ISSN: 1813-0410

Volume 5, Issue 3

Volume 5, Issue 3, Summer 2009, Page 1-429

Study The Effect of Some Antibiotics on Some Species of Gram Positive Bacteria Causing Mastitis in Buffaloes in Baghdad Province

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 270-279

This study includes collection of 100 random milk samples of buffaloes taken from different farms in Baghdad city from February 2009 to June 2009 by aseptic methods then Whiteside test is done on milk to identify the subclinical cases from the healthy ones while the clinical cases had been registered from farms by the help of clinical signs in addition to owners.
There were (10) clinical cases and (12) subclinical cases. The milk samples were examined in laboratory by making bacteriological cultures on blood agar then the bacteria that found were identified by using morphological and microscopical characteristics depending on results of primary identification, biochemical and verifying tests then API test was used to confirm the type of isolated bacteria.
The current study showed that Staphylococcus Spp. was the dominant bacteria upon the remaining Gram positive bacteria. (14) isolates of Staphylococci were isolated followed by( 6) isolates of Streptococci and then (2) isolates of Corynebacterium and (1) Gram negative bacilli.
Antibiotic sensitivity test was done using (7) antibiotics which ordinarily used for treatment of mastitis in buffaloes and these antibiotics were Ciprofloxacin, Gentamicin, Penicillin, Tetracycline, Chloramphenicol, Erythromycin, and Streptomycin this study showed that the ciprofloxacin was the best antibiotics and 79.19 % of tested isolates were sensitive while the streptomycin was the least effective one on bacteria.

The Shape Of Efficient Frontier Subject To A Different Assumptions About Short Selling & Riskless Lending & Borrowing

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 11-27

Most securities available for investment have uncertain outcomes and are thus risky. The basic problem facing each investor is to determine which particular risky securities to own. Because a portfolio is a collection of securities, this problem is equivalent to the investor selecting the optimal portfolio from a set of possible portfolios. Hence, this situation is often referred to as the portfolio selection problem. Many trails were to find solution to this problem, begins with the complicated ideas of Markowitz, passing through the contributions of Tobin, Sharpe, & Lintner, and ending with the most modern simplification approaches. Markowitz's ideas are led to derivation of efficient frontier subject to a set of the extreme assumptions, especially in the respect to short selling & riskless lending and borrowing. Thus, this paper is aimed to derive the efficient frontier subject to a different original extreme & most reality alternative assumptions. This paper is reached to many conclusions, most important among them is that an efficient frontier takes a different shapes subject to the different assumptions in the respect of investors' ability to sell short & to riskless lending and borrowing. The set of efficient portfolio opportunities available for investor is expanded when allowed for him to exercise short selling and his efficient frontier takes a concave curve shape with open upper end in contrast to the Markowitz's efficient frontier curve with both ends closed (minimum variance portfolio – maximum return portfolio). Adding of riskless asset to the components of investor's portfolio is represent a new opportunities expanding the feasible set significantly and, more important, changes the location & shape of substantial part of Markowitz's efficient frontier. The paper is approached to many recommendations, most important among them is necessity to educate the investors' population, in the Iraqi stock exchange, about the real shape of their efficient frontier which they faced in their environment.

Study the antimicrobial activity to parts of Myrtus communis L. against some types of pathogenic bacteria

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 8-20

In this study the antibacterial activity of different plant parts of Myrtus communis L. ( dried leaves, green leaves, stems and fruits) extracted aqiuosly by boiling and rinsing method against gram negative pathogenic bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Proteus spp.,Salmonella spp.) and gram posative pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus epidermidis , Streptococcus spp., Enterococcus spp.). Results showed that the dried leaves had the ability to inhibit the growth of all tested bacteria , which the inihbition zone was ranged between (20-22 ) milimeter compared with the other parts of plant . Also it had been seen that the activity increase with the increasing extract concentration .Finally the components of the extracts that evokes the medical action of the plant have been detected and showed that they have tannins, flavonoids,fucomarens, saponine ,resins and not have a glycosidies compound with respect to the parts of plant.

Bacterial contamination of meals Presented in some restaurants in Thammar city in Yemen Republic and role of the workers as source of their contamination

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 1-7

This study was carried out on food meals presented in some restaurants in Thammar city in Yemen Republic (during April and May- 2004) to determine bacteria contamination with special reference to Staphylococcus aureus , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Escherichia coli . The percentage of the carrier in the workers (food handlers) was also studied to determine the source of this contamination The results showed high level of contamination of cooked and uncooked food samples with Aerobic bacteria and with Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, The highest counts were found in minced meat and vegetable –salad. Also food handlers samples contained Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa & Escherichia coli bacteria in different percentage . Noses of workers being more contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus while the hands of workers being more contaminated with Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.


Mustafa Kadum Taqi; Tameim Hameed Ubaidah; Salman Abd kadum

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 371-379

The edge detection process continued by the edge linking which is presented in this paper can be clear by the following: 1) it appears from the results of the edge linking that the part with bright colour is indicative of the big change in the intensity value of the original image, and 2) the edge detection in the geometric shapes or Morphological shapes are more significant or more contrast rather than ordinary image. The edge linking, the gradient components Gx and Gy of the image are present here to detect an edge linking of geometric figure (morphology shape) and digital image. There are three kinds of discontinuity in digital image; they are point, line, and edge. In practice, the most common method to find the discontinuity of an image is to use the mask that is operated in all of the pixels in the image, we use of the masks of the size of (3 * 3). To implement the contrast stretching process in a computer, we present an algorithm to Sobel method to write a program able to 1) open the file containing digital images, 2) display the digital image in the screen, 3) process the edge linking, and 4) display the digital image resulting from the process, and we used image file in BMP format and of the size of (256 * 256) pixel with 256 grey level.

Effect urea and superphosphate fertilizers and its there interaction in some growth characteristics of fenugreek plant (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 280-286

An experiment was carried out by using pots (5kg soil/pot capacity ) in the green house of Biology Dept. College of Education (Ibn Al-Haitham) University of Baghdad during 2008-2009 growing season, in order to determine the effect of different levels of urea fertilizer (zero,0.25,0.50,1.00 gm/5kg soil in pot) these levels equal (zero,100,200,400 kg urea/h) and super phosphate levels (0,0.25,0.50 gm/5kg soil in pot), these levels equal (zero, 100, 200, kg/ha) in some growth characteristics of fenugreek plant. On This Acomplete Randomized Design (C.R.D) was dappled with 3 replications. Results indicated of clear increase in all the studied characteristics (length of plant, total chlorophyll content, No. of branches and No. of flowers at levels 400 kg urea/ha and 200 kg super phosphate/ha and its interaction as compard with other levels of urea and super phosphate.

Epidemiology of intestinal parasites which causing the diarrhea in healthcenter of Jidedat Al-Shat Diala.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 180-186

During the period from January /2007 till January /2008, an Epidemiological study was undertaken the type and percentage incidence of investigated with intestinal parasite among patients attending the health center of Jidedat Al-Shat in Diala province. Atotal of 161 fecal samples (97for males and 64 for females) were examined for people ranging from less than One years old to 70 years old. The direct smear method by using normal saline solution was used to examined fecal samples. The result of the present investigation reveald the occurrence of Five species of intestinal parasite: Four protozoan (Entamoeba histolytica , Giardia lamblia, E. coli and Trichomonas hominis ) and One intestinal helminthes Entrobius vermicularis , percentages of incidence with these parasites were : 65.15% , 28.795% , 3.03% ,1.515% and 1.515% respectively. The overall percentages of infection with all intestinal parasites were 41%.The result revealed a Hight signification differences in most intestinal parasite investigated with relation to sex of patient, age, stage of parasite (in male and female) and months of the year.

The democratic process in Iraq's post-2003between progress and retrogression

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 115-126

Iraq is one of the state that lead by dictator system know as one party and one person after crashing this system the politics statues is change in irag to flow the democracy system and allow to multi parties established - freedom of opinion and journalism . this experience start in irag in 9.4.2003 so result the army government – civil government after that come the irages government like translation gov. temporary gov. and the immorelle gov. this study talks about the important and base steps for each period in irag . this experience faced some defecltes and set bakes but the searchers found some maters if it done the experience will be succeed finely there is end and sources list .

N3O3 Hexanuclear Complexes type are Synthesized and Characterised from the reaction of Diphenylmonoxime with (Mn(II),Co(II),Ni(II),Cu(II),Zn(II), and Hg(II)) ions.

Ahmad Thabet Numan

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 29-39

The new Hexadentate complexes type [M(H3L3)]K were prepared from the condensation reaction of Diphenylmonoxime and KOH with (Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), and Hg(II)) in methanol with 3:1 ligand : metal ratio to give a series of new complexes of the general formula [M(H3L3)]K (where: M(II) = Mn ,Co ,N ,Cu ,Zn and Hg).All compounds have been Characterized by spectroscopic methods [I.R, U.v-Vis, atomic absorption and microanalysis (C.H.N) along with conductivity measurements. The stability constant K and Gibbs free energy ∆G were calculated for [Co (H3L3)] K, [Ni (H3L3)] K and [Cu (H3L3)] K and complexes using spectrophotometer method. The obtained values indicate that these complexes stable in their solution. From the above data the proposed molecular structure for complexes (Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), and Hg(II)) is octahedral structure about the metal ions.

