ISSN: 1813-0410

Volume 6, Issue 4

Volume 6, Issue 4, Autumn 2010, Page 1-407


A Study Of Spot Welding Conditions At The Welding Region Of The Duralumin Alloy

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 183-189

In this research the spot welding parameters ( welding time , welding electrode force , welding current ) have been studied by determining the tension test of duralumin alloy , type (H.15) which have a common use in the cars and air plain industry .

The results showed that the best shearing strength was at (12) cycle of welding time , (2) KN welding electrode force and (50) KA welding current .

Also, it was found that the shear strength decreased with the increasing of metal thickness at fixed welding condition up to (50) KA welding current

Response of two cultivars of sunflower( Helianthus annuus L.) to foliar spray of prosol

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 95-104

This experiment was carried out to find out the response of two sunflower cultivars (hybrid and record )to some level of the prosol the foliar nutrient in the spring season of 2008 in the experimental field of the Tech .Inst. / Musiab. This nutrient contains macro elements (NPK)and some microelements (Fe-Cu-Zn-Mn-and B). The experiment was applied as Factorial in RCBD the first factor was the cultivar and the second was the concentration of the prosol (0-20-30-and 40) gm100 l water . The results of the trial can be summarized as follow:
1-All characters studied were higher for the hybrid cultivars (plant height-diameter-leaf number-fresh weight and dry weight of the leaf–stems and entire plant –seed number .On the other hand , unfertilized seed trait was higher with the record cultivar.
2-The concentration of prosol 40gm/100 l water resulted in higher means of the traits studied –while 0100gm/100 l water gave higher mean of unfertilized seed.
3-Hybrid cultivar with 40gm/100 l wat er prosol interaction gave the highest means of all properties studied except the unfertilized seeds .

Effect of uropgialectomy and diet supplementation with probiotics on fertility, hatchability and digestive gut microflora of Japanese quail birds

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 119-131

This experiment was carried out at the Poultry station / state board for Agricultre research Abo-Grabe ,lasted for 28 weeks ,to determind the effect of uropygialectomy locally and imported probiotics supplementation on fertility and hatchbility of Japanes quails and to count the number of Lactobacilli and coliform Bacteria in the digestive tract of Japanes quail birds.
Atotal of 540 quails (180 male and 360 female) were randomly distributed into 6 treatment groups with 3 replicates for each and experiment groups were as follow: T1: control group , T2 : uropygialectomy + control diet , T3 : uropygialectomy + locally prepared probiotic in diet 5 gm /kg , T4 : locally prepared probiotic in diet 5 gm /kg , T5 : uropygialectomy and imported probiotic (Biomin) in diet 2gm /kg , T6: imported probiotic (Biomin) in diet 2gm /kg.
The results were showed that uropygialectomy and probiotics supplementation had got highly significant effect (P<0.01) in fertility and hatchability compared with control group at 16 and 24 weeks of ege. The control group had the heist percent of emberuo mortality while there were no significant difference between (T1 and T2) in pipet chicks. There were no significant differences in chicks weight between treatments in 16 weeks of age while treatments (T2 , T3 , T5) had a significant superiority compared with (T1 , T4 , T6) in chicks weight at 24 weeks of age.
Fed supplemented with locally and imported probiotics showed a significant effect (P<0.05) in rasing number of lactobacilli in the digestive tract and reduced the number of coliform bacteria while there were no significant effect of uropygialectomy on the number of microflora in the digestive tract Japanes quail birds.

Effect of bacterial insecticide "Bactospeine" and insect growth regulators "Runner 2F" in eggs and larval of tomato fruit worm Heliothis armigera (Hubn)(Lepidoptera : Noctuidae.)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 313-317

Biological insecticide (Bactospeine) and insect growth regulators (Runner 2F) used against tomato fruit worm Heliothis armigera (Hubn) the eggs results showed that effect of biological bactericide (Bactospeine) for all concentrations was little. So hatch percentage remained within its high levels which were (86.66 , 82.33 and 80.66%) when insecticide had been used with concentration (0.5 , 0.75 , and 1.0 g/l) respectively insect growth regulator (Runner 2F) caused decreasing in eggs hatching percentage which were (70.33 , 46.33 and 0.00 %) when insecticides had been used with concentrations ( 0.25 , 0.5 and 0.75 m/l) respectively. "Bactospeine" gave high mortality percentage was 50.09% when eggs treated with 1.0g/l but mortality percentage was less than 41.23% with 0.5 g/l. Also high mortality percentage to young larval reached 91-33% when eggs treated with 0.5 m/l of (Runner 2F). while less mortality percentage was 37-05% when used 0.25 m/l of Runner 2F.

Evaluation the policy of inflation Targeting in selected countries

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 62-74

Inflation targeting is a framework for Monetary policy to decrease Inflation at narrow points.
This policy could achieve The succeed in an industry Countries to reach for prices stability.
The almost of economists are agreement That high inflation decline The decisions in private sector, for that reason, The central banks take institutional independce for achieving The goals.

The research Contents;
1-The progress of inflation Targeting policies
2-Concept structure of lnflation Targeting
3-Reading in choice countries states.
Countries In that
4-Evaluation inflation Targeting

An Experimental Study of Effect of Hydrogen Blending on the Smoke Emission from Diesel Engine

Yassar K. A-M. Al- ansari

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 27-41

An experimental study on performance parameters and smoke emission of a diesel engine was carried out at the different hydrogen energy blending. A single cylinder air- cooled direct injection diesel engine was tested at constant engine speed (1500 rpm).Two important load conditions; full load and half load were tested. At these loads, different quantities of hydrogen fuel are inducted into intake air manifold of the engine. In term of energy, the hydrogen energy percentages were varied from 0% (i.e. 100% diesel fuel) to 35%. Up to 20% hydrogen energy fraction, the results showed that the smoke opacity clearly decreases by 33% and 43% for full and half load respectively. Also, the performance parameters have small improvement except the brake specific energy consumption BSEC (kJ/kWhr) was increased. It was inferred that the best hydrogen energy fraction can be blended with intake air manifold is in the range (20%-25%) for both loads. This hydrogen energy provides high performance parameters and very low smoke opacity.

Evaluation The Effect of Two Different Disinfectant Solutions on The Surface Hardness of The Denture Base Acrylic Resin

Bassam Afram Hanna

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 117-123

In order to evaluate the effect of disinfectant solution on the hardness of acrylic denture base, chosen two types(sodium hypochlorite &chlorhexiden) in which thirty samples of acrylic resin of the same dimension were made and divided into 3 equal group(A:immersed into distilled water 24 hours) (B:immersed into chlorhexiden for 4 hours, after that 20 hours in distilled water) (C:immersed in sodium hypochlorite for 4 hours, after that 20 hours in distilled water) this process repeated foe 7 days. After measuring the surface hardness by using Brinell hardness test the result were highly significant between groups(A&B), (A&C) where as the difference was significant between group(B&C). From these finding & under the conditions of this study can conclude that those two materials had negative effect on the surface hardness of acrylic denture base materials

Study of Optical Properties for Polystyrene Composite Material

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 149-156

The present study suggests the introduction of ceramic fillers cabable to react with polystyrene polymer (PS) through mixing .Thus filler material (kaolinite Kao) after washing by distill water and drying and toasting to powder with temperature degree (100°C) and surfactant process of bentonite have been done on them by using poly vinyl alcohol(PVA) and hybrid by adding quaternary ammonium compound (Thac) to onstruct ( hybrid clay) cbable to react with dissolved polystyrene in toluene(Toul) have been added also binder material Tris(hydroxyl methyl) methyl amine and anti-oxidant material(bis dimethyl benzyl) di phenyl amine and study of optical properties to this composite such as absorbance and transmittance and absorbance coefficient ,a calculation were carried out for measuring forbidden energy gap for direct and indirect allowed and forbidden ,also calculation of the optical constant carried out such as extinct coefficient refractive index , and real imaginary part of dielectric constant

Production of Lactic Acid By Rhizopus Oryzae From Low Cost Medium

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 145-148

Rhizopus oryzae (strain-80) was used for production of lactic acid from various medium in surface fermentation . carbon source in the basic medium was wholly or partially subsitituted by date syrub which prepared from Zahdi date as acarbon source in basic medium. Aratio of 5:5 date syrub : glucose gave63,3gmlliter lactic acid and appeared to be economically valuable for commercial production for lactic acid . Additional increase in lactic acid production to90,4 gm l liter was achieved by substitution of distilled water with whey in the medium, According to the above results it can be concluded that. The low modified medium consist of date syrub : glucose , 5:5 + 2R medium + 50% diluted whey.

Preparation and identification the complexes of some trace element (V,Se and Mo ) with some amino acids

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 272-285

This project includes preparation and identification the complexes of amino acid (Leusine and Tyrosine ) with some ions of trace elements which are needed the human body such as (VO+2 ,Se+4 ,Mo+6 ) and the prepared complexes which are solid crystals were studies and identified by many ways like elemental analysis (C.H.N ) , spectral studied (Infrared spectra , UV-Visible ) . Spectral of atomic absorption .

