ISSN: 1813-0410

Volume 6, Issue 1

Volume 6, Issue 1, Winter 2010, Page 1-292

Blue Ocean Philosophy and its Role in Achieving Competitive Superiority : A study of the Opinions of Some Workers in Zain Telecommunication Company

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 52-68

The study deals with a very important subject focusing on identifying the role of blue ocean philosophy in achieving the competitive superiority due to the scarcity of the studies in management , in general , and in marketing , in specific , that dealt with the reality and nature of this concept . The study aims at shedding the light on what the blue philosophy is , showing its role in achieving the competitive superiority by requesting the opinions of a sample of workers in Zain telecommunication company by way of a questionnaire containing 30 items . This questionnaire is used as a main tool for collecting date from the sample . The results are analyzed by using the main and standard deviation in addition to " F and T " tests and the factor R2 .
The study concludes that is a relation and effect between the blue ocean philosophy and competitive superiority on which recommendations are presented accordingly .

Effect of Atrazine and Primagram Herbicids and Plant Spacing on Growth and Yield of Corn and its Companion Weeds

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 36-45

A field experiment was conducted at the Experimental farm, state Board for Agricultural Research , Abu – Ghraib during spring and autumn seasons /2006. The objective was to study the effect of plant density on growth of weeds and to determinate the best herbicides affected on yield and yield components of corn. The layout of the experiment was a Split plot in (RCBD) arrangement with three replications. The main plots included the herbicide treatments: control (untreated), 1, 2 Kg/ha Atrazine and 1,2 L/ha Primagram. The Sub plots represent hill spacing (15 cm, 20 cm and 25 cm). The results showed that spraying 2 L/ha of Primagram herbicide significantly increased plant height, leaf area, number of ear, per plant , number of row per area, number of grain per row and grain yield 4.81 ton/ha, 8.54 ton/ha and significantly decreased the dry weight of weeds 52.63 gm, 41.62 gm compared with untreated during spring and autumn seasons respectively. Hill spacing 25 cm superior in dry weight of weeds, leaf area and number of ear perplant compared with others hill spacing (15 cm, 20cm) . There was no significant effect to other characteristics in spring and autumn season. Interaction between spring 2 L/ha of Primgram herbicide and hill spacing 15 cm superior in grain yield 4.83 ton /ha , 8.57 ton /ha and gave less dry weight of weed 27.81 gm , 41.11 gm interaction between untreated treatment and hill spacing 25 cm gave less grain yield was 1.54 ton/ha 2.63 ton/ha in spring and autumn seasons respectively.

Building A Computer Aided System to Analyze Failure Data of Detergents Production Line

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 127-137

Successes and continuity of most companies are based on competition in many aspects such as production efficiency and quality which help in industrial progress. To achieve this, care must be taken to protect machines and equipment from sudden breakdown which will cause many problems that require an accurate planning based on scientific techniques faraway from randomness. These techniques are mainly theories and statistical methods which in determining the type breakdown in machines and their parts. An example of these techniques is Pareto chart which shows the critical parts that cause breakdown. This chart was applied in this study to determine critical parts in the detergents production line.
Weibull distribution parameters are applied to for analyse failure data for each machine in order to determine the proper actions to prevent failures. This study shows that the critical parts in the detergents production line are: The conveyor belt, agitator 1, agitator 2 and impeller.

Study of growth characters, Yield, its components, and Genetic parameter for many genotypes of Rice(Oryza sativa L.)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 120-126

A field experiments were carried out at Almushkab Rice Researchs station during 2007 to study the genetic parameters, growth, yield and its components for many rice genotypes. The design was (RCBD) in three replicates .The statistical analysis Genotypes showed highly significal difference in all characters studied. Cenotype CNT 33 gave the highest paddy yield, weight 1000 grain, and number of days from sowing to maturity at 10.09 T/h, 24.0 gm, 139 days while Genotype (T85) gave the highest number of panicles/m2 at 383.67 p/m2. While Genotype H52 gave the highest number of grain / panicle, panicle length at 187.62 grains, 24.33 cm respectively. Genetypes BT7 gave the highest plant height at 100.33 cm while Genotype VD20 gave the highest in number of day from sowing at 50% Anthesis. Number of panicle /m2, number of grain / panicle, plant height gave highest phenotypical and genotypical variability at (3127.59, 710.32, and 75.44) (1211.68, 662.77 and 64.02) respectively. Heritability in broad sense around (30.00-99.07%) for panicle length, number of days from sowing to 50% Anthesis

Artificial Neural Networks Based Modeling of the ReverseOsmosis Process Performance

Asseel Majid Rasheed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 158-176

This investigation presents a methodology and practical guidelines for developing predictive models for reverse osmosis plants by a data-based approach using neural networks based on the back-propagation algorithm. This study utilizes actual operating data from reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plants. Our resulting neural network model is capable of accurately predicting the actual operating data from RO desalination plants, but the accuracy of a neural network model depends on both the proper selection of input variables and the broad range of data with which the network is trained. A neural network model can handle noisy data more effectively than statistical regression and performs better in predicting the performance variables of RO desalination plants. Permeate flux and salt passage are the key performance parameters. They are mainly influenced by variable parameters such as pressure, temperature, salt concentration, feed flow rate and pH of feed water. When the temperature of feed water is increased, the permeate flux and salt passage increase and permeate flux increases with decreasing pH and concentration of feed water and increasing pressure. The salt passage decreases with increasing pressure, when the concentration of feed and pH decrease too. When increasing the feed flow rate, the permeate flux and salt passage would be increased. A good agreement prediction is obtained using the ANN predictions and the experimental data with a deviation not more than 2% for most of the cases considered. The ANN interpolative levels (which were not represented in the training phase) is shown to be of lesser quality.

An investigation on the natural radioactivity of Th232 , Ra226 and K40 in some samples of raw building materials in Governorate of Karbala.

Hassan Issa Dawood

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 245-251

The study of the radiation hazards from raw building materials were performed in the present work. The measurements of the natural radioactivity of Th232 ,Ra226 and K40 were verified for some Karbala raw building materials(sand , cement , gypsum and thermiston powder) to assess any possible radiological hazard due to their use. The measurements were done by gamma-ray spectroscopy using Hyper-Pure Germanium (HPGe) detector. The results were found to vary from (18.88±4.34 to 54.33±7.37 , 13.085±3.617 to 82.80±9.09 and 14.185±3.766 to 140.523±11.854)Bq/Kg for Th232 ,Ra226 and K40 respectively. The concentrations of these radionuclides are compared with the available data from other countries. The measured activity concentration of Th232 , Ra226 and K40 in raw building materials is higher than the world average except the activity of K40 show lower than the available data previously. Radium equivalent activities(Req) are calculated for the analyzed samples to assess the radiation hazard arising due to the use of these raw building materials samples in the construction of dwellings. All the raw materials have radium equivalent activities lower than the limit (370)Bq/Kg. As well as calculated values of external radiation doses in air are also lower than the world average of about 0.5 mSv per year.

