ISSN: 1813-0410

Volume 5, Issue 2

Volume 5, Issue 2, Spring 2009, Page 1-350

( The Reward Drama ) The literary man Mohammed Ali Al-Khafagi Analytical and Objectival study

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 1-15

يمثل الأديب محمد علي الخفاجي صدىً أدبيا ثرا ، فقد استقطب محصوله المعرفي من تاريخ وفن وأدب وثقافة من أجل إحداث التأثير المطلوب ، وخلق صور ذا مساحات واسعة وأبعاد مختلفة تتيح للقارئ الحركة بانسيابية في فضاء المسرحية والتنقّل بين الأحداث التاريخية والأزمنة المختلفة بأساليب سائغة ، فهي رحلة نقدية نحو إستحضار الواقع الإنساني القديم في محاولة لتقييمِهِ وربطه بالحاضر ضمن رؤية معاصرة تتوسل بالطقس التاريخي المترف للأمراء الذين كانوا يحكمون ببطش وإغراء ، رعيةً ذلّت حتى صارت عادتها الإنهزام والتخاذل وإيجاد التبريرات في دراما جميلة ، فهو اذن يشكل كياناً أدبيا متميزاً له حضوره في الساحة الأدبية العراقية بوجه خاص ، تكشف عنه كثرة أعماله الأدبية ، كما يكشف عنه ابداعه في تناول الموضوع ، لذا يستحق الوقوف عند أحد أعماله ، ليقدّم للساحة الأدبية والثقافية من خلال دراسة أكاديمية .

AL-Jarah Bin Abdula AL-hikmy150hijri 1730 After chirst

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 16-23

AL-Jarah Bin Abdula AL-hikmy is considered one of the important character in the military and thoughtful fileds, He has an intellegance and military experience the main role in his life is that he has agreal role inmaking the internal settings to be setteled by destroying the revolting movments aganst the state of Bany Umaymah. In addition ,He participated and led the Arabic Islamic in order to conquest cities in the east and made the Islamic religion spread in it .Inthoughtful aspect , ALJarah narrated the holly speechesAbn syrene.Also he participated in spreading the Islamic religion when he sent ALsaleet to Altibit .to educated the people when living there the principle, of the Islamic religion .There is no doubt the polital style used by the successor reflected on the people who worked with him and of them is ALjarah, he mentined that to umar.When he asked him to trust Mukhaled Bin Yazeed in away don’t prevent him from praying . This situation mand Umar astonished from the behaviour of this man and his generousity towards prisoners. Finally, ALjarah was always begging the holy God inorder to be killed for the sake of the Islamic .
Therefore his wishe was fillfuled in Maryj Ardabeel when the blasphery nations United to fight with Islamic people in Arinia which caused ALjarah to full with these whem fiyyht with ascrificevs for the sake of the Islamic Roligion .And this event made the suceessor Hisham Bin Abd ul Malik moarning on him in additiont the peoples.

Effect of foliar application with some micro nutrients and Atonik and cultivar on growth,yield and some chemical charactors of tomato grown in unheated plastic house

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 1-13

An experiment was conducted in Kufa Technical Institute for the growing season of 2008/2009 in unheated plastic house .This study included 8 interaction treatments, two tomato cultivars i-e Dombito(V1) and MonteCarlo(V2) with four spraying treatments(5times),the first on transplants ten days before transplanting,the second 30 days after transplanting and three spraying with an intervals of 14 days from second spraying.The treatments were :
1. water spraying only(control),(T1).
2. Mixture spraying of Fe +Zn +B with conc. of 1.5mg/L for each nutrient (T2).
3. Spraying with growth regulator(Atonik)with conc. of 15%,(T3).
4. Spraying with amixture of( Fe+Zn+B and Atonik),(T4). the aim was to study the effects of foliar spraying with micronutrients and growth regulator( Atonik) on Vegetative growth,yield and some chemical characteristics for the above two cultivars under unheated plastichouse conditions.
Results showed that,the highest values of vegetative growth(plant haight,stem diameter,plant leaf number,plant leaf area and plant dry weight)were produced
From the interacti of (V1) and (T4),which were(234.2cm.,2.81mm.,164.8,896.7cm2
and 92.8g),respectively.
Meanwhile,the lowest values were,117.4cm.,1.38mm.,72.7leaf area and(8.33g) for plant height,stem diameter,plant leaf number,and plant dry weight,respectively were produced from control treatment and (V2).
The highest yield value came from the interaction between (V2) and (T4),which produced 22.05/Ton/180 m2. The highest of fruits/plant and highest early yield producd from the interaction between (V1) and (T4) which reached 64.72 fruits and 3.21 kg/plant,respectively.The highest mean of fruit weight and highest yield/plant were 170.24 g.and 10.77 kg.respectively produced from the interaction of (V2) and (T4).compared with the lowest values for the above parameters that produced from (V2) and (T1).
Treatment(T4)accompanied with the two cultivars for all studied chemical characteristics were signicantly affected vit.C.,total soluble solids and the percentage of fruit total acidity.