Form this identification studies can give the structure formula for the complexes which were prepared with amino acids
1- Hexa coordination has actahedral which given the structure formula [M(AA)2Cl2] when M=(Se+4 ) , AA= ( amino acids ) (Leu , Tyr ) .
2- Complexes (VO+2) that is a pyramid have a structure formula as [ VO(AA)2 ].
3- Hexa coordination complexes have octahedral which given the structure [ M(AA)3]Cl3 when M=Mo+6 .

The complex which prepare are soluble crystal solid material in buffer solution (pH=6-8 ) , that have a good thermal stability , and Non –electrolyte except the complexes of Molybdenum (VI) with amino acids (Leu , Tyr ) are electrolyte as ratio (1:3 ) (Ligand – Ion ) .

The amino acids are behavior bidentate Ligands connected with central ion by the atom in carboxyl group and the nitrogen atom in amino group (-NH2 ) .

Quantitative ComparisonBetween: Temporalis & masseter muscles In: Women & Men denture wearers By: Power Spectrum Analysis of EMG parameters.

Mohammed Ridha Hassan Al-Rubaie

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 76-87

This study accomplished by using the power spectrum analysis of EMG parameters registered by surface electrodes secured on major bulk center of anterior temporalis and masseter muscles of (12) women denture wearers and (16) men denture wearers with age range (48-58) years.
The results were obtained and statistically analyzed to compare the values of amplitude and frequency parameters obtained from each subject groups during clenching in maximum intercuspation position (MIP), right lateral position (RLP) and left lateral position (LLP) and, also, during chewing (3) grams of peanuts and (5) one cubic centimeter pieces of carrot.
The quantitative comparison showed that the men denture wearers registered higher amplitude values than women denture wearers , and that indicate the presence of large size motor units, in temporalis and masseter muscles of men subjects, which were responsible for the registration of the higher values by synchronization of motor unit action potentials. Whereas, the frequency parameters of the two subject groups showed no significant differences which means the number of the motor units and firing phases are almost the same.
These results can be utilized in treating any problem occur in masticatory muscles by: accomplishing the needed modifications in complete and partial denture design, the choice of artificial teeth and the manner of setting them according to the more convenient concept of occlusion of complete denture.

Bcl 2 Proto – oncogene expression correlate with grading of oral carcinoma.

Raja Kummoona; Header Dakhel AL- Muala; Suha mohammad sami

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 101-109

Introduction :- Bcl-2 is known to belong to a family of apoptosis regulatory gene products that may be death antagonists (eg Bcl-2 , Bcl-XL , Mcl-l , Al) or death agonists (eg. Bax , Bak , Bcl-XS , Bad) .
Aims :- To identify Bcl-2 oncogene product expression and its correlation to histological grades of oral carcinoma .
Patients and methods :- Twenty four patients were presented with oral carcinoma , Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections were stained with H and E and immunohistostaining . Primary antibody kit (Bcl-2 onco-protein ready to use) clone 124 Dako corporation .
Results:- Bcl-2 Immunohistochemical expression is confined to the basal cell layers in normal oral mucosa , while Bcl-2 expression in oral carcinoma is peripherally located with in infiltrating tumor cells , which were more intensely stained . Our results reveal that Bcl-2 expression was highly correlated with moderately differentiated (G2) and poorly differentiated (G3) of oral carcinoma and Fischer exact probability test reveals that it is statistically positively significant P=0.0027 .
Discussion Our interpretation may be an over expression of Bcl-2 participates in the differentiation of normal oral keratinocytes , or may be that over expression of Bcl-2 oncogene lead to stop the apoptosis and this will lead to increase the cell proliferation of genetically mutated cells which appear as abnormal architecture of cells and disturb normal histological appearance .
Conclusion :- Bcl-2 expression in normal oral mucosa and oral carcinoma Bcl-2 immunoreactivity correlated with.Bcl-2 expression was highly associated with moderately differentiated (G2) and poorly differentiated (G3) oral carcinoma

The Effect of some Tillage Systems and Fertilizers on Yield and Yield Components of Cotton Plant

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 307-312

The experiment was conducted during the growing seasons of 2006 and 2007, to evaluate the effect of tillage systems and fertilizers on yield and yield components of cotton plant at the College of Agriculture field, University of Baghdad.
The tillage systems treatments included moldboard plow, chisel plow and no tillage and four fertilizers treatments included cow and chicken manure, chemical fertilizers with control treatments were used in this study.
Experiment of split plot under randomized complete block design with three replicates and L.S.D (0.05) were used to compare the means of treatments, total bolls number, number of open bolls, seed index, bolls weight, lint percentage and seed cotton were studied in this research . The experimental results showed the following:
1- Tillage moldboard resulted in a significant increased in number of open bolls (17.88 and 18.55 boll/plant) , total bolls number (27.42 and 28.30 boll/plant) seed cotton yield (33.90 and 36.25%), weight of boll, seed index for the two seasons and lint percentage for the second season.
2- Fertilizers treatments including, cow and chicken manure, increased total bolls number , number of open bolls, weight of bolls, and seed cotton yield for the two growing seasons.
3- The interaction between tillage systems and organic fertilizers include cow in all the properties were studied in this research.

Influence of exposure of CrCl3 in Aquatic Environment on Biology of Ostracoda Crustacean" Eucypris".

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 220-226

The paper deals with problem of presented of Cr3 element with CrlCl3) form in aquatic ecosystem on individuals of freshwater Ostracoda crustacean. This was done by examining its Biological & Toxical effecting for individuals of Cyclocypris. The concentrations of chromium chloride used in experiment were (0.05. 1, 1.5, 2 & 3 mg/l).They were applied to Juveniles and adults of these organisms. Tests were performed to assess the survival period, fertility, and body structure and mortality percentage rate.
The result showed that there are serious effects for all levels of concentrations used in this study. It is started from 0.05 & 1 mg/l through marked effect on the youngsters and adults of Cyclocypris during 24 and 72 hours, and when the concentration has been increased to (1.5, 2 & 3 mg/l) the effect was prepared during 6 on the youngsters and 12 - 24 hours 0n adults respectively.
When the mortality rate measured the results showed that Individuals of Cyclocypris recommended 100% percentage at 12, 24 & 48 in Juveniles and 24, 48 & 72 hours in adults, after administration. Also the results prepared that the chromium element had possibility to change the pH of water from 7.8 to 5.4 .That which lead to toxics effect lest on the body structure no also on the level of basic food of these crustacean.

TRENDS IN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION WORKERS TOWARDS THE PROFESSION OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 292-298

Trends are dynamic center that is located between the basic psychological processes and the same act, it is designed to regulate the motives of conscience, perception and other psychological factors structured integrative a coordinated pace with environmental impact and in turn affects them. So the goal of this research to identify trends in the level of extension workers towards the profession as well as extension to identify the differences due to the variables associated with sex, age, location, specialization and training. Follow the researcher in conducting this research method using descriptive method of surveys, because it is commensurate with the nature of the research objectives. The research was conducted on the extension workers in each of the headquarters of the General Authority for guidance and agricultural cooperation and personnel training center in Baghdad / Abu Ghraib as well as personnel in the demonstration farms in the province of Babylon, was the research sample (108) working within the angel's permanent services mentioned above. for the purpose of gathering information, the researcher developed a questionnaire comprising two axes represent the first scale, the trend towards the profession, which included a range of areas and topics, including: (stability, job aspiration, consistent, integrated and comprehensive business performance as well as the complexity and flexibility to work ...) with a second axis scale private suitable for all independent variables. Questionnaire was distributed to a sample search of work and place both during the period from 17/02/2010 to 05/13/2010 The researcher used statistical methods appropriate to research objectives where the averages, percentages, and simple link and a factor to measure the stability Alvakronbach form which amounted to (0.82). Results showed that the level of trends in agricultural extension workers to career guidance reached the average level of the relatively low bow. While there was a correlation level (0, 05) between the attitudes of employees and changing training with results not recorded and there is no significant relationship between the attitudes of employees and the rest of the other independent variables

The reality of the impact of nutrition security, some geographical variables Indicator and futurism

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 358-383

Nutrition security is a major goal sought by all nations, peoples and governments whole because food is essential to human survival on earth and food on agriculture is crop and animal production as well as providing potable water for drinking, which is safe water, and research focused on the study of four groups, agricultural food at the level of area of Iraq geographically and administratively, is grain (wheat, barley, rice), oil crops (cotton) and yield (dates) and livestock (cows, sheep, goats, buffalo, camels) through the statement of area planted and quantity of production and average yield and prepared in there, as well as focusing on the most important products, have been placed to address food security in terms of three variables was to geographical (climatic changes, drought, water resources), for the purpose of highlighting the geographical trends in the face of the reality of food security and future trends. Find secretion of four indicators related to the head of food security are:
1. Effect of major variables, including climate (temperature and rain) on the agricultural area, and then decline in agricultural crops and on the medium-Area of production, as well as diminishing supplies of drinking water.
2. Fall-off personage capita of from major food production, whether local or imported.
3. Increasing agricultural imports, including in particular the strategy and the lack of production, accompanied by a surge of consumption under the pressure of the rising prices of strategic crops, domestic and imported as well as high oil prices and growing populations, including in particular residents of the urban environment