Some Biochemical Parameters And Histological Changes caused by sun set Yellow overload in Neuzland male rabbits.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 159-164

Ten male rabbits were divided into two groups (5/group) , the first group was intubated with tap water and served as control group . Rabbits in the second group were intubated orally with 0.05 mg /kg B.W daily for 12 weeks . Fasting blood samples were collected after each 4 weeks of experiment for measuring some libratory tests in serum of bloods rabbits . The result of this study showed a significant (P<0.05) increase in Total cholesterol (TC) , Triacylglycerol (TAG) , Low density lipoprotein –cholesterol (LDL-C) and Very Low density lipoprotein –cholesterol (VLDL-C) and AST , ALT activities with significant (P<0.05) decrease in High density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and also histological examination showed inflammatory infiltration in the liver section .

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii among pregnant women in Baghdad province

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 7-11

This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of Toxoplasmosis among pregnant women, in Baghdad province. A total of 56 sera samples from pregnant women, their age ranged between 20 – 39 years, were obtained and tested.
The results exhibit high prevalence with Toxoplasma parasite among pregnant women that reach 75%(1256) and also high rate of infection with increasing age, it was 64.3% in women ranged 20-26 years old, while it was raised to reach 87.5% in those ranged 33-39 years old. Among the environmental and individual factors that was studied, It was found that absence of educational level, exposure to cats and previous abortion have a great important in the increasing of infection among pregnant women, while there was no any important statistical relationship between rate of infection and any other environmental and individual factors which have been studied. .

Fabrication reflection holographic grating

Khawla jemeal tahir

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 213-218

In this work we fabrication a reflection holographic grating by using dichromated gelatin, To perform that we have to use the Nd-yaG laser doubling frequency of wavelenght (532)nm and its powers of (80)mWatt the diffraction grating of (3100)line/mm and diffraction efficiency of 74% have been obtained.we have studied the graduated effect in development processing and also, effect of a film thickness in the band width

Study of the pharmaceutical and antibiotic activity ofMyrtus communisSecond: Effect of the hot aqueous extract of Myrtus communis on some histological parameters of adrenal gland and weights of some organs in female albino mice

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 228-232

Ten albino adult females of Balb/C strain mice were used in this study ,hot water extract of Myrtus communis was injected intraperitoneal with concentration 300 µg / kg body weight ,while control animal were injected with normal physiologic saline with same means.
Treatment with hot water extract of Myrtus communis revealed significant increase (P<0.05) in average thickness of zona glomerulosa and zona fasciculata, while revealed significant decrease (P<0.05) in average diameter of the adrenal medulla in comparison with control group. There was no a significant effect appeared in average diameter of adrenal gland. Treatment with hot water extract of Myrtus communis caused significant differences in some organs, there were significant increase (P<0.05) in weight for each of liver, adrenal gland, kidney and ovary, while revealed significant decrease (P<0.05) in weight of spleen and uterus .There was no a significant effect appeared in average length of intestines.

A modified associated flow rule in classical plasticity

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 252-264

In this paper the flow theory in classical plasticity is extended to micro-scale plasticity, which is one of the most important active fields in micro-scale industries, where the directional derivative of plastic strain affects significantly on material's hardening. This is accomplished throughout proposing a new strain-hardening rule based on some facts from dislocations theory, where this proposed hardening rule enables the researcher from obtaining constitutive stress-strain relations for materials of micro-scale size undergoing plastic loading. Simulations are performed to show the plastic behavior of several theoretical models with micro-scale sizes based on the modified flow rule developed in this paper, and the results obtained from these simulations show good agreement with published results available in the literature. This agreement proves the validity of the extension of the classical flow theory proposed in this paper and the ability of the modified flow rule to describe the plastic behavior of materials at the micron scale.

"The impact of antioxidants in blood pressure, Proteus and free radicals of the football players"

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 37-51

The study was conducted on a sample of (20) players, representing Babylon Club team football and co-applicants in the top Iraq for the first degree for the year 2006-2007 .. , Researchers used the experimental method (equal groups) for suitability and method of study. The sample was divided into two groups, (10) players representing the control group, (10) players representing the experimental group.

The study aims to identify the effect of antioxidants in blood pressure, oxidative and free radicals of the football players have made it clear to the survey there is the effect of antioxidants (vitamins) to increase the activity of the enzyme( SGOT) inside the reconstruction of( ATP), as well as was+ effect of antioxidants on Blood peroxide, while there was no effect of antioxidants on the activity of the enzyme( SGPT) and this is something that indicates a lack of participation in the reduction of free radicals, fatigue, muscle and blood pressure.

Hence, the researchers took a number of recommendations, including the need interest in addressing the vitamins for its role in reducing the effects of free radicals as well as the emphasis on increasing loads trainings gradually.

On The Smarandache Semigroups

sajda Kadhum Mohammed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 113-122

We discusse in this paper a Smarandache semigroups , a Smarandache normal subgroups and a Smarandache lagrange semigroup.We prove some results about it and prove that the Smarandache semigroup with multiplication modulo pn where p is a prime has the subgroup of order pn-pn-1and we prove that if p is an odd prime then is a Smarandache weakly Lagrange semigruop and if p is an even prime then is a Smarandache Lagrange semigruop

Determination of Hospital efficiency by using fuzzy logic

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 90-97

A medical performance of the highest level has become the most important purpose of any civilizes country. In future plans, the new approach make the hospital take apart in the life of all population, apart from medical service , medical research & higher education program, vaccinations program & monitoring program in the social service in the country. In this paper, we introduce a new idea depend on the fuzzy logic technology to determine the hospital efficiency & efface of our work in the possibilities of making this production apart from the work of our medical institution.

Level Excitation and Transition Probabilities of Some Nuclei in the Lower fp-Shell

Kalid S. JASSIM; Fouad A. MAJEED

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 145-152

Unrestricted shell model calculations in the lower fp-shell region for the nuclei 46Ti, 46Cr and 46V have been performed for the isovector T=1 positive parity states using the shell model code OXBASH for Windows by employing the effective interactions GXPF1, FPD6 and KB3G. The level schemes and transition strengths B(E2;) are compared with the recently available experimental data. Better agreement was obtained in comparison with the experimental data and the previous theoretical work for all nuclei under study.

Study of extent the relationship between Obesity and colon diseases in Al-Hakem general hospital in Governorate of Al-najaf Al-ashraff

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 1-6

Through the period from 1/10/2008 to 31/5/2009. Check-up 100 obesity case have overweight 25–30 kg/m2 according to body mass index from patients revises to al- Hakem general hospital in Al-najaf Al- ashraff governorate for searching about some aspects of relationship between obesity and colon disease through the data, which collected and registered by questioner form. The results of male's examination appear infecting 33.1% with colon disease .The preponderance of cases through age group 30-69yrs, with increase in weight 27-31 Kg/m2. 79.6% infecting by obesity with out colon disease .75% don't have obesity persons in their family, 24.1% have them family history with obesity and 21.9% diabetes mellitus patient . But in the females, the percentage for infecting with colon disease was 66.7%, with increase in weight 25-30 Kg/m2. 22.2% was have family history with obesity .33.3% from females was infected with diabetes mellitus .The preponderance of cases was in the age group 40-59 yrs .The study recommended: prepare – based estimates of obesity and its associated risk factors in Iraq to detection the health problem that be related the obesity.