Preparation and Characterization of Some Transition Metal Complexes with Schiff base of thiosemicarbazone

Methak. S. Mohammad

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 276-281

Aseries of new metal chelates of Ni(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) with Schiff base [ p-hydroxy acetophenone thiosemicarbazone]. The ligand was preparaed by condensation reaction between p- hydroxy acetophenone with thiosemicarbazide. The chelate complexes of Ni(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) have been prepared and identified by elemental analysis, molar conductance measurement, magnetic susceptibility measurement at room temperature, infrared and electronic spectra.

The influence of GA3 and NPK fertilizer on the content of some chemical compounds of wheat plant grain .

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 115-120

An experiment was conducted in the plastic house at Kalar Horticulture Station , Province of Sulaymania , during the growing season of 2006/2007. The soil was brought from one of the Kalar region fields . The aim of the experiment was to study the interaction between gibberellic acid at concentrations of (0 , 25 , 50 , 75 and 100) ppm and two levels of NPK 18:18:18 which equal (40 and 80) kg /d equivalent to 0.32 and 0.64 gm/pot , on some chemical constituents of wheat plant grains .
Factorial experiment within completely randomized design (C.R.D) with three replicates was adopted . Means were compared using ( L.S.D ) at 0.05 probability level .

Results showed that , increasing GA3 concentrations and NPK lievels significantly increased N,P,K and carbohydrate content in the grains of wheat plants . The interaction between 75 and 100 ppm GA3 with 80 kg/d NPK was positive giving the highest valves of the studied characteristics .

STUDY ON Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer 1767among some primary schools pupils in Diyala Province

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 334-339

To investigate the spread of head lice (Pediculis hnmanus capitis) among some primary schools pupils in Diyala province, 300 pupils of three primary schools (Baquba, Buhrz, Baladroz) were Monthly studied from nov. 2007- Jan. 2008.
Information form included the following were prepared:
Age, sex, the educational level of mother, the living level and number of individuals. (Population size).
The study appeared that 72 pupils were infected a mong the whole studie individuals, Highest rate of infection (40.9%) recorded among the pupils with 6- 7 years old, The females infections rate was higher than the rate of males of was higher that of males infections, as it was 30 % and 17.1% respectively. The educational level of mother has large effect on rate of infection as no infection was appeared among pupils with postgraduate mother (0%).
while The rate of infection reached 73.9% for poor pupils among the population highest rate of infection lived in high population individuals as the rate of infection was recorded 28.9% among the pupils. Livings in families with more than 7 individuals.

oAn automatic method for economic consuming of power by using photo transistors

Ahmad Daud; Daud .M.jassim; Abdullah umran Ali

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 1-7

The method in this paper is used as an auto shutdown and shut up the system of light lamps without operator as it is needed, this technique gives an economic and automatic way for saving electric energy. Also it is possible to use it for safe using against thieves or undesirable persons. And for alarm system which be start automatically and instantly.

Study of some physical and chemical properities of local honey and antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria

Hamid Gehad Al- Masudi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 40-45

The indiscriminate use of antibiotics made many microorganism develop resistance to them. This created immense clinical problems in the treatment of infectious disease, therefore ; there is need to develop alternative antimicrobial agents for the treatment of infectious disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physical and chemical properities of some different types of honey in Kerballa city(Helianthus L.,Zizyphus, Eucalyptus glodulus, Medicago satival ) such as water content, pH value, color, refractive index and electrical conductivity and detect the antimicrobial activity against some pathogenic bacteria(Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Proteus spp). The results showed that honey exhibited different antimicrobial activity against all bacterial species according to the type of plant where the bee feeded , which the MIC of the four samples was all up to (11.25%) against all tested bacteria ,also there is a correlation between the previous physical and chemical properities and the antimicrobial activity, on which the sample B showed a best antimicrobial activity due to the affect of pH value (4.88) and also because the enrichment of this sample with glucose, while sample A showed lowest results due to the prsence of metal ion that inhibite the production of toxic microbial compound hydrogen peroxide .

The interaction effect of GA3 and NPK fertilizer on some chemical compounds of wheat plant (Triticum aestivum L.)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 121-127

An experiment was conducted in the plastic house at Kalar Horticulture Station , Province of Sulaymania , during the growing season of 2006/2007. The soil was brought from one of the Kalar region fields . The aim of the experiment was to study the interaction between gibberellic acid at concentrations of (0 , 25 , 50 , 75 and 100) ppm and two levels of NPK 18:18:18 which equal (40 and 80) kg /d equivalent to 0.32 and 0.64 gm/pot , on some chemical constituents of wheat plant grains .
Factorial experiment within completely randomized design (C.R.D) with three replicates was adopted . Means were compared using ( L.S.D ) at 0.05 probability level .

Results showed that , increasing GA3 concentrations and NPK lievels significantly increased N,P,K and carbohydrate content in the grains of wheat plants . The interaction between 75 and 100 ppm GA3 with 80 kg/d NPK was positive giving the highest valves of the studied characteristics .

Caries experience and treatment need among students of health and medical technologies college.

Ola Mohammed Abdullah; Sebeha Mehdy Kanaan; Amal Abdul latif Rashid

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 206-212

250 students from Health and Medical Technology Collage, who aged was between (19-22 years) where choiced randomly from 1239 students(the total number of the college) and they were conducted to oral health survey. The aim of this study was to assess the oral health status and treatment needs for these students. The WHO criteria (1987) were used to assess the individual tooth status and treatment needs. This study has shown that the mean DMFT per subject was found to be 7.2 and there was no caries-free subject in the examined sample. Female had higher caries experience than male.

Results have demonstrated that the mean number of filled teeth per subject was 2.4. The mean of filled teeth in females were highly significant difference with males (P value > 0.001). The mean number of missing teeth per subject was 0.7. The mean of missing teeth in females was not significant with male (P value 0.93) and the mean number of decayed teeth per subject was found to be 4.2. The mean number of decayed teeth in female was not significant with males (P value 0.45). The percentage of teeth that need filling 96 %, teeth need crown abutment was 34%, teeth need bridge element was 36%, teeth need pulp care was 1.6 %, and teeth need extraction was 7.2%. From this study we can conclude that both age and gender had a statistically significant association with DMFT.

Effect of Fire Flam on Properties of Plain and Reinforced Concrete Beams

Mahdi Saleh Essa

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 167-183

In the present study, compressive strength, rate of free drying shrinkage of plane concrete and load-deflection behavior of reinforced concrete beam specimens under the effect of fire flame exposure are presented. Plain concrete (150mm) cube specimens and (100*100*500mm) prisms were subjected to fire flame temperatures ranging between (25-550 ºC) at different ages of 30 and 60 days. Two temperature levels of 400 ºC and 550 ºC were chosen with two different exposure durations of 0.5 and 1.0 hour. Cube compressive strength and rate of drying shrinkage were explored after fire flame exposure and compared with the control (unburned) specimens.
Ten rectangular reinforced concrete beam specimens (100*150*1000mm) were cast and subjected to fire flame at temperature levels of 400 ºC and 550 ºC, with two periods of exposure 0.5 and 1.0 hour. These beam specimens were tested in flexure until failure after exposure to fire flame and the load – deflection relationship was recorded and compared with that of the control (unburned) beam specimens.
Based on the results of this research, the compressive strength of concrete was affected adversely by fire flame and the degree of damage increases when the fire temperature and/or period of exposure were raised. For the fire temperatures and periods of exposure investigated, the residual compressive strength ranged between (70-78%) at 400 ºC and (59-65%) at 550 ºC burning temperature.
It was found that the exposure to fire flames increases the rate and intensity of drying shrinkage of free concrete prisms. This increase was found to reach 50% if temperature of fire approaches 550 ºC.
It was noticed that the load-deflection relationship of reinforced concrete beams exposed to fire flame is more leveled representing softer load-deflection behavior than that of the control beams. Also, it was found that both the ultimate resisted load and moment carrying capacity decrease remarkably after fire exposure. This can be attributed to the early cracking and lower modulus of elasticity. Also, it was found that the temperature distribution through the thickness of beam is identical for all the beams which have the same thickness

Effect of type and length cutting in some vegetative and root growth objectivities of Populus euphratica

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 229-234

A field experiment was applied in college of Agriculture – Kerbala’a University from 17112008 to 1632009 on 3 types of populus cuttings(base , middle and terminal) for 3 length (7 , 14 and 21) cm for each them.
The results show that the base cuttings was the best significant in leaf area , root length , fresh roots weight and dry roots weight compared with middle cuttings.
Length of cuttings was also significant effect in all studied objectivities , cuttings with length 21cm was the best compared with other treatment in average of leafs number , fresh leafs weight ,dry leafs weight and root length ; while the cuttings with 14cm was given high average of leaf area ; the cuttings with 7cm was given best high average in fresh roots weight and dry roots weight.
There was no significant interference between cutting type and length in leafs number , fresh leafs weight and dry leafs weight.
Three terminal cuttings have been excluded from the study because of not giving any percentage germination and reason is a lack of carbohydrates accumulated by and encouraging the formation of roots in addition to the exposure with the rest of transactions during the period of the experiment to a sudden drop in temperatures led to a damage and death entirely , therefore the limited research on two types of base and middle cuttings.