INTERCATION EFFECT OF NITROGEN AND ZINC FERTILIZERS ON YIELD, NITROGEN AND ZINC UPTAKE OF WHEAT

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 299-306

A pot experiment was conducted at the field of Agricultural and Biological Researches Office in season 2006 - 2007, the treatments consisted of three nitrogenous fertilizers (i.e. Ammonium sulphate, Urea, Sulphur coated urea (SCU) and control), Two levels of zinc (0 and 5 mg Kg-1) as ZnSO4.7H2O was applied in two soils (silty clay and loamy sand). The objective of this study was to study the interaction effect addition of some nitrogenous and zinc fertilizers on yield, N and Zn uptake of wheat. A factorial experiment was used (4 X 2 X 2) in a randomized complete block design with three replicates.
The results revealed that straw, grain, total dry matter yield, N and Zn uptake of wheat were significantly increased with N fertilizers addition in both soils. Sulfur coated urea gave higher value for all plant parameters as compared with other two fertilizers.
Also the results confirmed that N fertilizers with zinc sulphate ( 5 mg Kg-1) addition in both soils significantly increased straw, grain , total dry matter yield , N and Zn uptake by 30 , 24 , 33, 29 and 60% respectively as compared with control (0Zn). The highest values of all plant parameters were obtained from interaction between sulfur coated urea and zinc applied was 26.82 , 14.05 , 40.91 gm pot-1 for straw , grain and total dry matter yield respectively, Also 707.2 mg pot-1 and 647.9 ug pot-1 for N and Zn uptake of wheat. Silty clay soil gave significantly higher values for all plant parameters as compared with sandy loam soil.

Relationship between body weight and dimensions at birth and weaning in local and Turkish Awassi sheep

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 207-212

This study was carried out at the Sheep and Goat Research Station, / Abu-graib (20 km west of Baghdad), and over period from 1/1/2010 to 1/5/2010 using 60 lambs (32 Local awassi and 28 Turkish awassi). The aim of this study to investigate the relationship (correlation coefficient) between body weight and dimensions at birth and weaning after the adjusted of fixed effect (breed , sex and type of birth) in difference traits. The statistical analysis system-SAS program was used to statistically analysis.
The overall mean for the birth weight (BWT) and weaning weight (WWT) were 3.58 and 22.72 kg respectively , It also overall means of length of body (LB) , heart girth (HG) and height at withers (HW) were 47.28, 54.27 and 52.77 cm at birth and 68.57 , 75.48 and 71.77 cm at weaning respectively. Significant breed effect in all traits in this study (Turkish awassi surpassed on local awassi). Males significantly surpassed females and single born on twins in weight and body dimensions at birth and weaning, except sex of lamb in HG and type of birth at birth lacked significant. correlated between weight and body dimensions at birth with weaning positive significantly (P<0.01), was 0.69 between BWT and WWT, and estimations of correlation between LB , HG and HW at birth with LB , HG and HW at weaning were 0.84 , 0.71 and 0.38 respectively.

MAIZE GENOTYPES IDENTIFICATION VIA TDM AND HI

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 227-237

Two experiments were conducted on the farm of the Dept. of field Crop Sciences, College of Agric. , university of Baghdad . Those to investigate to what extent that grain yield of maize is counting on total dry matter (TDM) and harvest index (HI) to be used in breeding . The first experiment include three population densities ( 47619 , 71429 , and 142857 ) plants /ha. Resulted from (30×70),(20×70) and (10×70)cm between plants and rows respectively (The main treatments) whereas the sub treatments were six maize cultivars; talar, ezz, B-106 , 5012 –all synthetics, hybrids 5052 and 3001 .the randomize complete block desine with three replication was used . The second experiment involved three levels of N ; 160 ,320 , and 480 kg /ha. as main – plots and same cultivars as sub – plots using the same design . each experiment were planted for three seasons fall 1998 and spring and fall 1999 . The data obtained showed that hybrid 3001 gave higher grain yield in the first experiment , it gave 127.4,61.27 and 112.6 g/plant for the three seasons of the experiment . However ,the same hybrid gave TDM of 222, 146.6 and 203 g/plant for same three seasons ,respectively .This led to give HI values of 58% ,42% and 55% , respectively . Lower planting density gave higher grain yield /plant ;they were ; 133.9 , 52.36 and 116.46 g/plant , respectively .Adding 320 kg N /ha gave grain yield /plant 128.55 and 109.72 g for both fall seasons . The hybrid 3001 gave grain yield of 127.4 , 60.83 , and 112.11 g / plant according to N levels ; 160 ,320 , and 480 kg N /ha respectively . This implies that source – sink relationship was well balanced . We concluded that we can select maize plants of higher partition when they give higher TDM .This should be accompanied with TDM accumulation through anthesis from vegetative plants to reproduction to improve HI

Fabrication and Characterization Study of CdTe1-xSex /ZnTe Heterojunction

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 384-390

In the present work, the fabrication and study the electrical and some photovoltaic prpperties were carried out, for deposited thin( ZnTe)films with (200±0.05) nm thickness on a n-type CdTe1-xSex (x=0.4,0.5 and o.6) of polycrystalline structure by vapor deposition on clean corning glass substrate with (300 ±0.03) nm thickness under a vacuum pressure of the order (2x106 mbar),at Ts =473k.The results of (I-V)characteristics under dark conditions showed the junction was anisotopic type.And from (C-V)measurements,it was shown a junction of abrupt type.The obtained (0.80,0.83,0.88)V built in potential were determined by extrapolation of the curve (1/C2) to a point 1/C2=0.The photovoltaic results of the reverse bias(current-voltage) showed a high linearity response ,also the(Voc,Isc) results showed a linear behavior of the junction.

Kinetic release study (2,4-di chloro and 4-chloro phenoxy acetate )from Zn/Al-layered double hydroxide and percentage rate release study

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 342-352

This study presents release of phenoxy herbicides 2,4-di chloro and 4-chloro phenoxy acetate as nanohybrids from Zn/Al-layers double hydroxide (LDHs) to different aqueous solution as carbonate , phosphate and chloride for different concentration by using direct ion exchange method . effect know of all aqueous solution on release rate both anionic in same time from layer double hydroxide . The percentage rate release both anionic was found higher than 2,4-D>4-CPA.The percentage rate release in to aqueous solution carbonate>phosphate>chlorate .
Thermodynamic results clarrified that control release process . for both anionic spontaneous ( that number of free energy is negative) . Exothermic reaction (∆H< 0 ) . is to show that number of negative ∆S refers to that both anionic release arrange and slowly .
The aim of this study the release of phenoxy herbicides agrochemicals from the nanohybird compounds can be controlled by ion exchange process environment pollution .

New technique for early determine of pregnancy status (2weeks) in the cattle

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 353-357

Blood sample had been colleted twice from 30 cows came to babylon is artificial insempnation centers , first after 24-48 hours of the onset of normal estrous , the second was 12-14 days postbreeding , also blood sampl collected from noninsemenated cow post oestrous for conterol in the same manner Progesterone level in serum had been estimated as diagnostic indicator of pregnancy status after two weeks of AI.
The technique was simple and very cheep compaire with Tran rectal palpation. The study exhibited that blood progesterone level during 2 day of estrus was 1.0±0.1 ng/ml whenever it's level after 12-14 days post breeding was 10 ± 0.2 ng/ml in pregnant cow and decreased to 2.6±1.9 ng/ml in open cows , and it had been significant on level p<0.01 . Although the progesterone increasing during 12-14 days after oestrus isn't indicator for pregnancy status thus, the decreasing to less than 2.6 ± 1.9 ng/ml is good diagnostic indicator for non pregnancy status to determine the open cow into reproductive and management strategies

Estimation And Analysis The Production Function Of Poultry Projects in Babylon Province

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 105-110

Poultry industry has been disastrous to the wave of deaths and destruction for many reasons , and many producers are unable to face with out the government supports , which led to the reluctance of many producer .
The research aimed to estimate the production function of poultry projects in Babylon province (Cobb-Douglas function), using multiple linear regression model and in amanner of (OLS) based on cross-setion data of season(2009-2010)
The results showed that the most important factors affecting the quantity of production , number of alive chickens, the amount of feed, medicines and medical care,expenses and wages and work in hours . The result showed (91%) of the changes in prodction explaind by the variables used in the model . Elasticity of production function estimated amounte to(1.159) that means production which is characterized by increasinrencesg return to scale.The technical efficiency of production amounted to 48%
Reference parameter of feed and medical care were negative ,which indicates that the producers use large quantities of feed in addition to poor quality of feed,that medicines and veterinary vaccines ineffective as form commerical sources .
The study recommends the need to support fodder in terms of quality , price and supply of medicines and veterinary medicines from reliable sources , and the control and supervision departments of agricultural trade offices an hatcheries chicks .