Modified Approach for Tuning Fractional Order PID Controller (FOPID) Using Intelligent Control Techniques

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 48-56

Many controllers are used to enhance the output responses for the complex system but there are several problem appear when classical controller are used therefore the world directed toward the intelligent control techniques to solve complex problem. In this paper the intelligent techniques are integrated with Fractional order PID controller (FOPID), to enhance the output response for the overall system. FOPID is a PID controller but its derivative parameter and integral parameter are fractional numbers not integers and it is consists of five parameters (KP, KI, Kd, α, β), these parameters are extracted and tuned by genetic algorithms, new performance criterion is used in this paper, by collecting the time response parameter (rise time , peak time, settling time ) with integral squire error ISE to produce good performance index ,finally the proposed approach has been tested and compared with another controllers. The simulation has been performed using MATLAB

Heat Transferred Reduction From Concrete Roofs Building By Using Many Suggestive Economical Roofs .(Economical Analysis & Experimental Study)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 147-158

The determination of the best (economical) types from many types of suggestive ceiling insteads of common concrete, (high thermal conductivity & heavy, it's consumed large quantities of raw materials and it's have also much built time) which it is used in Iraqi construction roofs, is explained, in regard to the recommendation based of the criteria of maximum reduction in total cost.
Sixteen roofs were also included in the study, which was carried out at Baghdad city (latitude 33.2N) it is assumed that the air-conditioning process is performed by electricity .
The researchers found that , the most economical roof is concrete with 25mm & 50mm thermal insulating materials, but it very heavy, while, longitudinal concrete beams and hollow block concrete as a filling materials between beams have good reduction in total cost and also has decreased the built time and weight, while uncommon roof, sandwich panal have also good economics and very light and low builts time.

First record for the fungus Fusarium proliferatum (Matsush.)Nirenberg on Date palm in Babylon governorate

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 98-102

This study was carried out to detect the pathogen of Date palm decline and death phenomenon in the Jerfalsaker ,Al-mesaeb and Al-hashimea in the Babylon governorate which showed symptoms similar to that caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporium the cause of wilt disease .
Results of isolation and identification showed the existence of a single fungus in all the samples which is Fusarium proliferatum and this regard the first record of the species in Date palm in Iraq .Culture characteristic of the fungus revealed abundant floccose aerial mycelium ,initially is white but become purple –violet with age : Sporodochia present as discrete entities or nearly confluent over portions of the colony , the fungal morphology characterized by forming Macroconidia with curved apical cell and have 3-5 transverse septa, the Microconidia formed on the mycelium with 0-septate and found in chains or aggregates in false heads with a few Microconidia .Results of the pathogenicity test showed that the three isolates were pathogenic for the Date palm , they revealed 60-70 % disease severity in 60 days old Date palm seedlings compared with 0% in the control treatment. Results of treatment of the three isolates showed that two isolates F.p3 and F.p2 gave the highest disease severity in the 50,75, and 100% filtrate concentration ,the disease severity in their treatments was 60,73.3 and 93.3% for the two isolates respectively compared with the 0% in the control treatment.

Study of some biochemical trials of blood in maleColumba- Liviafor donated to different level of water.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 221-223

Three groups of pigeon columba-livia pigeon donated to different level of water, the group consist of ( 7 ) from mail pigion . the aim of study now the effect of drinking water in diffrent rangs 25%,50%,75% on som biochemical trials for blood total cholesterol (TCH), triglyseride (TG), lipoprotein that consist of high density lipoprotein (HDL ), low density lipoprotein(LDL), and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL),the results refersto significant decrcase in all biochemical trial75%from drinking water while there is no significant effect in 25%,50% that leads to bird have effect means to keep body water.

Effect of Nitrogen and Phosphate Fertilizers on the properties of vegetative growth and aromatical oil yield ofLocal mint (Mentha spicata L.)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 182-186

A field experiment was conducted in the season of 2005-2006 in a private farm in Najaf province. The aim was to investigate four mixtures of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers i.e. (0, 100 kg N.ha-1, 150 kg P2O5.ha-1, and 100 kg N.ha-1 + 150 kg P2O5.ha-1) on vegetative growth properties and oil yield of local mint. A simple experiment was performed using Completely Randomized Design (C.R.D.) with three replications. The means were compared according to L.S.D. (Least significant Difference) at 0.05 probability level.
Results showed that the nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers improved the vegetative growth properties (plant height, number of leaves and branches, vegetative yield (ton.ha-1) and total chlorophyll content in leaves). Oil yield increased significantly compared with non-fertilized plants.
The fertilized plant with (100 kg N.ha-1 + 150 kg P2O5.ha-1) gave the highest parameters, such as plant height (64.26 cm), number of branches (8.36 branch.plant-1), vegetative yield (10.44 ton.ha-1) and total chlorophyll (7.01 mg.100 g-1 fresh weight). In addition to that there was a significant increase in oil yield to (53.72 kg.ha-1) as compared with non-fertilized plants which gave the least vegetative parameters and less oil yield (46.71 kg.ha-1). The conclusion of this experiment it is useful to use nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers together to improved the vegetative growth, and oil yield of the local mint plant.

Calculation of the Compton (Incoherent) and Rayleigh (Coherent) Differential Cross sections of Scattering for Vanadium 51V23, Cobalt 59Co27 and Nickel 59Ni28 by employing CSC model.

Sabah Mahmoud Amman Alla

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 183-192

In this work, the differential cross section for the elements 51V23 , 59Co27 and 59Ni28 has been calculated by using the Mathematical Model named Cross Section Calculations (CSC) .Based on the programming the Klein-Nashina and Rayleigh Equations, atomic form factors as well as the coherent Functions in Fortran90 language Machine proved very fast an accurate results to certain extent and the possibility of application of such model to obtain the total coefficient for any elements or compounds.

Effect of sequestrene and mangnsium sulphate fertilizers on growth parameters on off –set of Buttom mangrove plants Concarpus lancifolius Engl.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 252-261

The experiment was conducted in a private nursery in Al-Najaf province during the growing season of 2007-2008, to study the effect of sequestrene (6% EDDHA-NaFe) fertilizer at dosage of (0, 1 and 2 g.pot-1) and spraying with magnesium sulphate at three concentration levels (0, 15 and 30 g.L-1) and their interaction on growth parameters and leaves content of total chlorophyll, iron and magnesium elements.
The experimental design used in this experiment was Randomized Complete Block Design (R.C.B.D.) with three replicates, means of treatments were compared using L.S.D. at probability level of 0.05.
Results revealed that fertilization with sequestrene or magnesium sulphate had a significant effect on improving trends of vegetative growth such as plant height (cm), number of leaves and branches per plant, dry weight of leaves, stem and number of main root per plant. Moreover significant increases were recorded in leaf content of total chlorophyll, iron and magnesium (22.87 mg.100 gm-1 fresh weight, 6.70 ppm and 1.24 dry weight respectively ) of plants treated with 3 gm.pot-1 seuestrene, and to (21.10 mg.100 gm-1 fresh weight, 6.65 ppm and 1.28 dry weight respectively) of plants sprayed with 30 mg.L-1 magnesium sulphate fertilizer compared to plant of control treatment (without fertilizers) which produced the lowest values (17.91 mg.100 gm-1 fresh weight, 5.95 ppm and 0.93 dry weight) and (19.88 mg.100 gm-1 fresh weight, 5.95 ppm and 0.93 dry weight) respectively.
The results of the interaction showed that, the most effective treatment was fertilization with sequestrene (3 g/pot) and spraying with magnesium sulphate (30 g.L-1) which improved plant growth and chemical composition in comparison with the control non-fertilized plant.