Design and Analyzing Study of an Energy Saving Scheme For an Industrial Distribution Network in Baghdad Region Using Professional Power System Software (EDSA)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 101-111

This paper presents an attempt to study and analysis of an existing practical case of power factor correction for an 11 kV industrial distribution network in the Baghdad Region in the State of Iraq. The industrial power distribution networks of the State of Iraq and, also, in any country in the world, would have inductive loads at low power factor. One of the best solutions for the problem of low power factor or lagging current problem is commonly done by connecting shunt VAR compensation elements such as shunt capacitors bank or local capacitors at the desired locations to achieve the power factor correction. Shunt capacitors bank utilization in the power factor correction will produce economic saving in capital expenditures through the reduction of power losses through the distribution network which is the main goal of this study. In this study, the professional power system software (EDSA) has been used in developing the network model for the first time in Iraq. The power flow solution has been used in the determination of the energy after adding the shunt capacitors (i.e. after power factor correction). The on-site power factor enhancements and energy measurements have been conducted and verified by the network model that was developed by the professional power system software (EDSA), while Newton-Raphson method has been used to obtain the Power flow solution. Many goals have been achieved in this study, where in spite of the annual reduction in losses or energy saving of 120.96 MWhr (435456 MJ of energy for every one year), the power factor is enhanced to an excellent value (nearly 95 %), where reaching this value for such industrial loads give a remarkable excellent condition.

Using A pericyclic Reactions for The Synthesis of New 1,3-Oxazepine Compounds From New Imines

Zaid Hassan Abood

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 354-370

In this research new1,3-oxazepine derivatives[6-11] were prepared starting from new Schiff bases [4] and [5]. 5,5'-{[3-(Methoxycarbonyl)-4-oxocyclohexa-2,5-dienylidene]methylene}bis(2-methoxybenzoate) [2] was prepared by reaction of 5,5'-[(3-carboxy-4-oxocyclohexa-2,5-dienylidene)methylene]bis(2-hydroxybenzoic acid) [1] with dimethyl sulphate in presence of anhydrous sodium carbonate in dry acetone. The trihydrazide derivative [3] was obtained from treatment of triester derivative [2] with hydrazine monohydrate in absolute ethanol. Reaction of the trihydrazide derivative [3] with each Furfural and Salicyladehyde, respectively, in presence of glacial acetic acid as catalyst in absolute ethanol resulted the formation of new triimine derivatives [4] and [5], respectively. Treatment of the resulting imines [4] and [5] with each maleic anhydride, phthalic anhydride and 3-nitrophthalic anhydride, respectively, under cycloaddition reactions conditions produced new tri(1,3-oxazepine) derivatives [6-8] and [9-11] respectively. These new imines and 1,3-oxazepine derivatives may be used as antibiotics.
The structures of all prepared compounds were confirmed by C. H. N. elementary analysis and FT-IR spectra.

Polycystic ovary syndrome is associated with a more pronounced atherogenic lipid profile.


journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 345-353

ألخلاصة مرض تكييس المبايض هو قصور في عمل المبايض من حيث الاباضه ,ويرافق ذلك صعود في تركيز الهرمونات الذكرية في مصل الدم,كما ويرتبط بوجود بعض العوامل التي تمثل خطورة الاصابه بأمراض ألاوعيه ألدموية للقلب .هدف البحث يهدف هذا البحث لدراسة التغيرات الايضيه التي تحصل في الدهون في مصل الدم في مريضات تكييس المبايض وتأثير زيادة الهرمونات ألذكريه والسمنة لدى المريضات على هذه التغييرات.خطة البحث اجري البحث على ثمانين مريضه من المتزوجات ويعانون من العقم,وقد تم تشخيصهم مسبقا في معهد أبحاث الاجنه وعلاج العقم ,جامعة النهرين ,بغداد.ولأجل ألمقارنه تم إجراء نفس التحاليل على عشرين امراة لا تعاني من العقم أو المرض .وقد تم فحص الهرمونات والدهون على المجموعتين.النتائج لوحظ في هذه الدراسة زيادة معنوية في تراكيز الهرمونات في المريضات عند مقارنة النتائج مع هرمونات النساء الأصحاء أما بالنسبة للدهون فهناك زيادة في تراكيز الدهون الثلاثية والكلسترول والبروتين ذو الدهون واطئة الكثافة مع نقص معنوي في البروتين ذو الدهون عالية الكثافة عند مقارنتها مع التراكيز في النساء الأصحاء. الاستنتاج تم التوصل إلى إن ألسمنه وزيادة الهرمونات لدى مريضات تكييس المبايض يؤثر بشكل معنوي على الايض الحيوي للدهون في مصل الدم ,مما يشكل خطورة الإصابة بأمراض ألاوعيه الدموية للقلب.

Possibility of adopting and applying the concept of electronic banking - survey of a sample of commercial banks in the city of Dohuk

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 127-146

Electronic banking is now currently the focus of attention by the departments in the financial and banking institutions for this service feature is the speed in the management of the service has distinguished this service adopted by the banks from other banks, which still depend other traditional service was therefore a modest contribution to this research to determine the extent the possibility of adoption and implementation of electronic banking in our banks, particularly in the Iraqi province of Dohuk and the extent to benefit from the use of technology in the performance of this service and search out the conclusions and specific recommendations.

Viscosity and Density of Urea Dissolved in Ammonium phosphate’s solution at different temperature.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 213-223

Densities (ρ) and viscosities (η) of urea in Ammonium phosphate solution at different temperature (298.15, 303.15and308.15) K have been measured. The results were used to determine the apparent molar volumes (∅v) and limiting partial molar volumes (∅v°), slop (Sν), Gibbs energy of activation for viscous flow of solution ∆G∗1, 2 and Jones – Doles B coefficients. The results show that solvated Urea shows different types of solute – solute interactions as a result of its dissociation spatially at low concentrations. The results also show that the solvated urea has the property of breaking structure of liquid ammonium phosphate solution with increasing temperature.

Evaluation of drinking Water From bacteriological sidein Al-najaf Al-Ashraff governorate

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 195-200

This comparison study carried out in Al-najaf Al-Ashraff governorate to evaluate the authorities of drinking water for human consumption of bacteriological contamination and amount of residual chlorine concentration, Between June 2007 and June 2008, the study showed.

Presence of contamination in drinking water in some areas in Al-najaf especially in (Al-meshkhab – Al horria - monathera) ,through out employee the bacteriological examination which been included total count of aerobic bacteria(TCAB) , total coliform bacteria(TC).and showing the results of total coliform bacteria examination in both years was Al-meshkhab in first step (25 Cells/100 ml), AL-horria (10 Cells /100ml)and monathera (4 Cells/100ml) according to the geographical locations there are no difference in contamination rate for areas during the last two years ,and no highly difference in number of coliform bacteria ,was more than the accepted value (according to the WHO and Iraqi ministry of health recommendation) .
This study showed difference in residual chlorine concentration rate which be added to the water in 2007 more than 2008.While the rising of chlorine concentration reach to (3.5Mg/L), the highly concentration in drinking water lead to cancer disease in the human body.


journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 23-28

The frequent problems that occur with denture bases is fracture ,that caused by such factors as poor fitting of the denture base, poorly balanced occlusion and other problems after years of used.
(30) specimens of acrylic resin were prepared and divided into (3) groups according to curing treatment and types of acrylic resin denture base as follow :. (10) specimens made from heat cured acrylic without metal wire as a control group, (10) specimens made from cold-cured acrylic resin without metal wire, and (10) specimens made from cold – cured acrylic resin with metal wire.
The results showed that, the transverse strength of cold- cured acrylic resin specimens with metal wire were statistically significant different when compared with the two other specimens of heat cure acrylic resin [control group] without metal wire and cold-cure acrylic resin without metal wire

The optimum economic method for fattening Iraqi lambs with different periods of fasting pre- slaughtering

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 101-109

This study was conducted in the animal field that belongs to Animal Resource Dept.,College of Agriculture and Forestry,Mosul University. Sixteen local males lambs were used at the began of fasting process with age about 7-8 months and initial weight average 38.200 kg , were divided randomly into four groups and then distributed randomly into four treatments. The treatments consisted of different fasting periods which were 0 (control), 12 , 24 and 36 hours pre-slaughtering lambs. During this study the animals were fed about 1 kg of concentrate diet / day for each animal, Moreover these animals went out to graze for pastures about five hours period every day through this experiment as a flushing for one month before slaughtering operations.The statistical analysis of the initial weight are non significant.The results indicated that the average of liveweight of lambs were increased through the feeding period on the flushing ration.The average of daily weight gains of these lambs were 293,246,222,250 gm/animal/day of four groups respectively since the first day of starting of the experiment until conducting the fasting period.The results indicated that there were depression in liveweight percentage of lambs which were 3.31,4.39,4.27% respectively for the second, third and fourth groups when compared with control group (first).Moreover, the results indicated that where increase in net revenue for the last three experimental groups when compared with control group (first).The net revenue were 0.920,100.930,104.761,105.840 dinars of four groups respectively. The total costs of feeding was depression with increased fasting period before slaughtering in the experimental lambs groups (second, third and fourth treatments) while the total costs of feeding was stable on along feeding period in control group (first) which equal about 185 dinars per lamb.

Synthesis and Theoretical Study ofNew 2- Bromobenzaldehyde [ 5-(2-hydroxyphenyl ) – 1,3,4–oxadiazol –2–yl ] hydrazone and some of their Transition Metal complexes

Moslem Hassan Mohamed AL-saadi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 63-79

A new derivative of 2 – bromobenzoldehyde [ 5 – ( 2 – hydroxyphenyl )–1,3,4–oxadiazole–2–yl] hydrazone was prepared , which was used as ligand to prepare a number of metal complexes with following transition metal salts Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) .
The structure elucidation of the prepared complexes was atomic absorption technique also the IR , UV as well as the molar conductance and the magnetic susceptibility were studied . The molar ratio metal : ligand was determined by continuous variation . The Semi – Empirical ( PM3 ) was used to study of the geometry of free ligand and complexes as well as to calculate total energy , binding energy , heat of formation , bond length , theoretical IR and UV spectra . The results are compared with the experimental data , probable structures of the complexes have been assigned .