EFFECT OF SEASONAL VARIATION IN TESTIS AND EPIDIDYMIS OF AWASSI RAMS

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 213-219

The study was undertaken to investigate the seasonal variation occurring in some parts of male reproductive system (tests and epididymis) of local rams during seasons of year. A total of 167 samples from rams aged 8-12 months were collected from local slaughter house for one year. The aim of this study of followed the seasonal changes and their effecting on the activity of reproductive system, weight and dimensions of testis and epididymis. The results showed increased significantly during autumn to weight , volume , length , width and thickness of testis to reached 146.70 gm , 138.04 cm3 , 75.61 mm , 52.63 mm and 54.06 mm respectively, compare with other seasons. Caput of epididymis increased significantly during the autumn to reach (100 mm) length , (16.92 mm) width and (17.47 gm) weight where as the length reached lowest during winter (85.77 mm), width and weight (14.83 mm) , (5.40 gm) respectively during the spring. The investigated showed the corpus of epididymis reached highest length during the autumn (57.31 mm) and lowest length during the summer (37.61 mm), while the width of corpus reached highest during the spring (7.59 mm) and lowest during the summer (5.94 mm) , and the corpus showed lowest weight during summer (0.76 gm) compare with other seasons.

Adsorption study of ionic surfaces active agents from aqueous solution on the surface active alumina

Sabeeh. J. Zaini

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 42-49

The aim of the study is to investigate the adsorption of ionic surfaces active agents such as Heptyl benzene sodium sulfonate (C7H15SO3phNa) and octyl benzene sodium sulfonate (C8H17phSO3Na) on the surface of active aluminium oxide, which lead to the understanding the mechanism. of adsorption process as a result of interface interaction between solid and solution, the isotherms adsorption was obtained at 25 ْ C, 35 ْ C, and 45 ْ C for both compounds.The adsorption occurred from the polar side, because the solid process the acidic property and the pH value for AL2O3 in water is 5. Thermodynamic properties have been calculated from the critical micilar have concentration (CMC).

STATISTICAL QUALITY CONTROL OF CORN MARKETING FROM AL – MAHAWEL TO AL-MUSAYAB FACTORYOF ( 2006-2007 ) DURATION

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 169-175

The objective of this research is to test the control efficiency of corn marketing from Al-MAHAWEL region to the factory of Al-Musyab by using ststistical quality control method .
The tabulation of research population data was achieved . The population observations were 146 elements. The duration was three months . It began from November (2006) to December (2007). Nine subgroups were taken every unfollowing four days . They comprised all research population elements . therefore they had unequal size .
The result showed the deviations from center line of P-Chart were happened because of chance causes , therefore the quality of corn is under control .
The necessary suggestion is to use statistical quality control charts by the corn factory of Al-Musayab because this kind of quality control is never use in this factory to determine the corn marketing which is out of statistical quality control to treat the defect in case of finding it .

Evaluation of drinking water supply network for the public in some areas of Baghdad and local bottled water and imported

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 176-182

Evaluation of the quality of (4) drinking water sample drawn from various districts in Baghdad, (9) local bottled water samples and (6) imported bottled water samples during march – 2010.
The results of tests indicated that the level of turbidity T.D.S in the drinking water net works higher than their levels in both local and imported bottled water samples which indicate that the filtration of drinking water networks is inefficient and requires more attention the results of tests also indicates that all of the samples complied with the Iraqi, Saudi and international standard specifications, however the level of the total hardness and magnesium exceeded the permitted levels in the running water samples further more there was a significant variations between the level ( if p<0.05) of bottled water samples and the imported and local bottled water samples with regard with all specification tests used in this study.

The Effect Of Non – Dimensional Parameter(NE)On The Velocity And Temperature For The Non- Newtonian Fluids During Its Flow Through Inside Square Enclosure

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 190-200

In this research the effect of non – dimensional parameter (NE) of Prandtl – Eyring model on the velocity and temperature for the inside square enclosure has been studied . The research used a numerical study for steady natural heat induction with some conditional , these are the perpendicular walls were heated in a different regular heat and the horizontal walls were isolated .
The finite difference method was used to solve the formulas related to the inside square enclosure by using visual basic program .
The results showed that the increase in the non-dimensional parameter(NE) increased the velocity and temperature , Also the increase in NE increased the value of flow ψmax until the maximum value was reached at (25.32) for the modified Rayleigh number of (110000) .The same results appeared with the average Nusselt number until it reaches its high value (11.42) at modified Rayleigh number of (110000) and NE =10 . All trials were performed at modified Prandtl number (Pr*=15) .

Effect of oxidative stress induced by iron overload in Rabbits on some biochemical parameters

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 331-341

The present study was aimed of studying the effect of oxidative stress induced by iron overload on locale male rabbits and the role of vitamin E against stress, the study was carried out at the department of biology, college of education, and university of Karbala. Fifteen adult male of rabbits were divided into three equal groups (5/groups).the first group was injected with 0.5 ml normal saline and served as a control group T1.Rabbits in the second group were injected intramuscular with 15 mg/kg Iron dextran three times a week for nine weeks T2 ,While animals in the third group were injected with 15 mg/kg Iron dextran intramuscular three times a week and orally Vitamin E (20mg/kg) for nine weeks ,Fasting blood samples are collected each three weeks for measuring the following biochemical parameters : Red blood corpuscles RBC, Packed cell volume PCV, Hemoglobin Hb, Free iron, Total iron banding capacity TIBC, Transferrin % .
The result revealed that, injection with 15 mg/kg Iron dextran for nine weeks caused a significant decrease p<0.05 in RBC, PCV, Hb, and a significant increase p<0.05 in Free iron, TIBC, Transferrin %. The result revealed that, injection with 15 mg/kg Iron dextran and intubation orally 20mg/kg vitamin E for nine weeks caused significant increase (p<0.05) in serum Free iron, Transferrin %, TIBC. While non significant difference in RBC, PCV, Hb, was found in Compared with control group.
The goal of this study is to find the effect of oxidative stress induced by iron overload in male rabbits and the role of vitamin E in reducing some affect of iron.

EFFECTS OF SOWING DATE, PLANTING METHOD ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF SUMMER SQUASH (Cucurbita pepo L.) IN UNHEATED PLASTIC HOUSES

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 111-118

An experiment was conducted during winter season of 2007/2008 in unheated plastic houses conditions at the College of Agriculture-Basrah University. The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of sowing dates and planting methods on some vegetative growth, flowering and yield of squash c.v "Zucchini hybrid Kriti" .Experiment included 6 treatments (i.e. the interaction among three planting dates (15/10, 1/11 and 15/11) and two planting methods (direct sowing and transplanting). Randomized complete Block Design was used in a factorial experiment. Results showed that, early sowing date (15/10) significantly increased plant length, internodes number and fresh and dry weights of plant , caused the appearance of first female flowers at higher nodes, early appearance of first male and female flower, increased number of male and female flowers , decreased the number of the days from planting till first harvest, increased fruit number/plant, fruit weight, early and total productivity, dry matter of fruits. Direct seeding significantly increased plant length, internodes number and fresh and dry weights of plant, the number of male and female flowers, fruit number/plant, total productivity, compared to the transplanting method. Transplanting method decreased the number of nodes until the formation of the first female flower and caused early appearance of the female flower, decreased the number of day from planting till the first harvest and increased dry matter in fruits .Sowing date on 15/10 and direct sowing gave the highest early and total productivity (2.478 and 11.415 kg/m2), respectively, whereas, sowing date 15/11and direct sowing gave the lowest early and total productivity (1.280 and 5.318 kg/m2), respectively

A study the effect of trigger circuit on flash lamp life

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 391-407

This research the parameters of flash lamp(F.L) operation ,which is very necessary to researchers ;and to whom are involved in the field of designing and fabrication of laser system, where many calculations should be done and important steps to be taken into consideration to reach eventually a successful and high efficient operation without damaging it, also it is the range effecting on the flash lamp ,and how to make the suitable choice of selecting the flash lamp and in what it should be applied when matching occurs to get better trigger circuit. The know also, involve in determining the necessary means to achieve high light intensity, with short pulse duration by controlling the electric circuit which derives the (F.L). when the (F.L) is ready to electrical discharge process through the thyrsistor the external trigger process will be without (shock wave) which down in more trigger methods so as reduce the life time of the flash lamp and poles corrosions ;and choose different values of capacitors and indicators in the electric trigger circuit. which have direct effect on supply voltage for flash lamp.