'Antimetabole'inEnglish and ArabicA Comparative Study

Emad Muhammed; Shaimaa

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 1-15

This study deals with 'antimetabole' as one of the figures of speech in English as well as Arabic. 'Antimetabole' is a figure in which words are repeated in reverse grammatical order. The study aims at giving a somehow adequate investigation of 'antimetabole' in English and Arabic. Moreover, it aims at identifying the similarities and differences of this figure of speech in both languages.

This study consists of three main sections. The first main section which is devoted to 'antimetabole' in English is subdivided into three subsections. The first section deals with the concept of 'antimetabole'. The second section introduces the variations on the antimetabolic theme. The third section shows the rhetorical functions of 'antimetabole'. The second main section which is concerned with 'antimetabole' in Arabic has also three subsections. The concept of 'antimetabole' is dealt with in the first section. It is followed by a section on an antimetabolic variation and another on the rhetorical functions of 'antimetabole'. In the third main section, the similarities and differences of 'antimetabole' in both languages are illustrated. At last, the conclusion sums up the findings of the study.

Investigation of bacterial contamination in Iraqi paper currency

Inaam J.AL-Abbasi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 153-157

The objective of this study was to examine the extent of bacterial contamination of the most used denominations of the Iraqi currency.
A total of (160) isolates (112) were gram positive bacteria and (48) were gram negative bacteria has been isolated from different denominations (250, 1000, 5000, 10000 and 25000 ID) in circulation in AL-Najaf city which collected from different local markets. The results had shown the most predominant bacteria was Bacillus sp. with 41.2% and the small denominations were more contaminated, there where statistically significant association between the source of collection and bacterial type. The antibiotic susceptibility was doing with 7 types of antibiotics disc (Gentamicin, Azithromycin, Trimethoprim, Cephalothin, Cefotaxime, Lincomycin and Clarithromycin ). The most bacteria were resistant to lincomycin antibiotic.

Effect of Lawsonia inermis leaves extracts on thefungus Rhizoctonia solani

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 85-89

We studied the effect of Acetate and ethyl Lawsonia leaves extracts on growth of the fungus Rhizoctonia solani which caused disease to the plant , the Lawsonia showed high inhibition activity
on this fungus at all the concentrations and the effect increased with increased the concentrations .Three concentrations used (8,10,12) mg/ml , the concentration 12 mg / ml was superior on the concentrations (8,10) mg / ml this concentration showed completely inhibition in growth of this fungus and the inhibition percentage was 100 % . So the inhibition percentage increased with increased the concentrations and the average of colony growth reduced .

Prevalence of parasitic helminths among sheep and goats in south of Baghdad

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 224-227

In this study, faecal samples of a total of 84 sheep and 50 goats were examined, to detect the prevalence of lung worms , liver flucks and gastrointestinal parasites , for the period from the first of June 2008 to the end of May2009.From a total of 84 faecal samples of sheep , 26 was infected with Dectycaulus fileria,with rate of infection 30.9%, the result above exhibited significant differences on level of P<0.01 between rate of infection in Autumn and Winter which was 40.9%,14.3% respectively and 23 was infected with liver flucks with rate of infection 27.4%, highest rate of infection was in Sumner and lowest was in Autumn which was 35%,22.7% respectively and 24 was infected with gastrointestinal parasites with rate of infection 28.6%, there was significant differences in the rate of infection between Spring and Summer which was 52.4%,15% respectively. From a total of 50 goats, nine was infected with Dectycaulus fileria with rate of infection 18% , 11 was infected with liver flucks with rate of infection 22% and 14 was infected with gastro intestinal parasites with rate of infection 28%.The results exhibited significant differences on level of P<0.01 between rate of infection of lung worms in Autumn which was 38.5% and Spring and Winter that never infection recorded in them and between rate of infection of liver flucks in Summer and Autumn which was 33.3%,15.4% respectively and between rate of infection of gastrointestinal parasites in Spring and Winter which was 58.3%,15.4% respectively. The study also showed significant differences on level of p<0.05 between rate of infection with lung worms between sheep and goats which was 30.9%, 18% respectively.

Effect of Soil Properties and Water Quality on Growth of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. c.v. Sair)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 233-242

The present study was conducted in three sites of Basrah orchards namely: Abul-Khaseeb, Hartha and Diear, to investigate the effect of soil properties and quality of irrigation water on growth of date palm (c.v. Sair).
Results showed that soil properteies had a significant effect on length of Date palm so that highest correlation coefficient was obtained with organic mater, available nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium (r = 0.828**) , (r = 0.837**) and (r = 0.850**) respectively.
Soil properties had a significant effect on number of leaves, highest correlation coefficient was obtained from organic mater, available nitrogen , available phosphorus and available potassium (r = 0.853**) , (r = 0.95-05**) and (r = 0.839**) respectively.
Irrigation water quality had more effect on length of Date Palm than soil, there was a significant correlation between water pH with length of Date palm (r = 0.834**) and number leaves (r = 0.770*) statistical analysis results showed a positive significant correlation between soil available phosphorus with leaf chlorophyl, carbohydrate , phenolic content (r = 0.903**) , (r = 0.804**) and (r = 0.800**) respectively.
The results showed a significant correlation between soil available phosphorus and leaf nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content (r = 0.865**) , (r = 0.810**) and (r = 0.910**) respectively. The study showed that irrigation water quality had apositine significant correlation between water (NH4) content and leaf chlorophyl, carbohydrate and phenolic content (r = 0.912**) , (r = - 0.855**) and (r = - 0.857**) respectively.
Statistical analysis results showed a significant correlation between water (NH4) content and leaf nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content (r = 0.969**) , (r = 0.956**) and (r = 0.939**) respectively statistical analysis results showed that there were significant differences among sites in physical and chmical properties of growth of Date palm, Abul-Khaseeb site had a significant effect on other sites with all growth Date palm properties

Histological Comparative Study For Spleens Of Sheep And Buffalo

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 283-292

Spleen of 20 sheep and buffalo were collected from red meat abattoir in toareeg / karbala – Al_Hindia, 10 of them sheep and the other buffalo. The aim of this study was showing the structure of spleen of buffalo and sheep was composing from dense fibrous connective tissue capsule extend from it trabeculae to the to the parenchyma of spleen, also we observed in spleen of both sheep and buffalo the white pulp and the red pulp. The white pulp composed from lymphatic follicles, marginal zone, central arteries and germinal centers. The central arteries surrounded by periarterial lymphatic sheath (PALS), while the red pulp in sheep and buffalo composed from vascular tissue that contain pulp arteries, venous sinuses and splenic cords.
This study also showed the white pulp in spleen of sheep more distinct, which is the diameter of vertical line of white pulp in sheep was 566.4µm and in buffalo was 215.04 µm, while the diameter of horizontal line in sheep was 528 µm, and in buffalo was 258.24 µm, also the number of white pulp in one field in sheep is 1.1, while the number in one field of buffalo is 0.5.
The red pulp of spleen of sheep contain more collagen fibers than those in buffalo, also the blood vessels were more in sheep's spleen than that of buffalo.