Evaluation of Serum Soluble Interleukin -2 Receptor level in Diagnosis of Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Eham Amir Ali; PhD

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 269-275

Background: This study aimed to assess the potential clinical utility of serum level of serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) as a diagnostic tool in rheumatoid arthritis disease (RA). This study investigate the association between serum sIL-2R levels with other parameters used for estimation of RA such as rheumatoid factor (RF), erythrocytes sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and uric acid.
Methods: Serum sIL-2R levels, measured by ELISA, were evaluated in 25 RA patients who have positive RF. SIL-2R values were compared with those of 25 normal controls and the correlation with the other parameters was analyzed.
Results: Compared with the healthy control group, RA patients tended to have significantly higher serum sIL-2R and ESR concentrations (P<0.001). While no significant difference between both groups in serum uric acid. Positive serum CRP (CRP level>6mg/dl) were found in 58% of patients. The sIL-2R level was positively correlated with RF and ESR, while a slight positive correlation with uric acid. Serum sIL-2R showed a highly sensitivity and specificity for the patients with positive RF.

Conclusions: sIL-2R levels may be useful, sensitive, and specific marker for diagnostic of RA

Effect of NAA on physiology of growth and ripening of date palm fruits (Phoenix dactylifera L) cv.Barhi.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 156-175

This investigation was carried out to study the effect of NAA (0,50,100) ppm in physiology of growth and ripening of Barhi date fruits . The treatment of fruits with concentration of (100 ppm) led to increase fresh weight of fruit and size, total soluble solids and total and reducing sugars. NAA also increase respiration rate , ethylene production and vit. C, reduce total acidity and fatty compounds in treated fruits as compared with control .

Optical characteristics of ZnO:Al thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering

Reem Saadi Khaleel; Mustafa Shakir Hashim; Najiba Abdulla Hassan

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 224-230

Undoped and Al doped ZnO samples with 1.05 wt% of Al were synthesized by magnetron sputtering method. We have studied optical properties of the samples in spectral range (300 – 900)nm.The XRD spectra shows that the films have polycrystalline structure with hexagonal phase. Al impurities do not causes observable action on structure of the films , but it reduce the optical transmittance of ZnO and reduce also optical band gap (Eg) from 3.2 eV to 2.8607 eV . Reflectance, Extinction Coefficient (K0), Absorption Coefficient (α) and Refractive index (n) have higher values for ZnO:Al compared with that for ZnO.


journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 46-55

When denture is worn in the mouth for considerable period of time, it will become colonized with microorganisms and causing denture stomatitis, it is commonly found in the maxillary arch, rarely in the mandibular arch, and it is not uncommon under removable partial denture base in the maxillary arch. Denture trauma, allergy, poor oral hygiene, PH level of saliva, age, sex, smoking and immune system deficiency are generally regarded as etiological factors in denture stomatitis .The significant causes of denture stomatitis are trauma and infection with Candida species .The most important predisposing factor for Candida induced denture stomatitis is the presence of denture or any appliances in the oral cavity, indirectly, this has been proved since removal of the denture will cause the infection to disappear. Prosthetic treatments include removal of dentures, lining of dentures, making new denture and disinfection of dentures. In this study mixed Nystatin and Fluconozale (antifungal agent) with acrylic resin and evaluated the effect of these materials on some mechanical properties (hardness strength & impact strength).
This study was clearly shown that statistically non significant differences in shore hardness strength of Fluconozale group and Nystatin group, and highly significant difference in impact strength of Fluconozale group and Nystatin group when compared with control groups .This mean the Fluconozale & Nystatin less effect on hardness strength, but more effect on impact strength.

Flood Routing by Linear Muskingum Method in Tigris River using Computer Programs

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 249-269

Flood subject represents a danger subject for many people and countries which have rivers like Iraq, thus to thought in ways of flood routing & assess out flow discharge river.
Flood routing divided into two kinds, hydraulic & Hydrology. Each one of them has properties & features. One of the most important method of routing is the Linear and Non-Linear Muskingham flood routing method.
Baiji station has been selected as a case study because outflow & inflow discharges data for a constant period are available.
Linear and Non-Linear Muskingham Method is applied using modern computer language ( Mat Lab – Version 6.5 – Release 13). It working with Windows environmental. For each method, we do two programs: the first is to calculate the variables (X,K,m) and the second is to calculate outflow from the Baiji station. Results of the first program for Non-Linear is analyzed in statistical program (SPSS) to calculate linear correlation factor. Also a new method are created (Mixing method) between Linear & Non-Linear, then separate it in another program & use statistical program for it. With insert all necessary statistical graphs and discharges comparisons graphs.
Results of Linear Muskingham method is better than Non-Linear & more adequate and close to real data, also when it is used in the third method, it was the best. Results for Non-Linear has been canceled when it use in third method.

Study the obesity effect and its associated diseases on the lipid profile and albumin levels in obese individual

Narjis Hadi Mansoor Al-Saadi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 80-89

Obesity refers to body mass index (BMI) greater than 30 kg/ m2. This study was conducted on the 44 obese subjects their biomass index over than 30 and 27 non-obese healthy control. Parameter assessed were (BMI) weight in kg / hight2 in meter, lipid profile, and albumin. The results revealed that there are highly significant increase (p<0.001) in concentration of cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL and significantly increased (p<0.01) in concentration of HDL comparing with the control. In addition albumin concentration was non significant difference (p>0.05) comparing with the control. The statistical analysis demonstrated that there wasn’t significant difference (p>0.05) in lipid profile and albumin concentration between male and female but there was highly significant increase (p< 0.001) in female BMI comparing with male. When the subjects were classified into two groups depending on associated diseases, the result showed that there was highly significant increased (p<0.0001) in concentration of cholesterol, triglycerides and VLDL in obese subjects with diseases (57%) comparing with healthy obese subjects (43%). Also there was significant increase (p<0.05) in concentration of HDL and albumin in obese subjects with diseases when comparing with healthy obese, Whereas LDL concentration was significantly increased (p<0.01). In contrast when classified the subjects according to their age, group1 (18-40) year and group2 (41-80) year. The results appear that there were no significant differences (p>0.05) in concentration of lipid profile and albumin between these groups. Significant correlations were found between BMI and LDL in obese female (p<0.05) whereas there were significant correlation between BMI and HDL (p<0.01) and significant correlation between BMI with each VLDL and triglycerides (p<0.05) in obese male. In addition there wasn’t significant correlation between age and lipid profile according to Pearson's coefficient.
The objective of this study was to validate the relationship of lipid profile with many diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, and coronary heart diseases in obese subjects comparing with healthy non-obese.

Study of Inhibition activity of placenta and cord blood and aqueous extract of Eucalyptus comaldulensis and Rhus coriaria againstMethicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA Multiple Resistant of Antibiotics.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 323-333

Tow hand red seventy one placenta and cod samples were collected from women 20-40 years contacting the Educational Hospital for childhood and gynecology in AL-Diwaniya city during the period from oct 2008 until Apnl 2009. Methicilln resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA is olatel , whicl had the ability to produce haemolysin , coagulase and B- lactamase .

Results of this Study showed IgG concentration in placenta and cord blood 229Iu/ml, 222Iu/ml while in control 115iu/ml. while IgM and IgA concentration in placenta and cord blood 0 iu/ml while in control 116,139 Iu/ml.

It was also found that inhibition activity of placenta and cord blood to MRSAwere 55, 60. the results also showed optimium time to react placenta and cord blood in inhibition activity or killing higher rate of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA was 30 minute.

The cold aqueous extract of Eucalyptus comaldulensis leaves, Since it has Strong
inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus aureus MRSA especially in high concentrations followed by heat aqueous extract of this Plant. Wile the cold aqueous extract of Rhus cariaria cane in secondary stage after Eucalptus camaldulenis plant followed by heat aqueous extract of this plant.

A Decision – Theoretic Bayesian ApproachFor Selecting the Best of Gamma PopulationsWith General Loss Function

Samira Faisal Hathot

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 318-325

Statistical selection procedures are used to select the best of a finite set of alternatives. This paper derives a procedure for selecting the best of two Gamma populations employing a decision-theoretic Bayesian framework with general loss function with Exponential prior .
The numerical result of this procedure are given with different loss functions constant , linear and quadratic , where in one equation we can obtain the Bayes risk for the three types of the loss functions : constant , linear and quadratic . in this paper the numerical results are given by using Math Works Matlab ver. 7.0.1 .

STUDY ON Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer 1767among some primary schools pupils in Diyala Province

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 334-339

لمعرفة مدى انتشار قمل الرأس بين تلامذة بعض المدارس الابتدائية في مركز محافظة ديالى (بعقوبة، بهرز، بلدروز)، للفترة من تشرين الثاني 2007 إلى كانون الثاني 2008 تم إعداد استمارة تضمنت المعلومات الآتية: العمر والجنس والمستوى التعليمي للأم والمستوى المعيشي للأسرة وعدد الإفراد. أظهرت الدراسة إصابة 72 تلميذ من مجموع التلاميذ قيد الدراسة 300 تلميذ وسجلت اعلي نسبة للإصابة 40.9% بين التلاميذ بعمر 7-6 سنة، أظهرت الإناث نسبة إصابة أعلى من الذكور بلغت 30% و17.1% على التتالي، أتضح أن المستوى العلمي للأم له تأثير على نسبة الإصابة حيث لم تظهر أية إصابة بين التلاميذ من أمهات حملة الشهادة الجامعية. بلغت نسبة الإصابة 73.9% لتلاميذ من ذوي المستوى المعيشي الضعيف. وقد سجلت أعلى نسبة للإصابة %28.9 بين تلاميذ من أسرة عدد أفرادها يزيد على 7 فرد.