Influence addition hydrated Alfalfa to layers ration in some characteristic eggs quality at ages advance

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 318-325

The present study was carried out at the poultry farm of animal resources department , college of Agriculture , university of Kufa , during 15/10 ─ 15 /12 2009 , to investigate affected addition different The present study was carried out at the poultry farm of animal resources department , college of Agriculture , university of Kufa , during 15/10 ─ 15 /12 2009 , to investigate affected addition different level of hydrated Alfalfa to layers ration ISA BROWN for improved some characteristic eggs quality at final period .
Usage sixty layers whose seventy weeks old, were equally divided randomly into three treatments ,two replicated per treatment (10hens/replicate).This experiment were included; T1 as control (without any addition ) ,T2 and T3 added 6,10 % of hydrated Alfalfa respectively .Depended two weeks as adaptation for all hens per ─ experiment period .Eggs weight and some characteristic egg quality were studied as high yolk ,high albumin as well as your weight and percentage ,yolk index ,Hugh Unit ,shell weight ,shell thickness.
Experiment data indicated that the addition 10% of hydrated Alfalfa to layers ration resulted signification improvement in eggs weight and in characteristic yolk, albumin, shell, comparison with anther treatments .Results revealed that was superior account for T2 compared with T1 in some characteristic.
level of hydrated Alfalfa to layers ration ISA BROWN for improved some characteristic eggs quality at final period .
Usage sixty layers whose seventy weeks old, were equally divided randomly into three treatments ,two replicated per treatment (10hens/replicate).This experiment were included; T1 as control (without any addition ) ,T2 and T3 added 6,10 % of hydrated Alfalfa respectively .Depended two weeks as adaptation for all hens per ─ experiment period .Eggs weight and some characteristic egg quality were studied as high yolk ,high albumin as well as your weight and percentage ,yolk index ,Hugh Unit ,shell weight ,shell thickness.
Experiment data indicated that the addition 10% of hydrated Alfalfa to layers ration resulted signification improvement in eggs weight and in characteristic yolk, albumin, shell, comparison with anther treatments .Results revealed that was superior account for T2 compared with T1 in some characteristic.

Protective Role Of Folic Acid In Oxidative Stress Induced By Methionine Over Load On Electro Cardio Graph On Femal New Zealand Rabbits.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 1-6

Eighteen adult female were divided into three equal groups (6/ group) and were treated for one month as follows: first group (control ) G1,which were intubated ordinary tap water, second treated group (G2) , animals in this group were intubated orally with 100mg / kg B.w of methionine for one month ,while the third group(G3) were handled in G2 plus oral intubation of folic acid (0.07mg / kg B.w ). fasting blood samples were collected each 10 days for measuring Estrogen hormone, Electro cardio graphy was recording for rabbits after each 10 days of treatment .The results conducted that Asignificant increas(P<0.05)in Esterogen hormone concentration and a significant decrease ( p<0.05) in heart rat and a significant increase (p<0.05) in QRS and QT interval in (G2) . While treatment of animals with folic acid caused a significant increase (p<0.05) in heart rat and a significant decrease (p<0.05) in Esterogen hormone concentration and QRS and QT interval in (G3).

The analysis of some economical variables effect on the electrical energy consumption function in Bahrain state and predict its consumption in the futur

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 7-25

The electrical energy consumption is considered the most important aspect of development and civilization , also it is a measure for rise and welfare in any society because it introduce magnificent services. The state of Bahrain is hritnessed a big development in all fields and especially in the production and consumption of electrical energy. The electrical energy consumption in Bahrain is effected by some economical variables as population , individuals income. These variables led to disparity in electrical energy consumption between sectors. The paper deals with the following topics :
1. The development of electrical energy sector in Bahrain.
2.The development of the relationship between generating capability and the maximum demands on electrical energy.
3. The development of produced electrical energy amount from the stations in Bahrain state.
4. The development of consumed electrical energy in sectors.
5.The effect of some economical variables on electrical energy consumption function in Bahrain.
6. The estimation of consumption function of electrical energy in Bahrain.

Study of appropriate water downstream of the general education common carp Cyprinus carpio

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 26-29

The study included determining the current monthly changes taking place in the most important Physico-chemical specifications of the downstream public water at the point of intersection of a suit by Baghdad with the estuary town of Mahmudiyah, north-General to the point of intersection of Al-ssaouira protoplasm with River estuary year for the duration of the month of November 2009 to October 2010.
Water temperature ranged downstream the year between 11.1-28.9 °C, the amount of dissolved oxygen water between 7.2-8.6 mg/l, pH between 7–8.6, salinity ranged from 2.9–4.6 ppt. and the transparency ranged from 27.2–42.6 cm These results revealed the existence of significant differences in the measurements of these Physico-chemical characteristics of water downstream year, and the overall changes in the Physico-chemical specifications of the downstream public water is within the normal range borne by Common Carp

Differential Diagnosis of Hemoptysis in the medical out-patient clinics

Kadhim.A.Al-Hilali

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 46-51

Background:

Hemoptysis is a common and significant symptom in respiratory Medicine. The patient as well as his relatives are frequently frightened, because of the possible life-threatening etiology or consequences.

Objective:

To determine the prevalence of the various causes of hemoptysis.

Methods:

The study involved (161)patients , (94) males and (67) females , complaining of hemoptysis attending the medical out-patient clinics for 5.5 years .Evaluation of each case was done and the results were analyzed to reach the final diagnosis .

Results:

Male to female ratio is (94/67 = 1.4:1) . The average age is (42) years . The diagnosis was undetermined in 45 cases (28%) of the total , Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB) 32 (20%) , Bronchitis (acute and chronic) 29 (18%) , Lung cancer 19 (11.8%) , Bronchiectasis 13 (8%) , Miscellaneous 13 ( 8%) and pneumonia and lung abscess 10 (6.2%).

Conclusion:

High prevalence of PTB in this country as a cause of hemoptysis . The prevalence of bronchitis and lung cancer comes next . All attempts should be sought to control these diseases.

Keywords:
Hemoptysis , medical out-patient clinics , prevalence , undetermined.

Inheritance of grain yield and its components in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 52-60

Seven durum wheat genotypes (Triticum durum Desf.) were used in this study , The source of six of them were the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) , in addition to the local variety (Om-Rabee) . The grains of the seven parents and their which number (21) crossed in half-diallel were grown in field at from Neinava governorate using Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications . The characters were studied : plant height , number of spikes/plant , spike length , number of grains/spike, grain yield/plant , 1000-grain weight. The results of ( - ) Analysis of Variance for Array no significant for all characters which refers to achievement the last three hypothesis by Ferreira . Jinks & Hayman analysis revealed that dominant variance values were high than the additive ones for all the characters . The average degree of dominance was greater than one for all the characters indicating the presence of over-dominance. Gene frequency was over than 0.25 for all the characters indicating equal distribution of dominant and recessive alleles between parents. The ratio of KD/KR was greater than one which revealed that the parents have an excess of dominant alleles for all the characters except for number of grains/spike and . Narrow sense heritability values were high for the plant height , and number of spikes /plant and medium for the spike length , 1000-grain weight and grain yield/plant , and low for the number of spikes/plant character.

The effect of seasonal variation occurring in testes and epididymis histological in Awassi rams

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 61-68

The study was undertaken to investigate the seasonal variation occurring in histological study (testes and epididymis) of local rams during seasons of year. A total of 167 samples from ram's aged 7-12 months were collected from local slaughter house for one year. The histological study showed the testis consist of parenchymal tissue which contain semniferous tubules and interstitial tissue which also contain loose connective tissue, blood and lymph vessels and interstitial endocrine (leydig cells). The study also showed the epididymis consist of tanica serosa (outer layer) is followed by a smooth muscle layer (middle layer) and an epithelial layer (innermost). The cross section of testis and epididymis apparent to variation during the seasons. The autumn register increased on the numbers of spermatogonia comparison with both the spring and the summer seasons and increased in numbers of the layers of spermatogonia comparison with other seasons, and the lumen of seminiferous tubules and epididymis felled with spermatozoa during the autumn and the winter comparison with other seasons.

Study The effect of Probiotic Prepared from Lactobacillus acidophilus on Adhesion of The bacteria Isolated from Dental Caries

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 69-85

101 specimens were collected from patients with Dental Caries in Al-Diwaniya province from both sexes with different ages from February to May (2009). 152 isolates were rerecorded from both gram negative and positive bacteria. Results revealed the dominance of Streptococcus spp. 36.19 %, Staphylococcus spp. 27.69 %, Lactobacillus spp. 19.8 %. Species belong to Enterobacteriaceae were recorded 18.81 % and Pseudomonas aeuroginosa 4.60 %, Streptococcus mutans was the dominant 50.90 % from species of streptococci, while Staphylococcus epidermidis recorded the higher ratio 66.66% from species of staphylococci, In case of lactobacilli, Lactobacillus acidophilus recorded the high ratio 65.51% from isolated lactobacilli species, Escherichia coli was the dominant ratio 9.90 % of Enterobacteriaceae species.
The recorded results showed resistance of Gram positive species to the most antibiotics in this study, specially to ampicillin 91.44 % and erythromycin 89.26 %, while were sensitive to refampicin 17.46 %, ciprofloxacin 22.22 % and tetracycline 35.71 %. while Gram negative species were resistant to ampicillin 88.46 % and amoxicillin 86.26 %, and sensitive to ciprofloxacin, tetracycline and gentamicin 15.38 % , 34.16 % and 42.30 respectively. The results explained existence of significant effects of three types of Probiotics that were got from L. acidophilus on adhesion of bacteria on epithelial cells and polymer discs of Light cure, the filtrate of cells gave the highest effect by reducing the numbers of adhered bacteria on epithelial cells of species S.sanguis, Staph. aureus, and Shigella spp. with numbers 17,23 and 19 bacteriacell respectively, while heat killed cells have high effects on S.salivarius, Staph. aureus and Shigella spp. with 11,13 and 14 bacteriacell respectively, the ultrasonic destroyed cells had effects on S .mutans, Staph. aureus, and Shigella spp. 23, 27 and 24 bacteriacell respectively.
Similar results were seen in case of polymer discs, the effect of filtrate on S. salivarius, Staph. aureus and E .coli was high with value 4.8, 7.1and 4.7 cellmm2 respectively, while heat killed cells has a significant effect on S.salivarius, S.aureus and E.coli species with numbers 5.9, 7.6 and 6.1 cellmm2 respectively, the ultrasonic prepared probiotic had effect on S.sanguis, Staph. aureus and E .coli species with numbers 5.0, 4.5 and 5.3 cellmm2 respectively. The results of this study revealed that the sensitivity to antibiotic refampicin, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline when impregnanted polymer discs with antibiotic to test the adhesion of bacteria on these discs, while the resistance to the other antibiotics appeared in different ratios, the species of Gram negative were sensitive to refampicin and ciprofloxacin with less effect to tetracycline and high resistant to amoxillin and with less effect to the other antibiotic that used in this study.