Anti-inflammatory effect of Water and Alcoholic Extracts of Mushroom Agaricus bisporus in mice

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 30-35

The effect of water and alcoholic crude extracts of mushroom Agaricus bisporus against formalin-induced chronic inflammation in mice was studied after intra peritoneal (I.P) administration of three doses at concentrations of 333.3, 500 and 666.6 mg/kg for water extract and three doses at concentrations of 500, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg for alcoholic extract were achieved for 6 consecutive days. The results indicated that all doses of water and alcoholic crude extracts revealed significantly reduction in paw thickness at (P≤0.01) in 26, 62 and 63 % and 24, 37 and 55 % respectively, in comparison with 20% in mice with a standard drug (diclofenac 10 mg/kg).

Effect of some plant extracts on the growth of the pathogenic fungus ,Fusarium oxysporum F.sp. lycopersicon and protection of tomato plants from infection by this fungus.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 46-54

The study was carried out to determine the effect of aquatic extract of some plants including Medicago sativa ,Datura innoxia ,D. metel , Ocimum basilicum , allium porrum and Apium graveolens on the growth of the pathogenic fungus ,Fusarium oxysporum F.sp. lycopersicon and protection of tomato plants from infection by this fungus Results of laboratory experiments showed that the aquatic extract of alfalfa , Medicago sativa , caused the highest rate of inhibition of fungus growth since the diametes of fungus culture reached only 4.31 cm ,whereas it reached 9.0cm in control treatment .Also ,all extracts were effective in reduction of the fungus sporulation compared with control treatment .Highest percentages of reduction in fungus dry weight were achieved by using M. sativa and O. basilicum extracts . These percentages reached 63.48 and 67.72 in the treatment of these two extracts , respectively. The extract of O. basilicum was the most effective among all other extracts in protection of tomato plants from infection by this fungus .The rate of infeation in plants treated with extract of O. basilicum was 2% while it reached 3.5 , 4 ,4.5 ,5 ,7 and 40.30 % in plants treated with extract of M. sativa , D.innoxia, D. metel, A. graveolens ,A.porrum ,respectively. The addition of dry powders of these plant to the soil contaminated by the fungus reduced the numbers of spores per each gram of soil .These numbers were 7165 , 7330,1835 ,3000, 3500 and 5170 spore per gram of soil in the treatment of six above _mentioned powdered plants ,respectively wthile it reached 26665 spore per gram in control treatment.

Effect of thyme ground – Leaves added to the ration of broilers on their productive performance

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 55-60

This study was carried out to determine the effect of thyme ground- leaves when added to the ration(starter and grower) of broilers on their productive performance The ground leaves were added at the rates of 0, 5, 10 and 15 gm/kg of feed to four experimental treatments including T1(control) ,T2, T3, andT4treatments. Each of these treatments consisted of two replicate, and each replicate was represented by15one day old chicks unsexed Hubbard classic broilers.
The Completely randomized design (C. R. D.) were used for statistical analysis.
The results at age 28 and42 days Showed nosignificant effect of the ground leaves of thyme on all studied characters of productive performance including live weight, gain weight rate of feed consumption, efficiency of feed Conversion and mortality percentage when compared with control treatment .

Effect of traning method and apex removal or without apex removal on growth yield and some chemical characters of tomato plant cv.Tropic grown in the open field.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 61-70