Descriptive Study of Oral Health Status of College of Health & Medical Technology Students in Baghdad.

Sukaina Dhari Ali; Nihad Hasan Mohammed; Raya Mohammed Jawad

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 93-112

Background: Health auxiliary personnel have an important role in oral health promotion when they graduate and start working in the health care system.
This study aims to find out oral health knowledge and oral health behavior of male and female health in the College of Health and Medical Technology.
The aim of this study: was to evaluate oral health and hygiene habits of the students of Iraqi College of Health and Medical technology depending on the subject of the study.
Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to all students at the male and female health in the College of Health and Medical Technology in Iraq (No = 116) during the academic year (2009-2010). The questions consisted information of the general background, oral health behavior and oral health knowledge.
Results: When the additive knowledge summary variable was analyzed according to different independent variables, only a few associations were detected. All tested examination indicated non-significant difference except for mouth wash/ week tested have a significant differences between the two departments (Dental and Optical department).
Conclusions: It can be concluded that oral health assessment between the two departments including (Dental and Optical) departments have non-significant differences between males and females except for mouth/ wash test that indicated a significant difference between the two departments.

Kinetics of α-amylase enzyme inhuman serum

Rehab J Mohhmod

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 237-244

Objective: The present study was conducted to study the general characterization of α-amylase (AMS) enzyme by studing of the effect of various factors which affected on the activity of the enzyme (α-amylase ) by caraway method, in control group and patients group who was studied .
Method: Twenty five healthy subject were depended in this study, and indicated the normal level of the enzyme, the factors effect of the activity α-amylase enzyme are: pH, temperature, substrate concentration, incubation duration. The evolution of the factors exhibit significant effect on the activity of the enzyme, and the Vmax and Km were found 100,25 mg/dl respectively, in 20 patients with pancreatitis., the Vmax and Km were found in this group 71.42, 30mg/dl.
Results: α-amylase activity was observed to be very stable enzyme and effective at pH (5- 7.8), temperature (37,40), 0.06 mg/dl substrate concentration. Vmax and Km were found 25 mg/dl,100 in healthy group but in patients group were found 30 mg/dl,71.42. AMS activity in serum patients of pancreatitis was very stable in pH 7-7.6, temperature 37C° substrate concentration. The results of serum enzyme activity measurement revealed significant (p<0.005) elevation of AMS activity in patients of pancreatitis when compared with those of the healthy subject.


Bushra Kadum Awaad

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 177-182

In this paper, we have presented and discussed an algorithm for analytical method to solve matrix of linear and nonlinear systems of Volterra integral equations of the first kind. Algorithm of the analytical method for the system based on the Laplace transform and generalized inverse. The proposed algorithm has been applied in example to demonstrate the efficiency and simplicity of the algorithm.


journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 57-70

We deal with in this work the continuous classical optimal control problem of a semilinear parabolic equation with equality and inequality constrains. First we prove for fixed classical control the existence and uniqueness for the solution of parabolic equation using the Galerkin method to approximate the exact solution and then for different classical controls. Second we prove the existence theory of a classical optimal control with equality and inequality constraints.
Finally we prove the necessary conditions for existence of a classical optimal control with the above constraints.

The Effect of Aspersion by Hydrogen Peroxide(H2O2) on inducing the Broad bean (Vicia faba) resistance against Aspergillus niger fungi.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 266-276

This study was accrue in one of nurseries concerning production fruits in Najaf to test the capability of Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in inducing the growth of Vicia faba seedling and it resistance against the Aspergillus niger fungi, during the period from 15/ 10/ 2009 to 1/ 12/2009.after 15 days of sowing , seedlings were aspersed by hydrogen peroxide solutions in the concentration (0 , % 0.25 , % 0.5 , %1). The results indicated many positive effects for the use of H2O2 on seedling growth compared with the control . H2O2 caused significantly increase in : plant high , number of branches , number of leaves, leaf area and shoot fresh weight, compared with control.(%0.25) concentration of H2O2 give the highest average of high of seedling ( 20.96cm ) , number of branches ( 3.33 ), number of leaves(10.8), leaf area(14.92cm2) and shoot fresh weight ( 4.972 ).
On the other hand, H2O2 caused significantly decrease in leaves chlorophyll content and shoot dry weight of seedling treated with the different concentration of H2O2 compared with control. Then seedlings were aspersed by suspension fungal solution, and the results indicated the positive effect for the use of H2O2 in decreasing of seedling infection by Aspergillus niger . (%0.25) concentration of H2O2 give the highest decreasing in percentage of infected leaves (%18.51) , Disease severity (29.08), fungal colony diameter (5.3), and colony area (8.32)cm2 .
This study indicated that Hydrogen peroxide is affective in Vicia faba seedling growth and it resistance against Aspergillus niger fungi.

Nonlinear Finite Elements Modeling of HybridReinforced Concrete Beams

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 193-202

This paper presents results from a nonlinear finite element analysis of hybrid reinforced concrete rectangular section beams. The concept of hybrid R.C. concrete structures was applied by many designers for use in constructions of bridge superstructures. Although the steel reinforcement is often modeled as a linear-elastic material until failure, the linear finite element analysis could not predict the behavior of the R.C. concrete beams model up to failure. Results from material tests and loading tests of beams model indicated that the nonlinearity of concrete should be considered to predict the failure modes. In this study, an effort was made to implement a rate-independent plasticity model, which describes a constitutive model of concrete types (Normal and High Strength Concrete), in a finite element code. Results obtained from the numerical analysis showed a good correlation with the experimental results.

Interventional study of behavior of the Sucrose in caffeine solution at different temperatures

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 187-195

The study includes measurements of density( ) and viscosity (η ) of sucrose solution of different concentrations ( range 0.02-0.1) mol . L-1 in 5% caffeine solutions at different temperatures (293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15) K. from the density measurements it was calculated Apparent Molal Volumes ( ) and from this value were calculated Limiting Apparent Molal Volume( ) and the Experimental slop( ) , transition volumes ( ) for sucrose from water to 5% caffeine solution. From applying of Jones and dole equation of viscosity values it was calculated ( A) and( B) factors which indicate the strong solute – solvent interaction and weak solute – solute interaction .this results confirmed that the addition of sucrose to 5% caffeine solution is from Solvent Structure Maker type, which was confirmed by the thermodynamic functions values of the system


journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 46-50

An experiment was conducted during the season of 2009 at Al-Der,Basrah. The aim was to study the Effect of Foliar Spraying of chelated iron and the number of sprayings on some vegetative growth, flowering and yield of snake cucumber cv."local".The experiment included 6 treatments came from the interaction among three chelated iron 6% conc.of (0,250,500)mg/l applied with spraying (two and three times) at 20 days intervals starting one month after sowing. Randomized Complete Block Design was used in a factorial experiment. Duncan's Multiple Range Test was used at probability of 5%. Results showed that, there were a significant effects of foliar spraying of chelated iron on vegetative growth (plant length, number of lateral branches and leaves), female and male flowers compared to the control, the most effective treatment was 500 mg/l chelate iron. Spraying chelated iron at a concentration of (500mg/l) was the most effective in those characteristics. Spraying with three times was more was effective compared to spraying with two times in those characteristics. Spraying chelated iron at 250 mg /l significantly increased fruit set, the number of fruits per plant and fruit weight. There were a significant effects of foliar spraying of chelated iron on yield . Foliar spraying with 500mg/l chelated iron was the most effective in early yield whereas, 250 mg/l was the most effective in yield per plant and total yield. The highest total yield came from foliar spraying with 250mg/l chelated iron applied three times giving 3.223 ton/donum.


journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 114-119

The research targeted to find relationships of measured rose ( Rosa sp )bush, climbing and dwarf rose leaf area with length or width or length + width by applying linear regression equations yˆ= a+ bx or multiple linear regression with two independent variables yˆ= a+b1x1+b2x2 using length with width. The samples of bush rose leaves 162 leaves,412 leaves for climbing rose and 423 leaves for dwarf rose then all leaves of roses were scanned .The length, width and area of the leaves were determined using Digmizer Image Software version 3.7 after installed it on computer ,leaves length ranged from (1.32- 8.53)cm for bush rose and leaves width ranged from(0.39 – 6.03)cm and leaf area ranged from (0.28 – 33.68)cm ,for climbing rose leaves length ranged from(1- 6.90)cm ,leaves width(0.39- 5.43)cm and leaf area( 0.29- 8.84)cm for dwarf rose leaves length ranged from (0.60- 3.23)cm,leaves width( 0.29- 1.91)cm and the leaf area(0.22- 4.05)cm.Results showed that application of linear regression equation for leaf area using leaf length resulted an R2 for bush rose 0.93**,climbing rose 0.87** and for dwarf rose 0.81**, applying with width an R2 value decreased for climbing rose 0.73** while increased for both dwarf and bush rose 0.86** and 0.94**. Applying length + width R2 increased for bush, climbing and dwarf rose 0.96**, 0.93** and 0.91** .When using multiple regression equation there was no appreciable changes in R2compared with R2 resulted from using( length + width).Accordingly, it has been recommended that measuring ( length + width) and applying either of the following equations for bush rose [yˆ = - 4.38+1.769(x) (length +width) ( R2 = 0.96**), or yˆ= -4.302+1.420(L)+2.284(W) ( length + width) ( R2 = 0.96**)],for climbing rose applying either of the following equation[ yˆ = - 1.29+0.838 (x) (length + width) (R2 = 0.93**) or yˆ= -1.44+0.944 (L)+0.697 (W) (length + width) ( R2 = 0.93** ) and applying equation yˆ= -1.25+0.606 (L)+1.443 (W) ( length + width) ( R2 = 0.93**) ] for the rose plant leaf area .

The effect of soil texture and nutrient solution "Unigreen" on the nutritional status of maize plant ( Zea mays L .)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 209-220

An experiment was conducted from march 19th to April , 20th , 2008 in order to study the influence of soil texture (sandy or clay) and 3 concentrations of the nutrient solution "Unigreen" (i.e 0.5 , 1.0 , and 2.0) ml/l on the nutritional status of maize plant .
A completely randomized design (C. R. D.) with 3 replicates and means were compared using (L . S . D .) at 0.05 probability level .
Results could be summarized as follow :
1- Nitrogen and phosphorus concs . were markedly increased in roots and shoots of plants grown in sandy soil . On the other hand , K conc . and the content in the shoot as well as its rates of transport and absorption were significantly higher in plants grown in a clay soil .
2- The highest nutrient solution conc. gave a pronounced increase of N conc. in roots and shoots as well as its rate of transport .
3- The interaction between the soil texture and the nutrient solution significantly affected the nutritional status .

Higher rate of transport of N was obtained from plants grown in the clay soil and 2 ml/l of the nutrient solution . The same trend was occurred with K rates of transport and absorption .
The highest conc. of K in the shoots was associated with plants grown in the clay soil treated with 1 ml/l nutrient solution . Higher concs. and content of P in the shoots were obtained from plants grown in the sandy soil treated with 2 ml/l nutrient solution

Age estimation of first deciduous tooth and sequence of eruption for the primary dentition in relation to the nursing habits among the kerbala children

Hawraa Khalid Aziz

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 12-19

The deciduous tooth emergence considered as very important to assess growth and development of the children and also very important indicator for the age estimation in children. In this study age of the first tooth erupt was estimated and the effect of the feeding types which are either breast or bottle feeding and sex on the number of the deciduous teeth present in the children has been studied. 252 children from the age 6 months - 34 months who's selected randomly and number of teeth eruption was studied in correlation with age, position in the dental arch, sex, type of nursing habits. The results showed the mean numbers of the teeth was higher in group of the breast feeding than those with bottle feeding and in the females higher than males. The mean time of the lower central incisor was earlier than upper central incisor with no difference in the halves. In conclusion of this study the breast feeding has the better effect on the teeth eruption and development. There is acceleration in dentition in the female than males. Lower central incisor is the first tooth erupts in both sides in the dental arch.

The effect of soil mixes and different concentrations of Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) on the cutting rooting of Lawsoina inermis L.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 1-6

This present study was carried out in the lath house belong to the Department of Horticulture college of Agriculture. University of Basra during the period from March, 15th 2009. to May ,15th 2009. to investigate the effect of three propagation media for Lawsoina inermis L. :sand,(sand + loamy) ,
(sand + peatmose) after treatment with four NAA concentrations
( 0,4000,6000,8000 ) mg/L a complete Randomized Design ( CRD) with three replicates for each treatment and each experimental unit consists five cutting. Results could be summarized as Follows: The best propagation appeared to be the sand , sand encouraged rooting gave 77.86% , however the rooting media
(sand + peatmose ) gave the least rooting 65.24% and also gave significant increased in the number of root and their length and also gave height number of branches 4.41/cutting the best concentration of NAA 4000,6000 mg/L which increased rooting 78.89% , 81.21% and the best negative growth. The interaction between rooting media and NAA concentration showed that sand the best rooting media with 4000 or 6000 mg/L in rooting percentage to be 87.53% and 83.00% but she reduced in 8000 mg/L NAA with (sand + peatmose ) to be 60.97% .

Study of Liquid – Liquid Extraction of Cobalt (II) by (6-MBTABP)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 71-84

The study of liquid – liquid extraction of cobalt (II) with (6-MBTABP). The effect of different parameters on the percent of extraction & extraction coefficient such as type of medium ; time of equilibration , concentration of metal ; reagent, type of solvent , effect of batch extraction , salting out , effect of some cations & anions effect of temperature . The function of thermodynamic parameter of (∆H,∆G,∆S)were calculated . The stoichiometry of the extraction is determined using tow methods Mol ratio method & Jobs′ method. It was found to be (M:L) (1:2) . The stability constant of complex in Mol ratio method was calculated . The study of UV-Visible & FT-IR spectra were studied both of reagent & complex in organic phase .Other physical constant namely. At last the new study for determination of Co (II) ion in organic phase was began.