Economic returns in the use of two methods to feed the lambs using agricultural wastes and domestic

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 86-90

Study aimed to compare two approaches of breeding methods and improving the lambs, first using the closed barn method where the lambs feed on agricultural and domestic wastes with a small amount of concentrated feed barley, this due to fodder scarcity and high prices.
And the second approach is to have the lambs out to pasture along with cows in the field, in collaboration with a farmer volunteers into a train program to make farmers adopt scientific bases selection in improving and breeding the lambs.
Ten lambs were used for each group, aged three months and the average weight was (15) kg per lamb.
The results showed that the first approach better, and the economic gain value was achieved about (1650) dinars, while (800) dinars obtained by the second approach, and the invested dinar returns was (2.031) dinars, according to a first approach , and in the second approach was (1.593) dinars. This sustains the good management and the good organization that the farmer has adopted and will continue to implement it in the future.
We recommend to generalize this experiment between other farmers to get rid of the traditional methods in the breeding lambs, as well as to get the farmer's profit is very rewarding, and encouraging the usage of agricultural and household wastes rather than wasted because of the scarcity of fodder.

Production of Lactic acid from local isolateof the fungus Rhizopus oryzae

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 91-94

This study was carried out to detect the ability the fungus Rhizopus oryzae and The results showed the ability of fungus strain Rhizopus oryzae ( c-80) to produce lactic acid in fermented medium prepared at the surface fermented way . and uses for different concentration from glucose sugar it ( 5 , 10 .15 , 20 ) % to know , which concentrate from sugar gives higher production from acid . The concentration ( 20% ) glucose gave high production rate of acid reached to (39.6) gm per liter results of the present study reveuled that the production of lactic acid was propotional to the to the increase of glucose concentration in product medium.

Effect of Germanium Content on the Optical Constants of GexS1-x Thin Films

Mohmmed Abdulhor

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 1-7

In this study the alloys GexS1-x with different Ge content (x=0, 0.1,0.2and0.3) wt.% have been successfully prepared by evacuated quartz tube under vacuum pressure (10-2mbar), whereas Ge xS1-x thin films were prepared by thermal evaporation technique under vacuum (10-5 mbar) with (x=0, 0.1,0.2and0.3).
The optical properties measurements shows that the optical energy gap decrease from (3.4 to 3 eV ) with the increase of x content , the optical constants declare significant variation with x content variation.

Evaluation and study the effect of asymmetric dimethylarginine in chronic renal failure patients treated by hemodialysis

Amer Hasan Abdullah

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 8-14

In term of morbidity and mortality, chronic renal failure ( CRF) is among the most serious chronic disease which result from the permanent loss of kidney function and without a regular course of dialysis or kidney transplantation , the disease is fatal.
Recent studies indicated that in end stage renal disease(ESRD) , there is a new cardiovascular risk factors include: Homocysteine (Hcy) and Asymmetric dimethylarginine(ADMA).
Hyperhomosyct(e)inaemia (HHC) a consistent finding in uraemic patients is now widely recognized as an independent risk factor for vascular disease . HHC is associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, and venous thromboembolism.
The other risk factor asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA), endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is also elevated in chronic renal failure (CRF).
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of ADMA concentration on renal function in hemodialysis patients (HD).also urea and creatinine and electrolyte was examined.
Blood samples were obtained from 20 apparently healthy subjects (10 male and 10 female), patients with renal failure, treated by hemodialysis, 25(12 male and 13 female). Plasma concentration of ADMA was significantly higher than those of control (P-value ≥ 0.05).

Numerical Comparison Function for Weibull Distribution Probability Values with Possibility Values for Fuzzy Logic

Bushra Hussien Aliwi; Kawther Fawzi Hamza

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 15-26

The relationship between possibility and probability is cleared through the rang of functions values for each one of them, which is equivalent to be in the closed interval [0, 1], and it has some variation in values. The goal of this research is to find the type of relation and to decrease the variations in values through finding a combination between several probability distributions and membership function in fuzzy logic to be either continuous or discrete .In this paper the weibull distribution has been exploited with a continuous membership function, Gaussian membership and applied failure rate function with that distribution.

Assessing the Quality of Statistical Reports of Randomised Clinical Trials

Nazera Dakhil

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 50-54

Randomised clinical trials are the optimum way to compare effectiveness of different interventions. It is well known that randomised trials have the power promptly to influence patients care. In spite of that reviews of published trials have always found significant deficiencies in reporting [2][3]. It is therefore utterly realistic to call for higher standards for papers reporting randomised trials.
In this article we will report results of a systematic review examining the quality of statistical reports in randomised clinical trials in cancer radiotherapy. Checklists for statistical aspects of phase III randomised clinical trial were compiled from guidelines for the reporting of clinical outcome studies (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) (CONSORT

Synthesis of Novel [1,2,4]Triazolo[1,5-a]Pyridines via concerted reactions between 2‾-cinnamoyl-2-cyanoacetohydrazide and α-cyanocinamonitriles

Ali Hadi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 55-75

A novel one step synthesis of derivatives [1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridines (6) from 2′-cinnamoyl-2-cyanoacetohydrazide (3) and α-cyanocinnamonitriles (2) is described. The reaction takes place by 6-exo-dig cyclization followed by an 5-exo-trig process to afford salts 6. Compound 7 were solated from the reaction mixture as the corresponding piperidinium salts due to the high stability of the heterocyclic anion. Acidification with dilute hydrochloric acid yielded the neutral [1,2,4]triazolo [1,5-a]pyridines. Now, an alternative 7-endo trig cyclization can take place and, in addition to the [1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a] pyridines 6, the novel heterocyclic compound of seven membered ring are obtained

Synthesis of Novel [1,2,4]Triazolo[1,5-a]Pyridines via concerted reactions between 2‾-cinnamoyl-2-cyanoacetohydrazide and α-cyanocinamonitriles

Ali Hadi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 55-75

A novel one step synthesis of derivatives [1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridines (6) from 2′-cinnamoyl-2-cyanoacetohydrazide (3) and α-cyanocinnamonitriles (2) is described. The reaction takes place by 6-exo-dig cyclization followed by an 5-exo-trig process to afford salts 6. Compound 7 were solated from the reaction mixture as the corresponding piperidinium salts due to the high stability of the heterocyclic anion. Acidification with dilute hydrochloric acid yielded the neutral [1,2,4]triazolo [1,5-a]pyridines. Now, an alternative 7-endo trig cyclization can take place and, in addition to the [1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a] pyridines 6, the novel heterocyclic compound of seven membered ring are obtained

Experimental Study of Punching Shear Strength of Self Compacting Concrete Slabs with Openings

Zainab Mohammed Ridha Abdul Rasoul

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 88-100

The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of punching shear strength on the behavior of self compacting reinforced concrete two-way slab specimens which have different types of openings. Seven slabs were prepared for this matter divided into two groups, group (A) consists of four slabs, one without opening (S1) and three with square openings (S2,S3, and S4) while group (B) consists of three slabs with circle opening (S5,S6, and S7). The different parameters included in this study are; shapes of opening (square opening, circular opening) and position of opening (for punching failure). The constant parameters considered are; concrete type (self compact) and steel reinforcement ratio. Some of conclusions in this study are; the ultimate punching shear strength of the slab with the larger opening is less than that with smaller one and at the edge for square opening, and the ultimate load capacity for slab specimens were decreased significantly when opening existed, so that the slabs in group (A and B)showed decreasing of the original load of slab (S1), of (38.9%, 44.4%, 33.3%, 30.6%, 38.9%, and 44.4%) for slabs: (S2, S3, S4, S5, S6, and S7) specimens respectively .The percentage of reduction depends mainly on size and position of opening.

Study of Rheological and mechanical properties of polymeric Blend (Arabic Gum /PVP)

Fadwa H.A. AL-Shaaer

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 110-116

Miscibility characteristics of blend, carbohydrate polymer ( Arabic gum ) and Poly (vinyl pyrrolidin) (PVP) in common solvent water were studied at different weight percentage by ultrasonic wave velocity, viscometry, and density techniques at 30°C. The acoustical parameters such as, relaxation amplitude (α/f2), absorption coefficient (), relaxation time (τ), acoustical impedance (Z) and adiabatic compressibility (β), are calculated. The results are interpreted in terms of molecular interaction between the components of the mixtures.