An experiment was conducted at Al-Kufa Technical Institute during the season of 2009.
In the open field.
The experiment included( 6) treatments which are the interaction between two factors (withou
apex removal (V1)and apex removal (V2)and three training methods(on one stem( T1) on two stems (T2) and on three stems( T3) respectively.
The aim of the experiment was to study the apex removal and training methods on growth and yield and some chemical characters of tomato plant cv."Tropic" that grown under field conditions..
Results showed that, the highest value for plant length was obtained from the interaction of(V1T1)that reached 96.0. cm ,Meanwhile (V2T3)gave the lowest length of 69.0 cm . (V1T3)treatment produced the highest value of leaf number(48 leaf/plant) (V2T3)produced the highest total yield(5.09 kg/plant) with percentage acidity of (o.68%).
The interaction of(V2T1)gaue the highest value for(stem diameter, leaf area, total dry matter,fruit weight,early yield,total soluble solids, vitamin(C)which reached 2.3 mm.,85.78 cm2.,179.0 g.,3.13 kg/plant,8.1% and 26.4 m, gr) respectively.Meanwhile,treatment of (V2)produced the highest means of all measured characters(stem diameter, leaf area, total dry matter, fruit weight, early yield,total soluble solids ,vitamin (C ) .and total percentage of acidity, which reached(2.09 mm.,77.13 cm2.,74.95 g.,155.0 g.,2.37 kg/plant,4.77 kg/plant,7.9%,18.41 g.and 0.61%).
Treatment of (T1)gave the highest characters for the studied parameters i.e.(leaf number, stem diameter, leaf area, dry matter, early yield,total soluble solids, and Vitamin C.)which reached (87.0,2.10 mm.,69.83 cm2.,73.82 g.,2.70 kg/plant,7.75 kg/plant,22.33 mg/100 g.f.fruit),respectively.

Effect of different levels of liguorice root powder of stem wood cutting on growth and rooting of grap c.v . Kamaly.Vitis vinifera L.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 71-77

An experiment was conducted during 2009 growing season to assess the effects of different levels of liquorice root powder at the weight of(0,10,20 and 30 g/kg.soil) which called(T1,T2,T3 ,T4) respectively on rooting of stem wood cuttings of grape c.v.Kamali that grown in polyethylen pots in wooden house at Kufa Technical Institute by the use of Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates. Means were compared using Duncans Multiple Range Test at the probability level of 0.05 .Results showed that , all treatments epistasis on control treatment except for root and branches diameters, on the other hand ( T4) treatment (addition of 30 g/kg soil. of liquorice root powder) was superior at all treatments of all studied parameters,it has positive effects on the mean of(root length,leaf number,leaf area,adventitous root number,fresh and dry weights of shoot and total dry weight.
Besides its positive effects on dry matter percentage of shoot and percentage of wood cutting success. Treatment (T4) gave the highest values of the above studied parameters,but at the same time there was no significant effect between T3 and T4 for the most of the studied parameters.

Electric Quadrupole Transitions Probability And Reduced Matrix Element For even – even Er(A=160, Z=68) Isotope

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 78-85

The electrical transitions probability (B(E2)) and the reduced matrix elements were calculated for this isotope also.
The energy states according to the energy bands (g,β,γ) in even-even Er(A=160, Z=68) have been investigated using interacting boson model (IBM-1).
In the present calculations we predicted that, the behaviors of this isotope at , state is oblate due to negative electric moment, while at state as prolate due to positive electric moment.
Our results have good agreement with others.

Evaluation of early and semi early Soybean cultivars in middle area of Iraq

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 93-98

To evaluate the response of early and semi early cultivars Soybean in middle area of Iraq an experiment was conducted at Fudailiah Research Station using 11 cultivars of Soybean with different maturity groups with planting seasons, spring and autumn .
Planting at autumn decreased days to flowering , maturity, plant height, pods per plant, and seed yield. Although 100 seed weight emergence rate and percent increased

Antagonistic effect of activity of Propolis, Royal Jelly and Bio-control agent, Trichoderma harzianum Rifai in growth of fungal pathogen Rhizoctania solani Kuhn.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 99-103

The research aimed to study the effect of different concentration of proplis and Royal jelly extracts (0, 20, 40 and 60)% and colony filtration at bio - control agent, T.harzianum in growth of fungal pathogen R.solani and compared these results. Results Showed that the 60% concentration of T.harzianum was the most active in effect of R.solani growth inhibition reached 100%. Generally the T.harzianum appeared high efficacy in fungal in pathogen R.solain inhibition with diameters average ( 5.1, 3.2 and 0.0)Cm. at (20, 40 and 60) %concentration respectively. While proplis extracts was lower inhibition efficacy. Whereas Royal jelly extracts had low effect in R.solani growth inhibition, them selver with diameters averages reached (6.0, 4.0 and 3.5)Cm. at (20,40and60)% concentration respevtivey .

