ,186Pt and 188Hg)

Muhsen Cadem motleb

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 439-450

The protons effect on the nuclear structure of isotones nuclei (180Hf ,182W ,184Os ,186Pt and 188Hg) have been studied using the interacting boson model-1.
The present results have been appeared that the nuclei stay constant on the transition region from SU(3) to O(6) with increase the proton number from (72) in 180Hf nucleus to (80) in 188Hg nucleus which refer no effect of increasing protons in isotones nuclei .
The calculated energy spectra and the properties of electric transition ratios are in reasonable agreement with experimental data.
The potential energy surface for isotones nuclei have been studied using the IBMP–code where the isometric potential lines are plotted to explain the deformations forms of these nuclei

In vetro effect of Gibberellin and cultivar on induction and sprouting microtuberization potatoes cv. Diamant, Desiree, and Marfona

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 34-44

This stady was conduted during the period 2009 / 2008 in the tissue culture lab. Biotechnology Department- Technical College / Musaib. Sprouts of Diamant, Desiree and Marfona potato tubers ( 0.3 – 0.5 mm) were transferred on the propagation medium. Explants were sterilized with sodium hypochlorite at 5% for 15 min., cultures were incubated at 25º C ± 2 and 16 hours photoperiod at light intensity 1000 lux for 35 days. The (1 – 2 cm.) basal parts of the producing cuttings were grown on microtuberization MS media containing 8% sucrose plus 2.0 g / l charcoal. The first study contained treating the microtubers with Capitan at 2g / 1kg tubers to study the effect of cultivar and size on the percentage of the damaged tubers, sprouted tubres, number of developed buds/ tuber and vegetative buds / tuber, before and after the storage. The second trial was about the effect of cultivar and Gibberellin ( 0.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0 mg / l ) in the characters studied. The interaction between cultivar and size had a significant influence. Hightest results were obtained from Desiree with the larger size S1 regards bud number / tuber, number of grown buds, ( 6.97, 5.31 ) respectively, wheras, Diamant with S1 resulted in less damaged tubers and higher sprouting ( 4.05%, 99.29% ) respectively. Interaction of Desiree with GA3 at 5.0 mg / l had significant effect on number of developed buds ( 5.31), while Diamant with 5 mg / l Gibberellin gave higher sprouting ( 89.14% ) on the other hand there was a decrease in dry metter for all cultivars.

The physiological side effect of two Insecticide Malathion and Pyrethroid (cypermethrin) on the growth and Trace Metals content in Helianthus annus L.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 91-102

The aim of this research was to study the side effect of two common Insecticide Malathion(0.75,1.25,2.5 ml/l ) and Pyrethroid (0.1,0.25,1.0 ml/l) in Helianthus annus plants from physiological aspect which is indicated by growth (plant height, stem diameter, Leaf area, chlorophyll content, vegetative fresh and dry weight, root fresh and dry weight) and Trace metals content of leaves )Ni,Mn,Fe,Zn,Cu.(
The results showed that the treatments with Malathion and Pyrethroid led to asignificant decrease of growth properties especially in the high concentration of insecticide , Malathion was more effective compare with pyrethroid which was less, the concentration of trace metals (Mn,Fe,Zn,Cu) decreased with high concentration of Pyrethroid except ) Ni) which was increased. The treatments with Malathion led to the increasing of (Ni,Fe,Zn,Cu) concentration and decreasing of (Mn) concentration.

Histopathological effects of Citrobacter freundii in mice

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 103-119

The research carry out the investigation of histopathological effects of Citrobacter freundii in mice ,the isolate used was obtained from neonate suffering from acute watery diarrhea whom general stool examination showed no parasites,no fungi but culture showed heavy growth of Citrobacter freundii .
The isolate was identified according to morphological and biochemical properties and the identification was confermed by using Api 20 E system.
In order to know the sublethal dose for mice intraperitoneally injection, the LD50 experiment was done for Citrobacter freundii which was about 3.16×106 cell/mouse.
Mice were injected with 106 cell/mouse and grossly and histopathological changes of selected organs were studied.
The microscopic examination of stained tissue sections of organs obtained from mice injected with sublethal doses of Citrobacter freundii revealed that this bacteria have severe effects in the tissues obtained from (liver, lung, intestine and kidney). In liver there was odema, hemorrhage, immune cells migration and necrosiswhich is seen also in kidney. The main histopathological changes that seen in spleen was the agrigation of megakaryocytes but in lung there was acute bronchiolitis, cells within the lung tissue and increase of macrophages numbers.
It was clear from these results that Citrobacter freundii caused systemic infection which indicated by the reisolation of this organism from mice organs in different ratios.

Effect of planting system and manure application fertilizer on growth and yield of strawberry ( Fregaria x ananassa Duch)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 128-137

This study was conducted in the field of Horticultural Research Station at Agricultural College / Tikrit University during spring season of 2009 . The aim was to study the effect of application methods of organic matter on the growth and yield of strawberry plant using two planting systems plastic tunnel and without covering which were conducted in two soil types : loam and gypesium soils. The present study also included four methods of organic matter applications. Control "without organic matter", mixed , ditch mixed with the soil and under the plant . The design of the experinment was Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications . Results indicated that the application method or organic matter under the plant produced siginficatly greater vegetative growth and yield characteristics compared to other application methods that gave layes number of leaves runners flowers per plant and larger leaf area . This application method also gave grater number of fruits per plantheares weight per fruit and grater yield . Covered planting method showed signicant increases in all studied vegetative and fruit characteris compared to uncovered method . The effect of the interaction between organic application method and planting system was significant while organic method application under the plant using covered planting method shwed higher growth values for the studied characterietes .

Study Corrosion Resistance & Wear Sliding in alloy(Al-Fe-V-Si ) and ( Al-Fe-V-Si- Zr ) In Different Medium

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 138-149

This study deals with the corrosion behavior and wear sliding of two alloys (Al-Fe-V-Si) and ( Al-Fe-V-Si-Zr ) .
The corrosion tests were done by (immersion specimens in different solutions , to inustrate the effect of temperature on the corrosion behavior , sliding wear test , microscopic examination) .The result of simple immersion test in different solutions (distill water , natural water, salt solution (3 % NaCl wt%), Acidic solution (3% HCl vol%) and (3% NaOH vol%) at room temperature showed different corrosion behavior for the used alloy under the same condition.The alloy (Al-Fe-V-Si-Zr) showed significant superiority in the corrosion resistance than alloy (Al-Fe-V-Si ) in the all corrosion tests , except the testes in salt solution ; which firstly showed that the alloy (Al-Fe-V-Si) superiority on the alloy (Al-Fe-V-Si-Zr) ; then the test showed superiority alloy (Al-Fe-V-Si-Zr) . The result appears that the alkaline medium is more effect on the alloys than the other types of medium .