Evaluation of Virulence of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci, Isolated from Sexually Active Women with Symptomatic Genital Tract Infection in Vitro

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 124-133

This study included 33 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) isolated from sexually active females with symptomatic genital tract infection (64 pregnant and 110 non-pregnant). Phenotypic virulence characterization showed that 63.6% of CNS isolates were hemolytic; 87.8% were lipolytic; 96.9% were biofilm formers; 18.1% were urease producers; and 18.1% were proteolytic. With the exception of lipolytic activity and biofilm formation, co-expression of other factors showed that there is an opposite expression of hemolytic and proteolytic activities. Only 3/33 (9%) of the isolates were hemolytic and proteolytic. We concluded that, for this study included factors, the virulence of CNS isolated from females' genital tract infection, is notable and that CNS can be opportunistic pathogens in these cases rather than mere contaminants

Evaluation of Virulence of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci, Isolated from Sexually Active Women with Symptomatic Genital Tract Infection in Vitro

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 124-133

This study included 33 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) isolated from sexually active females with symptomatic genital tract infection (64 pregnant and 110 non-pregnant). Phenotypic virulence characterization showed that 63.6% of CNS isolates were hemolytic; 87.8% were lipolytic; 96.9% were biofilm formers; 18.1% were urease producers; and 18.1% were proteolytic. With the exception of lipolytic activity and biofilm formation, co-expression of other factors showed that there is an opposite expression of hemolytic and proteolytic activities. Only 3/33 (9%) of the isolates were hemolytic and proteolytic. We concluded that, for this study included factors, the virulence of CNS isolated from females' genital tract infection, is notable and that CNS can be opportunistic pathogens in these cases rather than mere contaminants

Serological study to streptococci was caused urinary tract infection in infant in Babylon maternity and children hospital

Diyar Kh. Al-janabi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 134-138

In this study about 112 urine samples were collected from infants with age from 1 – 12 months who suffering from UTI in Babylon Maternity and Children Hospital and these samples were studded to detect the streptococci according to its serotype and the following results were obtained. Streptococcus A were found to be the most causative agent among the serotype which isolated ( 66 samples , with 58.92 % ) followed by Streptococcus F ( 22 samples , about 19.64 % ) , Streptococcus G ( 16 samples , about 14.28 % ) and Streptococcus D ( 8 samples , with 7.14 % ) .
Also 26 antibiotics were used to detect the antimicrobial sensitivity of the species which isolated from the samples. Streptococcus A showed sensitivity to Amikacin ( AK ) , Amoxicillin ( AX ) , Cephalexin ( CL) and Chloromphinicol ( C ). Streptococcus F shows sensitivity toward Cefodizime ( CDZ ) only while Streptococcuys G was sensitive to Azithromycin ( AZM ) , Cephalexin ( CL ) and finally Streptococcus D shows sensitivity to Azithromycin ( AZM ) , Chloromphinicol ( C ) , Erythromycin ( E ) , Gentamycin ( CN ) , Nitrofurantoin ( F ) , Ofloxicin ( OFX ) and Oxacilin ( OX ) .

Comparative study of DNA extraction from semen of cauda epididymis in Ram and Bull

Saad Akram Hatif; Sadeq Jaafer Zalzala

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 139-142

This study included semen collection from 20 adult rams and 20 bulls, via aspiration from tail of epididymis. All semen samples subjected to sperm count after staining with eosin. The high number of sperm count in rams show 1180000 sperm/ml, while the lower sperm count reached 540000 sperm/ml, the mean of total samples 1139000 sperm/ml .The maximum sperm count of bulls samples gives 990000 sperm/ml while the minimum appeared 744000 sperm/ml and the mean 953000 sperm/ml. Lysis buffer used for DNA extraction from semen and spectrophotometer in order to assessment concentration of DNA samples, the concentration of DNA in rams and in bulls semen gives 3.5908g/l and 4.4319 g/l. We are concluded that the mean of sperm count in the tail of epididymis in ram more than in the bull ,and DNA concentration in ram samples less than in bull

EPIDEMIDOGICAL STUDY OF TOXOPLASMOSIS AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN IN BAGHDAD CITY

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 161-166

جمعت 100 عينة مصلية وبصورة عشوائياً من النساء المتزوجات وبعمر (أقل من 20-أكثر من 40) سنة من مختبر الصحة المركزي ببغداد للفترة من 1 آذار – 1 تشرين الاول 2010، لكل النساء الزائرات للمركز، بمليء ورقة استبيان لكل عينة مدروسة.
أظهرت الدراسة بشكل واضح أعلى نسبة (62.1%) من النساء اللواتي ليس لديهن إسقاط سابق وبعمر (20-29) سنة بينما كانت اعلى نسبة (47.6%) للنساء اللواتي لديهن أسقاط سابق وبعمر (30-40) سنة وتبعاً لنمط المعيشة، أظهرت النتائج ان حوالي (68%) من النساء هنٍّ من النمط الحضري، بينما (32%) فقط من النساء ذوات نمط معيشي ريفي.
وأظهرت النتائج ان معدل أصابة النساء بداء المقوسات كان (67%) بينما (33%) من النساء غير مصابات بالمرض.
كانت الاغلبية العظمى في هذه النتائج هي (53%) للنساء اللواتي لديهن أسقاط سابق واحدوالنسبة الاقل هي (3%) للنساء اللواتي لديهن ثلاث اسقاطات سابقة أو أكثر.
(94%) من النساء المشمولات بهذه الدراسة كان لديهن تشخيص مسبق لداء المقوسات.
وبينت النتائج ان (63%) من النساء لديهن تلامس مباشر مع القطط، و(37%) ليس لديهن تلامس مع القطط

Peak systolic and end diastolic velocity of external carotid artery of Maxillofacial Missile injuries

Suha mohammad sami

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 173-181

Background: Patients with a complete disruption of the artery owing to missile injury are frequently seen in the emergency room with hypovolemic shock ,or sever airway obstruction due to compression of the trachea by hematoma, or symptoms of acute cerebral ischemia or infarction . aim of our study to measure of peak systolic velocity and end diastolic velocity of external carotid artery in injured site and compare with non injured one .
Patients & Methods: Patients were selected from Maxillofacial department in the Specialized Surgeries Hospital. . thirty patients were examined , twenty nine were male ( mean 96,66% ) and female was one ( 3,34% ) .We prepared a specially designed case sheet including , life saving procedures , type of missile , clinical examination include site of missile injuries , investigation x- ray ,C T scan. .The ultrasonographic scanning of the carotid arteries was performed, the Doppler machine was -SIEMENS – sonoline ELEGRA .
Methods : The ultrasonographic scanning of the carotid arteries was performed with the patient in the supine position , using a high- frequency linear array imaging probe (7.5- 9 MHz) .
Results showed that mean peak systolic velocity of Ext carotid artery at non injured side was 62 . 92 cm / sec. and mean peak systolic velocity of injured side was 69.69 cm / sec. while the mean end diastolic velocity of Ext carotid artery at non injured side was 37.31 cm / sec. and injured side was 15.81 cm / sec.
Conclusion Ultrasound scanning gives a clear picture of soft tissues that do not show up well on X- ray images . mean peak systolic velocity of Ext carotid artery at injured side was higher than non injured side while end diastolic velocity of Ext carotid artery at injured side was lower than non injured side.

Implementation of Calculating the area and centeriod of two dimension Convex hull using ” Andrews variant of the Graham scan” algorithm

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 182-188

A convex Hull is an important structure in graphic geometry that can be used in the construction of many other geometric structures. In this paper we used “Andrew’s variant of the Graham’s Scan algorithm” to obtain the Convex Hull by eliminating all the interior points and bounding box the outer points that construct the convex hull , the main object of this paper is to compute the area and centroid of any convex Hull.

Rotavirus gastroenteritis prevalence among children under five years of age in Karbala City

Adel Ateyah Abd Ali AL-Nasrawi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 189-196

Background: Rotavirus is the major agent causing endemic and epidemic diarrhea in young children in both developed and developing countries (1), little is known about prevalence of rotavirus infections in Karbala.
Study design and objectives: This cross sectional study was performed to determine the prevalence, clinical significance, and possible risk factors for rotavirus gastroenteritis in Pediatric Teaching Hospital in Karbala governorate during the period from June through October 2oo9. Patients and methods: 386 children less than five years of age with acute gastroenteritis attended Karbala Pediatric Teaching Hospital were studied both hospitalized and out-patients. Rotavirus in stool samples was identified by using two survey tests (One Step Rapid Chromatographic Immune Assay, and Slide Latex Agglutination test). Rotavirus positive patients were divided into two main groups according to the age; the first group was six months and below; and the second group was more than six months of age.
Results: generally, rotavirus positive gastroenteritis was more frequent 267(69%) than rotavirus negative gastroenteritis 119(31%) of the total examined stool samples, There was a relative increase in prevalence of rotavirus gastroenteritis in children above six months 142(53%) more than those below six months of age 125(47%) with the clear variance in rotavirus gastroenteritis patients among the gender which referred to an elevation in males 167(63%) more than females 100(37%) in both tested groups, moreover, according to the source of infection there was no difference in children between hospitalized 133(50%) and out-patients 134(50%) in both groups, as well as no clear variance among rotavirus positive patients regarding geographical distribution; urban were 137(51%), and rural were 130(49%) in both groups district to Karbala; in comparison with the type of feeding; the study showed an obvious increase(about two-fold greater risk)in rotavirus gastroenteritis 172(64%) in the children who were not exclusively breast- or bottle fed more than those who were exclusively breast-fed 95(36%) in both diarrheic groups.
Conclusions, rotavirus is the main leading cause of severe gastroenteritis among children under five years of age in Karbala particularly in males above six months of age regardless the source of infection and geographic distribution; Rotavirus gastroenteritis can be considered as one of the nosocomial infections in Karbala Pediatric Teaching Hospital; promotion of breast-feeding would augment the impact of providing the effective protection against severe childhood rotavirus diarrhea.