Phenomenon of military in versions and taking the dominance in turkey from 1960 – 1980

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 115-126

The modern republic of Turkey was established in November 1922 . after the second world war it was linked with the American military bases net . and because that , it became Submitted to the west Politic directions and thus , the republic of Turkey was became lashing its dominance . and donate it's freedom and destroy its relationships with the Islamic Arabian , environment especially after it's forgiven about the Israel in 1949 . After the period of 1950 – 1960 , The republic of Turkey was dusting wished by Politic of the one regulation rule which was the regulation that was established by Jalal Bayar and Adnan Mendres .
Bad economic and Sociality events and illegal politic were considered the most ambiguous object in Turkey be for the taking place of any military inversion and as a result to those bad events the dies submitting by the population against the government politic was become increased in form which was throated the advantages of the Berjewaze layer . which govered that state. these environment led to supplement between the Berjewaze layer and military forces which linked with it by economic advantage and directed it to move and destroy any try in its initiations .
Daring the period between 1960 – 1980 three military inversion was took place in Turkey and the resistance by the Army against the politic regulations was the one from the reasons of these inversions by rasiy it's aim a bout it's responsibility to saving and defend once about the republic and national principles and to prevent the Continuity of violent in regulations struggle and all that led to a group of problems to had been found which one create the modern Turkey which can be distiryuished from the other world countries by the independence of the Turkey military establishment from the politic establishment control which directed by the national Turkey scone congers and by the virtue of that the military establishment is become have the legality in surveillance the politic establishment and the inter France immediately when the military headers one feeling in the for any of the regulation headers from the Turkey arrangement and as a result to this principles we can observe that the military inversions in Turkey dairy the period that we previously showed it was became regulated arrange about one in every ten years fun the sixties earlier the yet the eighties earlier .

Calculations Of Coulomb Collisions Time For Plasma Particles inside fusion Reactors

Ali Abdul Amear Rashead

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 20-31

In this paper study the coulomb collisions among plasma particles, using Maxwellian Distribution to reach of collisions time equations for electron, ion and transfer energy between the electron and ion inside plasma by indication of Coulomb Logarithm (Ln Λ). The coulomb collisions time calculations are necessary for the fusion reactors because Collisions between ions and electrons give rise to an electrical resistance which leads to ohmic heating of the plasma. Because of the collisions the particles and energy transfer leading to losses in the plasma. In order to control on the fusion reaction which happen inside the ionization medium (the plasma) must be control the temperatures to reach the max. possible period of energy confinement.

Factors Affecting the Extraction Process of Oil- bearing flakes of Sunflower, Cotton and Soybean seeds

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 32-47

This work was conducted to study the effect of factors influencing the extraction process of oil - bearing flakes of sunflower, cotton , and soybean seeds by using the commercial hexane as solvent .
These factors were the moisture content , flake thickness , extraction time , tem- perature of extraction , solvent to seed ratios , and foreign matter for sunflower , cotton , and soybean seeds . The lint and the smut were studied also for the cotton seeds only .
It was found that the moisture content of 9 – 11 % temperature of extraction of 60–65 ºC , flake thickness of 2 – 3 mm , five hours extraction time , and 1 to 1 seed to solvent weight ratio could be recommended as the as the best conditions for the extraction process . Cotton seed lint and smut shouhd be low as much as possible .

Formation and stability of some transition metal complexes with a new tetradentate Schiff base ligand

Muhsin Taki AL-Kazweeni

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 71-85

The synthesis of new tetradentate ligand Sodium[2-(1-carboxy-ethelideneamino)-phenilimino propaneate] Na2L and its complexes with Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) ,Zn(II) , are reported. The compounds have been characterized by elemental microanalysis, molar conductance, mole-ratio determination, melting point, HPLC, IR and UV-Vis spectroscopy. On the basis of these measurements the complexes may be presented as [ML], where M is the metal. The complexes may be considered to have a tetrahedral structure except the Ni and Cu complexes which adopt a square planar and a distorted tetrahedral geometry respectively. The stability constant K and Gibbs free energy ΔG were calculated for Fe, Co, Ni complexes using spectrophotometric method. The obtained values indicate that these complexes are stable in their solutions.

Synthesis and Characterization of Fe(II),Cd(II),Hg(II) and Ag (I) complexes with 2-Thiotolylurea Ligand.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 86-92

Complexes reaction of Fe+2, Cd+2, Hg+2 and Ag+ with the 2-thiotolylurea were prepared in ethanolic medium with the (1:1) M:L ratio yielded a series of neutral complexes. The prepared complexes were characterized using flame atomic absorption, micoelemental analysis (C.H.N), chloride content (Mohr Method) , FT.IR and UV-Vis spectroscopic, as well as magnetic susceptibility and conductivity measurement. From the above data, the proposed molecular structure for Fe+2, Cd+2 and Hg+2 complexes are tetrahedral geometry while Ag+ complex is trigonal structure

Antagonism activity of citrus fruit juices on some pathogenic bacteria

Zahra Muhsin Ali

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 123-128

An experiment was conducted in the Biological Dep. College of Science, Kufa University to determine the antagonism activity of Lemon and Lime juices against some bacteria e.g. Esherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Shigella flexneri.
Results of this experiment revealed that all juices concentrations have inhibiting effects against bacteria due to the presence of citric acid and some volatile oils e.g.(lamonine) and some materials e.g. linalyl acetate, linalool, turpinol and cymen. Results also showed a reduction in the value of pH. Both juices from lemon and lime were found to be responsible for inhibiting the studied bacterial growth parameters with inhibition zone ranging from 8-29 mm. Mean while, there were significant differences between the two juices towards the inhibition of tested bacterial effects.
The antagonism effects of these two juices were compared with the antagonism effects for some antibiotics. The isolated bacteria were resistant to the most antibiotics except, for Ciprofloxacin, Gentamicin, Chloramphenicol and Cefotaxime. The tested inhibition zone bacteria were 25-30 mm Ciprofloxacin and Chloramphenicol, respectively, compared with the inhibition zone that ranging from 5-29 mm and 25 mm for lemon and lime juices, respectively. The experiment proved that citrus fruit juices were more effective than antibiotics in bacteria growth inhibition. These results were encouraging to prepare special pharmacological formulas from citrus fruit juices.