The effect of denture cleanser on the surface roughness of heat-cure acrylic denture base resin

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 56-62

Back ground: The polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) polymer is the most popular dental resin for denture base in dentistry since many years. Rough surface are likely to occur unavoidably during the construction of a dental appliance. An acrylic denture base may exhibit minor surface roughness which needs to be removed before the denture to be polished, this roughness if not removed it will effects the mechanical properties of denture base and render it more dental plaque and satin retainer eventually less hygienic.
Aims of the study: In present study we examined the effect of denture cleanser on the surface roughness of heat-cure polymerized acrylic denture base resin.
Material and method: (50) specimens of pink heat-cure acrylic resin were prepared with dimensions of (65 mm x10 mm x 3 mm) length, width and depth respectively according to ADA specifications 1975. The specimens were divided into (2) groups: control group consist of (25) specimens socked in distilled water and experimental group consist of (25) specimens socked in denture cleanser (protefix active ) about 15 minutes for (14) days.The surface roughness measured by (Talysurf 4).
Results: The results showed a significant differences at (P < 0.05), as compared with control group.
Conclusion: it can be concluded that the surface roughness of acrylic denture base increased with the frequent used of denture cleansers.

MINDO/3-FORCES Study On Some Monosubstituted Triafulvalenes. Vibrational Spectra

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 421-429

تم نظريا إيجاد ترددات الأنماط الاهتزاز الأساسية (3N-6) و شدد امتصاص الأشعة تحت الحمراء المقابلة لها إضافة إلى التعيين الكامل لكل نمط من هذه الأنماط في جزيئات الترايافولفيلينات احادية التعويض للمعوضات H , CN, OH, NO2 , NH2 , CH3 و cyclopropyl وذلك باستخدام طريقة حساب تعتمد على نموذج الميندو 3- فورسيز الشبه التجريبي. كذلك وجدت علاقة بين قيم الترددات لبعض هذه الأنماط الاهتزازية في جزيئات الترايافولفيلينات احادية التعويض المدروسة .



journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 90-100

Background: post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the characteristic symptoms following the psychological traumatic event which is generally outside the range of usual human experience. These involve: re-experiencing the traumatic event, numbing of responsiveness to or reduced involvement with human external world and a variety of autonomic, dysphoric or cognitive symptoms.
Objectives: to estimate the presenting symptoms of PTSD in Iraqi patients.

Methods: this is a cross sectional study that enrolled 140 patients with PTSD who had been attended the outpatient clinic of psychiatric unit at Al-Diwaniyah Teaching Hospital during period between the 1st of March 2009 -1 AUGUST 2009. PTSD diagnosed according to criteria of structural clinical interview for diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorder text revision (DSM-IV-TR).

Result: this study revealed that 100% patients having PTSD. This is consistent with the conditions found in the DSM-IV-TR. The study also referred to symptoms of accompanying neurotic disorders in the individuals of the sample, such as depressive symptoms (73%), enduring personality changes (59%), generalized anxiety disorder (56%), and adjustment disorder (48%). Delayed form of PTSD was found in 54% of patients. 95 patient out of 140 patient had wish to seek help.

Conclusions: this study proved that the associated disorders, as depression or anxiety, may overlap diagnosis PTSD. The study proved that the symptom of PTSD increased in percentage in the Iraqi patients due to exposing them to three wars, economic embargo, and the present state of terrorism; so it became a problem that needs care and attention of the specialists, and the cooperation of different governmental establishments and civil society organizations.


journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 119-132

This paper consider of scheduling n identical jobs with unequal ready times on m parallel uniform machines to minimize the maximum earliness . To solve this lower bound is derived and it is incorporated in a branch-and-bound algorithm, and introduces six simple single-pass heuristic procedures that approximate the optimal solution. On sample problems, the branch-and-bound procedure in most instances was able to find an optimal solution within 1,000,000 iterations with n ≤ 60 and m ≤ 3. For larger values of m, the heuristics provided approximate solutions close to the optimal values.

Effect of Different Polymerization curing times and Water Temperatures on Transverse Strength of Self-Cure Acrylic Resin Material

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 326-332

The self-cured acrylic resin is inferior to heat cured acrylic resin from stand point of strength and degree of polymerization. Many attempts have been made to improve these properties.
Because heat affects maturity of the chemical reaction of acrylic resin therefore its maintenance during polymerization will affect the mechanical properties of cured resin. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of different curing time and heat application during polymerization of the self-cured acrylic resin on transverse strength compared with that polymerized in air at 23C ± 5C.
Nineteen (90) Self-cured acrylic resin specimens were prepared and divided as follow:- (10) specimens polymerized in air at 23C  5C under press (bench curing) as a control group. (40) specimens polymerized in water at 20C, 40C, 60C, and 80C, under (30 psi) pressure for 15 minutes . (40) specimens polymerized in water at 20C, 40C, 60C, and 80C, under (30 psi) pressure for 30 minutes. All specimens were tested for transverse strength.
Results showed that self-cured acrylic resin specimens polymerized in 15 minutes has a significant lower transverse strength than polymerized in 30 minutes. The transverse strength of the test specimens polymerized in water at 20C lower than control group, while all degree of polymerization improved transverse strength, however, in 80C highest transverse strength compared with the other temperatures control group.
It can be concluded that increasing curing time and water temperature during polymerization will improve transverse strength of self-cured acrylic resin.

Temperature Effect in Some Mechanical and Rheological Properties for Poly (Hydroxyethyl cellulose) high viscosity

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 235-248

Some of mechanical and rheological properties of poly Hydroxyethyl cellulose dissolves in distilled water for different concentration from (0.1%) to (0.8%)gm/ml concentrations in temperature (20oC , 30oC 40oC , 50oC) had been studied.
With respect to the mechanical properties, the ultrasonic velocity had been measured by ultrasonic waves system of frequency (26 KHz), other properties had been calculated such as: absorption coefficient of ultrasonic wave, relaxation time, compressibility, relaxation time, bulk modulus, relaxation amplitude and specific acoustic impedance. All these measurements were carried at different temperature (20oC 30oC 40 oC , 50oC).
These properties are rheological properties such as: shear viscosity and its different Kinds, Viscosity average molecular weight, effective molecular radius and density where the viscosity was measured by using Ostwald viscometer.
The results show that properties have exponential or linear increment with the increase of concentration except compressibility decreasing with the increase of the concentration at different temperature.

Evaluation and Comparison of Soft and Hard Handovers inUniversal Mobile Telecommunication (UMTS) Networks

Haider Galil Al-Qurabi; Hawraa H. Abbas Al-Rubiae; Ahmed Abdulhadi Ahmed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 231-243

Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) is a third generation mobile communication technology based on Wideband Code Division Multiple Access CDMA (WCDMA) and can facilitate the users in much better way as compared to the second generation of mobile communication. UMTS is superior to second generation in terms of bandwidth efficiency, quality of service, speech quality, speed and capacity.
This paper focused on soft and hard handover techniques in UMTS networks and conducted a performance comparison between soft and hard handovers. The project divided into two scenarios: soft handover and hard handover. Soft handover produces better results in terms of uplink transmission power and enables the mobiles to perform the handover at lower power levels. Soft handover benefit from a concept called "soft handover gain" and the network can lower the quality block error ratio (BLER) below the requested level, then the transmission power can be kept at lower levels during soft handover while still providing the same quality to higher layer.
In order to simulate typical UMTS scenarios, OPNETv14 modeler is used and a number of users are generating traffic and are free to move in various cells

. Effect of Cadmium Toxicity in Some Biological Aspects To Water Fleas Daphnia pulex Müller 1785

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 316-322

The main objectives of the present study was to determine the toxicity effects of cadmium ion on the reproductive potential of Daphnia pulex Müller females. by finding the LC50 and Chronic effect on reproduction potential assimilated by finding brood number / female, Juvenile number / female and time intervals between clutches.
And we fined that LC50 for cadmium for 24 hour exposure was 30 ppb. As well in chronic exposure we used the Concentrations (5, 10, 15, 20, 25) ppb Cadmium appeared its toxic effects by reducing brood numbers for each female, So and appeared its toxic effect by increasing its time intervals between Clutches while the Concentrations used increased, and there are significant differences appeared between Control sample and Concentrations used so and so between concentrations used.
Number of Juvenile per female decreased by increasing Cadmium Concentration either for productive females only or for productive and non prod actives, Lastly Cadmium had Clearly toxic effect for total stages of reproductive Potecntial for D. pulex Females

Effect of some chemicals and antibiotics on activity of lyophilized lactic acid bacteria

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 78-82

This research was aimed to study the effect of 3 ,4 and 5℅ concentration of sodium chloride and 0.01 , 0.05 and 0.1℅ of methylene blue on freeze _dried lactic acid bacteria that grown in milk agar media .
Results been found that Streptococcus lactis was more resistance than other sort in opposite to Streptococcus thermophilus which showed more sensitivity to different concentrations that used of both chemicals . Otherwise ,Streptococcus thermophilus was more sensitive to different concentration of penicillin and tetracycline in compare with others .Coccus bacteria resisted these antibiotics more than Bacillus bacteria.