Studying the Effect of Random Media on the Detection of High Frequency Sources

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 117-122

The results of this paper show how randomness and/or uncertainty of medium, boundary conditions, source characterization, and source and receiver motion effects the probability of detection of narrow band, high frequency source. Using ray acoustic model, we derive expressions for loss of time coherency and its dual, spectral spreading that is caused motion through a medium with random boundary condition and inhomogeneities. Spectral spreading decreases probability of detection of narrow band singles. In this analysis both the usual knowledge and the essential uncertainty are incorporated into problem formulation by separating propagation models and boundary conditions into deterministic and random parts.
Maximum entropy method (MEM) is used to incorporate essential uncertainty into model.
Maximum entropy method uses what is known in its model, but models what is not known with maximum uncertainty. It does not make any unwarranted assumptions about unknown parameters. MEM is used to calculate confidence intervals and mean values of receiver operating characteristics of high-frequency passive and active sonar detectors when signal to noise ratio is a random variable.


journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 123-139

In This work involve study the objective focal properties in double pole piece symmetrical magnetic lenses under absence magnetic saturation for two mathematical models Glaser's Bell shape model and Grivet – Lenz model at the same operation modes . By using magnetic pole piece reconstruction produces from axial magnetic flux density distribution for this models (Inverse design method) . Then study the objective focal properties and its comparative together for two models and for all operation modes .
The research proved that change the operation mode doesn't affected at the objective focal properties . The Spherical and Chromatic aberration at Grivet – Lenz model less than it's values in Glaser model , also the high value of magnification was in Grivet– Lenz model .

The effect of foliar application of nutrient solution (Unigreen) on the growth and yield of two cultivars of Kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea var. caulorapa L.) .

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 140-148

This research was conducted in a private field (30)Km at Najaf- Karbala Governorates during the growing season of 2006 in autumn to study ( the effect of spraying nutrient solution (Unigreen) on the growth and yield of two cultivars of Kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea var. caulorapa L.) "Holland White vienna and the local cultivars".
The research included 6 treatments which were an interaction between three concentrations of the nutrient solution (Unigreen) ( 0, 1.5, 2.5)cm3./ L on the vegetative growth of two cultivar of Kohlrabi.
The research was designed in a split–plot experiment within Randomized Complete Block Design (R. C. B. D.) with three replications. Least Significant Differences Test (L.S.D.) was used to compare means at 0.05 probability level . Plants were sprayed three times during the growth season starting from (2-3) real leaves with 10 days interval of time. Results can be summarized as follows : -
1- The local cultivar C2 gave a significant effects on the following characteristics'(the total number of leaves (leaf / plant) and the leaf width (cm / plant) of the foreign cultivar C1 during autumn plantings. The interaction between the two cultivars and the spraying of nutrient solution affected significantly most studied characteristics' of (the total number of leaves (leaf / plant) and the leaf width (cm / plant) during growth seasons where the interaction treatment C2S2 gave the highest means of characteristics' "the total number of leaves (leaf / plant), the leaf width (cm / plant) which reached (23.00) leaf / plant, (17.96) cm / plant. in autumn seasons respectively.
2- The results showed that the local cultivar C2 was superior on the foreign cultivar C1 in all of components the characteristics' of the total yield and its components in autumn season. The concentrations of the nutrient solution showed a significant effect on all characteristics' of the total yield and its components with the control treatment. There was a significant increase due to the interaction between the nutrient solution and the cultivar on the yield and its components, where C2S2 gave the highest characteristics' (the bulbous stems mean weight / g, the bulbous stems mean radius / cm. and the total yield, (ton / ha) giving (389.33) g, (8.60) cm, (5711.80) Kg / ha.
3- The results showed that, the Local cultivar C2 significantly affected the characteristic of the total soluble solids (T.S.S) for bulbous stems compared to the foreign cultivar C1 during autumn season. The results of spraying the vegetative growth of the plants significantly affected the characteristics' of the total soluble solids (T.S.S) for bulbous stems compared with the control treatment in growing seasons. The interaction between the cultivar and the nutrient solution were significant where C2S2 gave the highest means of total soluble solids (T.S.S) for bulbous stems, (7.30)% .

Induce genetic variations is soybean plant glycine max (L) merr by utilization of sodium azide (NaN3) on some morphological characters