The relationship between serum potassium levels and some chemical limitations in Rheumatoid arthritis from Qurna district, Basrah city

Dheeya Sheanair; Mohammed Abdul-Mounther; Mahdi Murshd; Khasim H.Alshaheen; Yousif G. Omran

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 197-203

Rheumatoid arthritis is the chronic inflammatory arthropathy. Total serum potassium levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis were determined in conjunction with total serum copper, serum uric acid, Rheumatoid factor (RF),C-reactive protein (CRP) ,erythrocyte sedimentation rate and Hemoglobin and WBC count,. There were significantly higher of white blood cell count (WBC) and uric acid levels in the total RA patient group and in the active subgroups than in controls( p≤0.05).While Patients in the active subgroups had significantly elevated ESR,CRP,RF values than those in the corresponding inactive and control groups, The mean serum potassium concentration in all patients studies ,which was significantly lower than that of control group( p≤0.05- 0.01), nevertheless no significantly association was recorded in the total serum copper concentration was observed. The results of this study support the hypothesis that low serum potassium level in rheumatoid arthritis and the correlation with copper level is one of the specific features of inflammation.

STUDY OF ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF GAMMA-IRRADIATED POLYVINYL ALCOHOL/ CRCL3 COMPOSITES FILMS

Estabraq.T. Abdullah

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 204-208

Casting films method for polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) doped with CrCl3 have been prepared. The electrical conductivity (σ), and dielectric constant (ε'), for unirradiated and irradiated polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) samples doped with CrCl3 with three different concentration (10, 12, and 20%wt) were studied. The samples were deposited to three different doses f -irradiation (56.1, 112.2, and 224.4KGy). The electrical conductivity, and dielectric constant in the frequency (200-105 Hz ) were measured at room temperature. The electrical conductivity increase with increasing in dopant concentration as well as -irradiation.

Study the effect of acrylamide on some physiological and histological properties of rabbits kidney who drenched with Flavonoids that extracted from grape seeds

Shaima Amore Jabbar

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 209-218

Acrylamide is a chemical that is produced for use in the manufacture of plastics as well as various other materials. Although acrylamide is used in making some food packing. Flavonoids are a group of more than 4000 polyphenolic compounds that occur naturally in foods of plant origin. Forty eight albino rabbits are divided in to three groups, G1 fed on basal diet ( control group ), G2 drenched with acrylamide 10% W/V at three doses weekly, and G3 drenched with acrylamide 10% and Flavonoids 40% W/V at three doses weekly. After 16 weeks we revealed significant increase ( P< 0.05, P<0.02 ) in plasma creatinine and uric acids in G2 as compared with G1 and G3, while there are no significant changing( P>0.05) between G1 and G3. In the other hand Kidney histological changes for G2 demonstrated acute nephrotoxicity and glomerular degeneration as compared with G1 and G3.

Experimental studies of Plasma streamers diameters and velocities in dielectric liquid with positive and negative polarity

Hamid K. Radam; Ahmed K. Hashoosh

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 219-226

Plasma streamers in dielectric liquid (transformer oil) consists of a charged particles (electron, positive and negative ion). It has many properties such as: streamer velocity, streamer diameter, mean electron energy, number of streamers branches and current density. Some of these properties has been detected by using the photographic technique to get a data it must be in a good agreement with the theoretical and experimental studies. The streamers properties are detected in this paper. The streamers diameters increase with the increase of voltage, and the streamers velocity has the same behavior of the diameter.

The study of CO2 laser welding for stainless steel

Methaq Mutter Mehdy Al-Sultani

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 227-248

The laser welding process for (304) stainless steel by pulsed and continuous CO2 laser ,had been studied , where all of ( T,I(Z), β(t), υ, υwelding, Qh, Qm, Qv and Qtot) had been calculated as function of each (pulse speed at different repetition rates , pulse width ) for pw-CO2 laser and as a function of thickness at different values of incident laser power for cw-CO2 laser. The pulsed CO2 laser welding had been compared with continuous CO2 laser welding and we found that the pw-CO2 at high repetition rate is the best in welding process achieving because of highest values of welding efficiency .As well as , the using of high power laser fasten welding process. It can be concluded that the keyhole welding is more useful than spot welding because of it's highest value of each of welding speed (υwelding) and welding efficiency (ξ).

Synthesis and Characterization of ZnO doped by Al via sol-gel method

Abbas Matrood Bashi; Araa Ali Aljuboori

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 249-255

Preparation of ZnO doped with Al using ethylene glycol as a media at room temperature, nano crystals was obtained stable up to 700 oC highly crystalals with 17Ao and 12Ao in length TEM(transmitted microscope) ,the prolongation of absorption band is between (367-800)nm with energy gap =4.448 EV.The Characterization with Uv(Ultra violet ),TEM(Transmission Electron Microscope), SEM(Scanning Electrons Microscope) and XRD(X-Ray Diffractions) were showed a good uniform crystals.

Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of Schiff Base Complexes of Copper (II), Cobalt (II) and Nickel (II) Derived from 4,4' - Diamino Diphenyl Methane (DDM) and 4,4'-Diamino Diphenyl Ether (DDE) with salicylaldehyde

Amjed A. Ahmed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 256-271

Tetra dentate N2O2 type complexes of Cu (II), Co (II) and Ni (II) ions have been synthesized using the Schiff bases formed by the condensation of salicylaldehyde (2-hydroxy benzaldehyde) with two diamines, 4,4 - diamino diphenyl methane(DDM) to give Schiff base (L1) and 4,4'-diamino diphenyl ether (DDE) to give Schiff base (L2). Molar conductance , FTIR spectroscopy, UV- visible spectroscopy studies have been carried out to determine the structures of these complexes, from these data it is found that all the complexes posses general stereochemistry [M(L)]2.X,( L= Schiff base (L1 and L2) ; X=Cl4 when M= Cu (II), Co (II) and X=(CH3COO)2 when M= Ni (II), The ratio 2:2 ( M:L) complexes showed square planer geometry around Ni(II ), Co( II ) and Cu(II) ions. FTIR spectra showed that ligands (L1 and L2) is coordinated to the metal ions through imino nitrogen (–CH=N–) and phenolic (–OH) oxygen. The Molar conductance data reveal that all synthesized complexes are electrolyte. Another interesting results of this study is the fact that the molar conductance of Cu (II) complexes of Schiff base (L1 and L2) (L1Cu and L2Cu) are higher than those of Ni(II) and Co (II) complexes with the same ligand, ( L1Ni and L1Co) and ( L2Ni and L2Co) respectively. The Ligands (L1and L2) and their complexes were screened for antimicrobial activity by the well diffusion technique using DMSO as a solvent. The biological activity studies showed that all the prepared complexes are antimicrobially active and showed higher activity than free ligands, the complexes derived from ligand L2 gave higher activity than L1 complexes

Study of Some Physical Properties For( poly methyl methacrylate - TiO2) composites

Marwa Abdul-Muhsien; Ahmed Hashim; Keiser Mahdy; Hussam -Abdul-Razzaq; Lamis Faaz

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 272-278

The effect of addition of TiO2 on some optical properties of poly-methyl methacrylate has been studied . For this purpose , many samples have been prepared by adding TiO2 to the poly-methyl methacrylate with different weight percentages and different thickness .The absorption and transmission spectra have been recorded at the wavelength ranges (300-850)nm . The absorption coefficient, extinction coefficient and energy gap of the indirect allowed and forbidden transition have been determined. Results show that the absorption coefficient and extinction coefficient increase and the energy gap of the indirect allowed and forbidden transition decreases with the wt.% content of TiO2.

Dielectric permittivity and AC conductivity of GexS1-x Thin Films

Bushra A.Hasan; Iftikhar .M.Ali; Mohammad A. Kadhim

journal of kerbala university, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 143-160

The dielectric permittivity and AC conductivity of GexS1-x samples were measured at temperatures in the range ( 293- 433 K) and frequencies in the range 100 Hz to 10 MHz..Dielectric permittivity in polycrystalline samples shows an anomaly around 413K due to its amorphous -crystalline phase transition .The A.C activation energy at1kHz estimated from Arhinuos equation is found to decrease from 0.13 to 0.068eV with the increasing of germanium content. In contrast with the polycrystalline samples, all evidence of phase transitions and/or dielectric relaxation disappears in the amorphous samples.