Biscuit manufacturing from wheat flour enriched with different percentages of bran

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 300-306

The wheat bran was added to wheat flour grade zero at 5,10 and 15%, designated hereafter by A,B and C respectively. The grade zero flour was represented by R as a control. Protein percent, moisture content, ash, fibers and gluten were determined. Biscuit was prepared according to Brennan and Samyue method. The diameter and thickness of the sliced product were measured. Qualitative elements were evaluated by 10 referees. Results revealed an increase in the protein per cent, ash, and fiber with increasing the bran per cent in the flour. On the other hand, the moisture content and the gluten percentages were decreased as well as the diameter and the thickness of the sliced biscuit as the bran per cent increased. The results appeared differences in the color, mouth feel, flavor and shape of biscuit between treated and untreated wheat flour. Wheat flour enriched with 15% bran was more acceptable by the referees according to the above mentioned characteristics but less acceptable in the term of the shape as compared with B, A and R, although the differences were not significant. It could be concluded that, it is possible that, addition of 15% bran to the wheat flour zero grade would be possible to produce biscuit with acceptable quality.

Study the Effect of Dimensional Design inside the Discharge Tube of an Electrothermal Accelerator on Axial produced Plasma

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 137-147

This paper is a study of the effect of the dimensional design factors of the discharge tube inside an Electrothermal Accelerator on the axial plasma produced inside the tube. A theoretical approach has been investigated on the base of our previous experimental researches and on the base of universal researches in this field. A low-pressure coaxial discharge is investigated theoretically on the base of one- dimensional axial fluid model. This type of surface-wave-plasma source is relatively new in comparison to the classical cylindrical plasma column sustained by an electromagnetic surface wave. In the coaxial structure the dielectric tube is filled with air at normal pressure and a metal rod is arranged at its axis. The plasma is produced outside the dielectric tube in a low-pressure chamber by an electromagnetic wave traveling along the plasma- dielectric interface. The plasma is both radially and axially inhomogeneous. In this paper we have investigated theoretically the role of metal rod and dielectric tube radii on the wave and plasma characteristics on the base of one- dimensional axial fluid model

Evaluation of the Calcium role in the growth of soaking seeds wheat in it's solutions .

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 187-194

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the role of Calcium by soaking the seeds of wheat in different solutions of Calcium for 24 hrs. and by following plants growth in sand culture . Results revealed significant increases in the germination and speed ratio and also in plants growth , i.e. plant height , it's dry and fresh weights and leaf area . The effect of Calcium chloride solution was not significantly different from Calcium sulfate solution and the 6mM concentration was more effective then the other concentrations in this experiment

Topological Direct Projective Modules

Hussein Abed Al-Hussein Abbas

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 112-118

In this search obtain the following results on a topological direct projective modules:

1. A topological direct sum of two topological direct projective modules is topologically direct projective .
2. Topological quasi projectivity of module implies topological direct projectivity of it is topological direct summands .
3. Topological quotient module of topological quasi projective module by topological stable sub module is topological direct projective module

Effect of aqueous extracts of Eucalyptus, Myrtus and Nerium leaves on weed weight accompanied with growth of wheat Triticum aestivum L.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 31-39

An experiment was conducted at Al-Mishkhab Experimental Research Station, to study the effects of water extracts of Eucalyptus, Myrtus and Nerium plant leaves on weed weight accompanied with growth of wheat. Extraction was done by cold water (at room temperature) and boiled water. to prepare concentrations of 25% , 50%, 75% and 100% as well as the control treatment (distilled water).
Results showed that water extracts of Eucalyptus, Myrtus and Nerium plant leaves reduced weed dry weights. ,. Myrtus water leaf extract gave the lightest weed dry weights compared to the other two leaf extracts.
It was noticed that, weed dry weights were inhibited with an increase in the concentration of all leaf extracts .Mean weed dry weights reduced to 5.60g/m2 for wide weed leaf compared to narrow weed leaf which their mean dry weight was 8.0 g/m2.

Design and Implementation of a Secure E-learning System for the Wireless Networks

Abbas Fadhil Mohammed Ali AL-Juboori

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 304-317

In this paper ,the proposed system was presented and it divided into two parts . First one is the designer or ( Administrator ) part who can control on all options of the system in managing and updating all information included in the data base of the system .The second is the user part who can navigate in all environments of the system to give the required knowledge. Very important subject was selected to include it in the secure e-learning system which is (wireless networks) because it is very important topic in the computer and communication world . The capabilities of the system are (add , delete, update, search) for data base of the system . The security was supported in the system by using the password technique. The system includes audio (music) effect to make the user more relax when he browses the pages.The system was designed by using Apache server , PHP, HTML, Web Page Maker , and MYSQL for data base .

Finite Element Analysis of Non-Prismatic Prestressed Concrete Double Tee Beams

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 150-166

This research deals with the nonlinear finite element analysis of non-prismatic prestressed concrete double tee beams under flexure. The numerical analyses have been carried out on beams chosen from the available experimental studies.
Two different setups were considered. Beams B2 and B3 were experimentally tested by Mohammed 2003 and meant to represent the case of a non-prismatic prestressed concrete double tee beam. Beam B3, in particular, represents a beam with a short span. Beam B2, on the other hand is a sample for a relatively long span beam. These two beams were tested up to failure.
The finite element results are compared with the results of the available experimental tests. Parametric studies have been carried out throughout this study to investigate the effect of some important material and solution parameters on the numerical results. Effects of concrete compressive strength, amount of prestressing steel reinforcement, and initial prestressing forces are studied. A mathematical model suitable for the nonlinear analysis of prestressed concrete beams under monotonically increasing load is used. The validity, accuracy, and efficiency of the computational model are examined by comparing the finite element results with the experimental results.

Thermodynamic Study of phenol ,O-hydroxy phenol ,p-amino phenol and 2,4,6-trinitro phenol Adsorption charcoal derived from coconut shell

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 307-315

In this work a study was carried out to estimate the ability of charcoal derived from coconut shell as a new adsorbent for adsorption and removal of phenol ,o-OH phenol ,p- NH2 phenol and 2,4,6-tri nitro phenol from aqueous solution ,and the results show the isotherms were (S3) according to Giles classification .
The effect of introducing electron with drawing groups and electron donating groups which substituted in the aromatic ring on the adsorption process has been investigated ,the results showed that the derivatives is less in adsorption capacity than the adsorption capacity for the origin compound as the following order :-

Phenol > o-OH phenol > p- NH2 phenol > 2,4,6-trinitro phenol

Adsorption of phenol and some derivatives was examined as a function of temperature by large 288K .The extent of adsorption as found to increase with the increase in temperature (Endothermic) .The study show that the adsorption at different pH media in the rang (2-12).
Distribution coefficient and removal percentage were calculated,
results obtained shows the distribution coefficient increase as the temperature increase ,and removal percentage within 288k of phenol
(67.9%),o-hydroxy phenol (54%),p-amino phenol (49.7) and 2,4,6-trinitro phenol (36.8%).

Detection of iodine in table salt available in the local markets

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 54-61

The study included laboratory tests, to detect the levels of iodine in 13 different brands of products, iodized salt (local and imported) obtained from local markets and were available in both sides Karkh and Rusafa of Baghdad, with small packages of domestic use during the month of April 2008 has been quality tests in accordance with the requirements of Iraqi standard for table salt No. 111 of 1984, and the results showed the lack of iodine in the three samples, although the reference card includes in its significance, Further more with a different expression of the way process for Iodine consolidation of nine samples has stated names (Added, fortified, Treated, Iodized),The productive capacity of the Iraqi industrial projects and the 38 officially sanctioned for the production of salt fortified in Iraq (in the case of functioning), amounting to 680 Tons/day were exceeded the actual need of the population (approximately 30 Million, according to statistics in 2007) for Iodized table salt. The study concluded the need for a legislation requiring the production of salt fortified with iodine exclusively for human consumption and updating the standard approved by with the need to hold a workshop from the Accountability official authorities for monitoring the health status and follow-up of iodine deficiency diseases in Iraq. and the establishment of regulatory follow-up to match the products salt in local markets to ensure that the recommended amount of iodine to the consumer.

On the Common Sharp Decline in Honey Bee, Apis mellifera L. , Activity Occuring During Parts of Summer and Fall in Central and Southern Iraq , with a Particular Reference to the Role of Bee – Eaters , Merops spp.

Murtadha K. Glaiim

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 244-268

The study was conducted in 2008 at the apiary of College of Agriculture , Karbala University to determine outside and inside activities of honey bee, Apis mellifera L. , colonies during the period of sharp decline which usually extends from c. mid – June to c. mid – October and find out the roles of different factors standing behind this decline , especially the bee- eaters , Merops spp. All outside and inside activities of honey bee colonies showed steady sharp decline . The flight activity was either at very low level sometimes or the whole colonies were confined to their hives at many other times. While mean area of sealed brood was somewhat small on 7 July (701. 9 cm2 per colony), it decreased steadily after that to be in the range of 25.8 -152.6 . Mean size of adult bee population decreased from 7.75 and 8.14 sides of combs covered completely with adult bees per colony on 7 and 21 July , respectively to reach its lowest level , 0.59, on 26 October . There was a clear relationship between the presence of bee eaters and stopping of bee flight . The birds were found at the apiary at fluctuated levels . However , their most intensive presence was during the period extending from 1 August to 10 October ,especially at both early and late daytime hours . Many aspects of bee – eater and honey bee behaviors at the apiary were studied in details . In addition to the bee – eaters , there were also other factors participating in this decline including severe rise of ambient temperatures and shortage of nectar and pollen sources . Vespa orientalis L. , had no role at all in present study because it was found in very scarce numbers at the apiary

Using mean filter insetting image x-ray

Abdown K. Al-Saady; Auras Muse Omron AL- Hsniue

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 40-53

The imaging systems in general do not give an ideal form images is often required by the distortions Mattgi identify and clear image or the noise resulting from weather conditions such as dust in the camera or the object during the photography or the lack of cameras may be the same.
The resulting image, where the edge of a broad and blunt, and the most important information is contained in the image and the borders of areas of Brinks therefore guess the picture quality of the image should not be taken in each year level of a distinction without a copy of the picture task.
To be complete in this seamier processing noise in digital image porter gate x-ray be completed filter soft exempla filter mean and complete program computer language visual basic receive in less noise aside from receive power decompose

Study The Effect of Thymbra spicata Extract In Infected Mice With Entamoeba histolytica

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 110-114

This study aimed to know if can used the aqueous and oil extracts of Thymbra spicata as a treatment for laboratory mice that infected with Entamoeba histolytica parasite which inoculated 0.1 mlmouse, triple time per day, and compared with curing efficiency of meteronidazole which inoculated 0.005 mgmouseday.
The study showed that the curing efficiency for oil Thymbra spicata which reach 70.5% higher than curing efficiency of aqueous extract which 59.7% and its closed value with curing efficiency of metronidazole drug which reach 77.8%.