The ratio of benign and malignant cases of hysterectomy in Najaf governorate according to age-group of patients

MSc; Kifah alyaqubi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 129-139

The study objected to analyze statistically the causes of hysterectomy from the results of histopathological diagnosis. In the period from January 2007 to July 2008, 125 case of hysterectomy patients women were collected from the many private clinical laboratory in Najaf governorate. All cases were classified, according to histopatological diagnosis in to two group of tumor (benign & malignant). The age range of patients from 20 to 79 years. A total of 125 cases were included, 113 (90.4%) patients with benign conditions represented by clinical diagnosis , Leiomyoma, was considered the most common cases 65(52%) from the total percentage of benign conditions 113(90.4%), this ratio among women between age (29-50) years. Adenomyosis, 23(18.4%) among women between age (38-50) years. Endometrial hyperplasia & Endomaterial polyp 20 (16%) among women between age (30-70) years , and other conditions such Ovarian cyst 3(2.4%) and hormonal imbalance with bleeding 2(1.6%) among women between age (40-50) years. A group of 12(9.6%) patients with malignant conditions represented; cervix cancer (well-moderately differentiation squamous cell carcinoma) 5(4%) among women between age (50-55) years, well differentiation Adenocarcinoma 4(3.2%) among women between age (45-50) years, Endometrial carcinoma 2(1.6%) among women between age (50-60) years, well differentiation leiomyosarcoma 1(0.8%) among women age 35 years. The most common indication of hysterectomy is benign condition and less malignant . among women less than 50 years old often associated with hysterectomy .but in the malignant more than 50 years old. The conclusion summarized by the rate of hysterectomy differed by age, geographic region and causes of hysterectomy .

Study of phagocytosis activity in tuberculosis patients

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 130-144

This study was carried out during the period from December 2008 until June 2009 for detection and evaluated the non-specific immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection , the average number of active cell in phagocytosis killing yeast after 15 minutes for control group (%40.25),this average was increased in primary tuberculosis patients to reach (%61.64) . Thise increase was significant as compared the control group and secondary tuberculosis patients (%45.09).This average continue in increase after 30,45 minutes in the same primary tuberculosis patients to reach (%64.06 , %66.24) respectively as compared with the control group (%43.75, %42.95) respectively and those increase was significant . Those average recorder highest increase in primary infection patients (%68.53) after 60 minutes as compared with (%47.75 , %41.73) for the same time of control sample and secondary patients and those increase was significant also .

Effect of Caffeine on some Transferase Enzymes Activities

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 203-212

This study was designed to show the effects of caffeine on the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), gama glutamate transferase (γ-GT) enzymes in the sera. Caffeine demonstrated activation on (AST) and (ALT) activities, inhibitory effects on the (γ-GT) activity, and these effects increased with increasing the concentration of the compound. Kinetic properties of (AST) and (ALT) activities revealed (by caffeine) non-competitive type of activation, and of (γ-GT) activity competitive inhibitors

Spectrophotometric determination of Thiamine.HCl in pharmaceutical preparations using Prussian blue reaction

Alaa Frak Husssin; Muneer A.AL Da; amy; Abd-almutalb bader manhy Alkhalily

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 219-226

A simple, sensitive , rapid and accurate spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of Thiamine.HCl in pharmaceutical preparations and in pure form . The method is based on the reduced Fe(III) salt by Thiamine.HCl to form Fe(II) salt which subsequently react with potassium ferric cyanide forming a soluble Prussian blue dye which has a maximum absorption at λmax 747nm linear calibration graph was in the range of (0.2–14) µ with molar absorptivity of (2.42× ,a sandall sensitivity of (139.38×10-6 µ , correlation coefficient of 0.999,detaction limit (0.106 µ and the relative standard deviation of RSD%(0.4763). The method was applied successfully for the determination of Thiamine,HCl in pharmaceutical preparations. Recovery was in the range of (97.8–104.4)%. The proposed method can be carried out at 40°c temperature with no need for solvent extraction step or pH control.

Integration of remote sensing and GIS to produce Land use and Land cover maps for Kerbala city

Najem A. Najem

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 227-236

IKONOS satellite image acquired at 1999 with resolution (1)m was used to produce land use and land cover maps for Kerbala city , using Arc-view (version 3.3) program which is one of the GIS programs . Also Erdas program (version 8.4) was used to enhance and uncompress used image to become visually more obvious .
Basically visual interpretation and ground truths was depended upon to specify land features appear on image , and then to produce main information layers represented by land use and land cover maps , in addition to drainages , roads , and religious locations layers which in turn represent land use layers. All produced layers were supported with updating database includes information related these layers such as feature’s names , lengths , areas …etc.
The study used modified Anderson land use classification to produce the final map of the interest area (95.8 km2). The produced maps can be set with any demand scales . The study also certify the importance of the integration between remote sensing technique and GIS , which represent an active tool to get the best results with less efforts , less coasts , less time and better details.

Study the Effect of elliptical Aperture on Intensity Distribution of Bar Object Image

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 103-113

In this research the effect of elliptical aperture shape changing dimensional on distribution of intensity in the image of an object shaped bar has been studied by the adoption of different values of along the major axis of the elliptical aperture (a=1,2,3,4) of the ideal optical systems (free aberration), and which contains focus error (w20=0.25λ), were also the effect of obstruction the central part of the elliptical aperture has been studied on the distribution of intensity to the image of bar object, the different values of obstruction ratio have been taken (ε =0.25,0.5,0.75), The results showed that increasing of the major axis length of the elliptical aperture and increase of obstruction ratio work to increase the central intensity and sharpness of the image for the ideal optical systems, on the other hand if the optical system contains focus error the increase of obstruction ratio and the major axis length lead to decrease the central intensity in the image and increase its disfiguration .

Means to support National Electricity Network by improving the efficiency of solar cells and the application process to find outlets in Iraq

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 165-181

This research addresses the subject of great importance, which is the possibility of improving the use and exploitation of solar energy in Iraq. If we know that Iraq of the richest countries of the world level and the amount of solar energy falling upon most of its territory and throughout the days and months of the year. Therefore, in this paper we focus on developing methods to improve the efficiency of solar cells used in solar energy system to generate electricity in two important issues, first, how to manufacture solar cell and secondly, how to focus solar radiation for maximum power and the least possible area of solar cells, on the one hand and, on the other ,which is no less important than the first and outlets is the possibility of finding new applications and appropriate utilization of solar energy and for various uses. This effort is directly take a service of the national electrical grid through the appropriate use of alternative and if a small percentage can be increased and developed in the nearly future.

A Flow Injection Chemiluminescences(FL-CL)Method for Determination of Diclofenac sodium(Voltaren) and Ethambutol HCl as Active ingredient and as pharmaceutical preparations

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 196-208

Chemilumescences method was based on inhibition the chemilumescence of luminol-hydrogen peroxide system catalyzed by cobalt ion Co+2 which produces a blue luminescence .In the presence of drugs, cobalt ion(II) reacts immediately with drugs forming inactive complex preventing the catalytic effect of cobalt(II)ion. In this case an inhibition of the (CL) occurs which is proportional to the amount of the drug added. Optimum conditions obtained as follow: acidity of Co+2 (5×10-3 M), concentration of Co+2(0.7µg/ml), concentration of luminol(5×10-4 M), concentration of H2O2(1×10-2 M), volume of Co+2 ( 200µl), flow-rate (3.0 ml/min).
The investigate material show no interference effect on the determination of studied drugs, thus the method of direct calibration graph was applied.
The linearity of this method for the determination of D.S, ET drugs were in the range(0.985-8.904) (0.990-5.812) (µg/ml, with relative standard deviation RSD% (0.463 , 0.781 %) and detection limits (0.420 , 0.321)µg/ml respectively .The method was applied successfully for the determination of D.S, ET in pharmaceutical preparations with recovery values of 98.480% , 97.510 % respectively .