Fuzzy Neural Design of Power Systems Stabilizers

Ibrahim F Jasim

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 333-345

This paper presents a new approach of designing the Power Systems Stabilizer (PSS) that is based on fuzzy neural system. Adaptive Network based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) is utilized in constructing the Fuzzy Neural Power Systems Stabilizer (FNPSS). The employment of ANFIS enables the system avoiding defects caused when using fuzzy logic and neural networks individually in designing an efficient PSS. Single Machine Infinite Bus (SMIB) power system has been taken as a case study to evaluate the suggested strategy performance. Simulation results have been conducted to confirm the approach validity.

Polycystic ovary syndrome is associated with a more pronounced atherogenic lipid profile.


journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 346-353

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with a higher frequency of cardiovascular risk factor. Lipid profiles are potent markers for cardiovascular risk.
Aim of the study:
To identify changes in lipid metabolism in women with PCOS and the relative impact of obesity and hyperandrogenism on lipid parameters.
Subject and methods:
The study was conducted in the period from August 2006 till March 2007 on eighty women, who had been diagnosed as PCOS; they were recruited from IVF Institute of Embryo Research &Infertility Treatment in Baghdad. Twenty apparently healthy fertile women were served as control. Endocrine evaluation and Lipid assays were performed in both cases and controls.
There were significant elevations in LH, LH to FSH ratio, Testosterone and Free testosterone levels in women with PCOS when compared with the normal control group.
For lipid profile there was a significant elevation in levels of TG, Cholesterol, and LDL in combination with low level of HDL and with an increase in atherogenic index in women with PCOS when compared with normal control group.
Amore atherogenic lipid profile, in particular related to HDL metabolism, was found in women with PCOS, both obesity and hyperandrogenism contribute to these changes, and there was evidence for an additional influence of PCOS on lipid metabolism.


Mahdi Hussian Mheel; Asady; Muhamed Al; Mayada Ferhan

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 380-386

A study of urinary tract infection in children had been planed to identify the bacterial causes ,also the color, cloudiness ,acidity of urine were registered for each sample . A urine culture was performed to detect the presence of bacteria as well as its antibiotic sensitivity test .
Pyuria was diagnosed in 100 patients( 30) males and (70) females.The number of positive urine cultures for E .coli were 37(66%), Staphylococcus saprophyticus 4(7.1%) ,Proteus10(18%) , Klebsiella3(5.4%) , Pseudomonas1(1.8%),and , Enterobacter1(1.8%) .
The antibiotics susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolates was characterized by high resistance to amoxicillin 83.8%, cotrimaxazole 41%,while it was susceptible to nitrofurantoin , nalidixic acid , cefotaxime , gentamicin. The high resistance among Klebsiella pneumoniae 66.7% also toward amoxicillin and 100% for cefotaxime, but it was susceptible to nitrofurantoin and cotrimaxazole .
The high resistance of proteus sp.100%to amoxicillin was noticed while it was sensitive for nalidixic acid20% and cefotaxime40%. Staphylococcus saprophyticus isolates were sensitive to cefotaxime25%, nalidixic acid 25% and nitrofurantoin .
Pseudomonas and Enterobacter were sensitive to cefotaxime and nitrofurantoin .

Synthesis and evaluation of Biological activity of new cyclic Imides derived from 4-amino phenazone

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 387-402

A series of new cyclic imides containing phenazone heterocycle were prepared via following three different methods.
The first one involved direct reaction of different cyclic anhydrides with 4-amino phenazone producing the corresponding amic acids which subsequently introduced in dehydration reaction to afford the desirable imides while the second method involved treatment of 4-amino phenazone with chloro acetyl chloride affording 4-(2-chloro acetamido) phenazone which introduced in reaction with potassium salts of both phthalimide and succinimide producing N-(2-acetamido phenazone -4-yl)phthalimide and succinimde respectively .
The third method involved reaction of 4-(2-chloro acetamido) phenazone with N- ( hydroxy phenyl) phthalimides producing three new N-(oxy acetamido phenazone-4-yl) phenyl phthalimides.
Antibacterial activity of the prepared new imides against two types of bacteria were evaluated and the results showed that the new imides exhibit good to moderate antibacterial activity.
Antifungal activity of the new imides were also tested against candida albicans fungi and most imides showed slight activity against this fungi.

Effect of rifampicin in some blood characteristics in rabbits Oryctolagus Cuniculus

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 403-407

The aim of this study was intend to study the effect of rifampicin in some blood characteristics (albumin, globulin, Hb, PCV, platelets count, WBCs count and differential WBCs count) in rabbits.
Eight rabbits divided in to two groups, first group was used as treated group and we treated with rifampicin drug 15mg/kg /day for 35 days, while the second group treated with 15mg/ml/day normal saline for 35 days and used as a control group.
The results showed that there were a significant decrease (p ≤ 0.05) in level of albumin in rifampicin treated group compared with control group, while there were no significant differences in all other blood characteristics.

Serum total sialic acids concentrations in hyperprolactinimic infertile women and their relations to some reproductive hormones

Jameel F.A

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 408-414

The study consist of 24 hyperprolactinimic women (patients), age range 17-38 (mean 25.4±1.1) and fifteen healthy women (control), age range 18-36 (mean 28.8±1.1) were included in this study. Prolactin (PRL) and reproductive hormones (FSH and LH) were measured by enzymatic immunoassay (EIA) method, and resorcinol method for serum TSA. Serum PRL, LH and TSA levels in hyperprolactinimic women were significantly elevated in compare to normal women, while FSH was showed no significant different. There is no relationship between TSA and hormones levels, but there is positive relation between PRL and FSH (r= 0.578) in control group, FSH and LH (r=0.419) in patients. It can be concluded that there is an elevation in TSA levels, but not affected by hormonal levels, and the causes of this elevation may be caused by other reasons.

Intestinal Parasites in Children under Five Years with Diarrhea in Kerbala, Iraq

Sajidah Flayyih Hasan

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 415-420

A total of 277 diarrhea cases in children less than five years old were examined. The cases were divided into two groups, less than two years and 2-4 years ,to determine the types of parasites and prevalence of infections that is may be attachment with factions of age . Total prevalence of infection was 11.6%. Age group 2-4 years recorded highest prevalence of infection (38.5%). There were no significant differences between males and females in infection. Four types of protozoa were demonstrated Entamoebia histolytica(4.0%) Giardia lamblia(6.5%) ,Chilomistix mesnili (0.7%), Trichomonas hominis (1.1%) and only one type of helminths Hymenolepis nana at prevalence (0.4%) .Villages and quarters recorded highest prevalence of infection (13.2% , 11.5%) respectively . Bottle – feeding was seen a highest prevalence of infection ( 8.2 % ) .

MINDO/3-FORCES Study On Some Monosubstituted Triafulvalenes. Vibrational Spectra

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 421-429

The (3N-6) fundamental vibration frequencies along with their IR absorption intensities for the X-monosubstituted triafulvalene molecules , where X is H , CN, OH , NO2, NH2, CH3, and cyclopropyl , were evaluated theoretically by calculation based on the Semi- empirical MINDO/3-FORCES MO model. The assignments for each one of all of these vibrations was also, carried out. Also, a correlation of the vibration frequency values of some fundamental vibration modes , in the studied X-mono substituted triafulvalene molecules, was found.

Design and Implementation of Information Hiding Detector Using Wavelet Transformation (Steganalysis)

Hiba Jebbar Aleqabie

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 8-22

This research aims to design and implement a Steganalysis system that scan and test images, each of 24-bit, to find out if it contains hidden information. Using of wavelet transformation of Haar wavelet type to transform the images from the spatial domain to the frequency domain to produce feature vectors of coefficients, these coefficients are mapped, then using the ability of Probability Density Function (PDF) to minimize the features to extract the most important features that will be used as an input to the statistical tests in both The Standard statistics and the first order statistics
The Standard statistics are Absolute Value Differences (AD), Mean Square Error (MSE), Signal- to- Noise Ratio (SNR), Peak Signal- to- Noise Ratio (PSNR), Normalized Cross –Correlation (NCC), Correlation Quality (CQ).and the order statistics Mean, Variance, Skewness, Kurtosis. These tools are useful in examine the difference and similarity between the origin image and the suspected image.
The images that had been tested are 12 BMP images with different sizes, which had information hiding both Steganography and watermarked. Each BMP image of 24-bit. The stego objects(hidden information) are embedded using S-Toll, and Developed Steganography tool that modifying Least Significant Bit (LSB) of the pixel, some were detected and some were not, 6 images had information hiding and 6 were clear, 3 of 12 (i.e. 33%)were pass as they were clear, while 2 images were not. The others were detected. The developed system is implemented using Visual Basic programming language version 6, provides by Windows environments (XP, Me), and the resulted obtained are encouraging.

A study some physical properties for ternary system of hexane with some alcohols at different temperatures.

Ahlam Mohammed Farhan; Eman Talib Kareem; Ahmed Najem Abd

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 184-201

This reasearch concerned with study the densities, ρ, refractive indices, nD, and viscosities, η, over the range of temperatures 298.15, 308.15, 318.15, and 328.15 K for ternary mixtures cyclohexane+1-pentanol+ n-hexane, and cyclohexane+3-hexanol +n-hexane. From experimental data of densities, refractive indices, and viscosities, the excess molar volumes, VE , excess refractive indices, nE , and excess viscosities, ηE , were calculated for ternary mixtures. The excess function results for these mixtures were observed the ternary mixtures in this study are not ideal, show a positive or a negative deviation from ideality depending on molecular interactions in these mixtures. Flory theory was adopted to predict the excess molar volumes VE for the ternary mixtures. The theoretical results of excess molar volumes exert good agreement in sign and magnitude with the experimental excess molar volumes for these mixtures. The mixing rules equation were used to predict theoretical refractive index, we found good agreement between them for ternary mixtures in this study. In this study Heric-coursey equation was used to calculate the excess viscosities for ternary mixtures studied here. The theoretical results of excess viscosity exert good agreement with the experimental results of excess viscosity for these mixtures.

The Relation Ship between Psoriasis and Some Bio Chemical Studies (Alkaline Phosphates, Immunoglobulin and trace elements)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 202-205

This study was done on (81) person male and female divided into 55 patients with Psoriasis and 26 healthy person. The samples are taken from Al – Hussain hospital, Al – Hindia hospital and some private clinic of dermatological specialist in duration of 3 months.
Age and sex had no value here, because of disease attack all ages and male female ratio are equal and the disease depend on Immunity of skin not to age or sex our study research some biochemical studies like levels of AIP, IgG, IgA, IgM and serum level of Zn and Cu, In healthy and Psoriatic patients. The results of this study founded level in IgG, Cu and level in sera of AIP and Zn, all results explained to relation this between the disease and immunological excitation of skin.

-radiation Effect on Some Electrical Properties and Optical Energy Gap of a - Ge1-xSbx Thin Films

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 282-291

The a-Ge1-xSbx thin films of (250±20) nm thickness were fabricated according to the weight percentages (x = 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2)%wt, by using the thermal evaporation technique under vacuum (10-6mbar) and (2.7±0.05)Ao/s. The specimens have been exposed to(500rad) -ray. The D.C. electrical measurement were carried out in a range of 0 -3Vol. The effect of -radiation on Hall parameters and optical energy gap were investigated for determining the no. of carriers and controlling on optical energy gap of semiconductors. The examination x-ray diffraction showed that all the films have amorphous nature. There are two activation energies for all films of n-type at (493-305)K that the carriers increase to (41.67 x 1019 cm-3)by increasing the percent to x=2,and they showed a decrease after exposed to radiation to(29.76 x 1019 cm-3) at the same value of x. But the mobility decrease to (0.140 x 10-3 cm2/V.s)by increasing of x to 2 percentage and they are increasing after exposure to  - rays with (0.170 x 10-3 cm2/V.s). The optical energy gap is (0.840eV) for a-Ge(unexposed to -rays), but becomes (0.872eV) after exposure , but it is increasing from (0.786eV) to (0.815eV)after exposed to radiation at x=2. This indicates an absorption edge shift towards high energies due to the effect of radiation.

Performance Enhancement of the Solid Saturable Absorber for Laser Passive-Switching at 1.353 μm

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 292-303

In order to approach the ideal conditions to optimized the performance of the 10mm CaF2 crystal which is containing(5%) standard mixing of uranium ions as proposal saturable absorber element model for Q-switching laser operation in the spectral wave length around 1.353 μm, the main aspects of this investigation are accomplished by means of the analytical treatments and direct calculations of derived equations as well as several programmed plotted graphs are obtained and applied to evaluated the most important active influences parametric and its effect on this type passively Q-switching laser operation such as, the output pulse peak power, the pulse energy, the depth modulation as well as the absorption cross-section and the nonlinear reflectivity .
The comparing of the interpolated results for this work with the different wave length ranges and by another materials types are strongly agreed with the earlier researchers calculations . Slightly different with some researcher measurements were owing to experiment errors as well as, which were because of the close estimations and the high precise treatments of this work . The errors percentage were only 4-5.8%, which are seem insignificant its influences on the essential goals for this work
The results are very satisfied to applied this proposal model as optimum controlling element for the passively Q-switching laser operation at 1.353 μm ●

Behavior of Prestressed Concrete Non-Prismatic Double Tee Beams

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 133-149

One advantage of using prestressed concrete structural elements is the control of deflection under normal service load levels. Prestressing permits the use of smaller cross-sections by keeping the section uncracked through design load levels. Also, an uncracked section is particularly desirable where exposure to a corrosive environment is a factor of concern.
In the present study, experimental test results are presented for three non-prismatic prestressed concrete beams. The chosen beam shape was the double tee beam, for its wide applicability and in situ performance. The chosen beams had different span length, geometric ratio, amount of prestressing area, loading arrangement and procedure for applying the load.
All the tested beams have been cast in the same circumstance in which they were designed to function. The first beam was cast during the time of the present research, and the others were being on storage. The last two beams have been chosen from groups of storage beams, to satisfy the objective of the research. Those beams were fabricated at Al-Rasheid State Contracting Company and were tested in its labs.

Contemporary architecture Shams al-Din Study and investigation

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 68-103

يعدُّ المعمار أحد شعراء العصر المملوكي في مصر ، وقد برع في نظم الشعر براعة فائقة ، جعلت الناس يطلبون شعره ويتهافتون عليه ، ومصدر هذه البراعة شاعريته التي تتناغم مع العواطف والمعاني ، وتشهد له بسلامة الطبع ، وأصالة الفن ، وعمق التفكير . وهو وإن كان شاعراً عامياً ، فقد كان ذا قدرةٍ عالية في التعبير عن أحاسيسه ومشاعره ، وقد وجدتُ في شعره مادة غزيرة للكشف عن طبيعة الحياة التي عاشها المعمار ، وسمات عصره الحافلة بالقلق والاضطراب الاجتماعي ، والجري وراء الملذّات ، وهو في ذلك يصوِّر لنا مأساة مجتمعه ، وما بلغه من انحطاطٍ أخلاقي .
وعلى الرغم من كونه شاعراً مبدعاً ، فقد ظلّ في عداد الشعراء المغمورين الذين لم تطلهم يد الدراسة والبحث ، وبقيَ شعره مهملاً غير محقّق ، وهذا ما دفعني إلى تحقيق تحقيقاً علمياً ، ففيه من نفائس الشعر وغرره ما يجعله أهلاً للبحث والدرس والتأمل ، وقد اعتمدت في تحقيقه على مخطوطتي ديوانه ، الأولى مخطوطة الفاتح في المكتبة السليمانية في اسطنبول ذات الرقم ( 3793 ) ، والثانية مخطوطة معهد إحياء المخطوطات بجامعة الدول العربية ، وتحتل الرقم (2136 / أدب ) .
أما الصعوبات التي واجهتني في أثناء التحقيق فكثيرة منها أن كلا النسختين لا تخلوان من النقص والطمس والتصحيف والتحريف والأخطاء الإملائية ، ومنها ما يعود إلى اختلاف النسختين من حيث ترتيب الأشعار ، واضطراب أوزان هذه الأشعار .
وقد اقتضت طبيعة العمل أن تكون في قسمين ، الأول يتضمن دراسة في ترجمة الشاعر وموضوعات شعره ، وما لهذا الشعر من مزايا وخصائص فنية على صعيد الشكل والمضمون .
أمّا القسم الثاني فهو تحقيق مخطوطة ديوان شعره التي وصلت إلينا كأثرٍ من آثاره وإخراجه محققاً سهل التناول ، قريب المأخذ ..... .
وإننا إذ نخرج هذا الديوان كأثرٍ من آثار شاعر مغمور فإننا نكون قد قدّمنا خدمة متواضعة لأدبنا العربي ، وتراثه الخالد

The Speech Act of Greeting: A Theoretical Reading

a Kadhim Jibreen; Maysa

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 1-25

The speech act of 'greeting' is one type of the expressive speech acts which reflect the psychological states of the speakers specified in the propositional contents. Each speaker may find himself/herself tending to express pleasure many times daily at meeting or seeing a hearer. Therefore, 'greeting' is one of the expressive acts mostly used in our daily life.
The present research aims at:
1. Examining the theoretical views adopted by linguists, philosophers and researchers concerning:
a. Definitions, classifications, types(forms and formulas)and strategies of the speech act of 'greeting'.
b.The defining properties that reflect its nature and main social function,i.e.,identifying separate cultures.
c.The semantic, the syntactic and the pragmatic structures of greeting.
2.Arriving at different and to some extent new theoretical views from those presented for discussion especially those concerned with the social function and the pragmatic structures of the speech act of 'greeting'.