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 149-155

شملت الدراسات الحاليه دراسه التاثيرات المظهريه للمطفر الكيميائي الصوديوم ازايد Na N3 في اربعة تراكيز هي 1.5 mM , 1mM ,0.5mM , 0على نبات فول الصوياGlycine max (L.)Merr اذ تم نقع البذور بالتراكيز اعلاه من المطفر الكيمياوي ولمدد زمنيه مختلفه هي 18 ، 24 ، 30 ساعة. زرعت البذور في الحقل وفق تصميم القطاعات العشوائيه الكامله ,R.C.B.D. وعند وصول النباتات الى مرحله النضج التام اخذت عينات عشوائيه من النباتات المزروعه في الحقل لدراسه تاثير الصوديوم ازايد NaN3 على بعض الصفات المظهريه ( ارتفاع النبات , عدد التفرعات , الوزن الجاف للنمو الخضري والجذري ) وبعض مكونات الحاصل (وزن 100 بذره وحاصل النبات الواحد ) اضافه الى دراسه محتوى البروتين في البذره وعدد العقد البكتيرية على المجموع الجذري .
اظهرت نتائج الدراسه انه لم يكن هنالك تاثيرا معنويا في معدل اطوال النباتات وعدد التفرعات من النبات , كما ادت التراكيز العاليه من المطفر الى ظهور بعض التشوهات في الاوراق اذ ظهرت اوراق خضراء اللون عند التراكيز 1.5 mM. وظهور اوراق كبيره الحجم مقارنه بحجم اوراق النبات غير المعامله , اما فيما يتعلق بالحاصل ومكوناته , فقد اتضح من نتائج الدراسه وجود تاثير معنوي في وزن 100 بذره وبالتالي زياده حاصل النبات الواحد في نهايه موسم النمو وذلك عند المحتوى1 mM في حين سجل اقل انخفاض للحاصل ومكوناته عند المحتوى 1.5 mM. ومن الملاحظ حدوث تغيرات في معدل الوزن الجاف للمجموع الخضري والجذري اذ تبين ان بزيادة التراكيز المستخدمه من ازايد الصوديوم وبزيادة مده نقع البذور انخفض معدل الوزن الجاف للمجموع الخضري والجذري وخصوصا عند المحتوى 1.5 mM , وسجل اعلى معدل للوزن الجاف للمجموع الخضري والجذري عند المحتوى 1 mM. ومن نتائج الدراسه تبين ان اعلى معدل للحاصل ووزن 100 بذره كان عند محتوى 1 mM وبزياده محتوى ازايد الصوديوم الى 1.5 mM انخفض معدل وزن 100 بذره وبالتالي معدل الحاصل عند نهايه موسم النمو , وعند دراسه محتوى البروتين الكلي باستخدام المطياف الضوئي وجدت اختلافات معنويه في كميه البروتين المستخلص من بذور النباتات المعامله بالتراكيز المختلفه وبمدد نقع مختلفه , فقد كان اعلى محتوى للبروتين عند 0.5 mM وبلغ 1.44 ملغ عند نقع البذور 24 ساعه في انخفض محتوى البروتين بزياده محتوى الصوديوم ازايد الى 1.24 عند محتوى 1 mM وبمده نقع 30 ساعه .ومن خلال دراسه تاثير ازايد الصوديوم في عدد العقد البكتيريه في المجموع الجذري اذ سجل اعلى معدل لعد د العقد البكتيريه عند المحتوى 1 mM اذ وصل الى 32 عقده بكتيريه نبات عند نقع البذور خلال 30 ساعه في حين ان زياده المحتوى الى 1.5 mM وبمده نقع 30 ساعه ادى الى حاله انعدام العقد البكتيريه.
This study included morphological effect of sodium Azide ( NaN3) on soybean plant Glycine max (L.) merr the seed have been soaked in different concentration (0, 0.5 , 1 and 1.5 mM) of NaN3 at different periods of time (18 , 24 and 30) .The treated and untreated seed were sown in the field according to the Randomized complete block design (R. C. B. D.) with three replicates, after ripening, random sample have been taken to study the effect of NaN3 on morphological characters (shoot length, number of branch, dry weight of shoot and roots)and field products (weight of 100 seeds and yield of plants) more this content of protein in seeds and number of bacterial nodules in roots.
The Results showed that there was no effect of NaN3 on shoot length and number of branches/plant. The highest concentration of NaN3 (1.5mM) caused leaf deformation (chlorosis and big size leaves) comparing to leaves of control.
Data showed that NaN3 at a concentration of 1mM had a significant stimulating effect on the weight of 100 seeds, whereas at 1.5mM the formal parameters have been reduced.
Increasing concentration (especially 1.5 mM) and soaking time decrease the dry weight of shoots and roots. NaN3 at 1mM gave the highest dry weight of vegetative growth.
Spectrophotometer analysis revealed differences in the total protein concentration extracted from seeds of harvested plant generating from different treatments (contraction of NaN3 and time of soaking). NaN3 at 0.5mM and soaking time of 24 hours showed a significant increase in protein content (1.44mg) comparing with 1mM which decrease of protein content to 1.24mg seeds soaked for 30 hours.
The study of NaN3 effects on root bacterial nodules indicated that the highest number (32 nodules/ plant) was found at 1mM when seeds soaked for 30 hours while treating seeds with 1.5 mM for the same soaking time caused suppression of nodules.
Finally these finding confirmed that, treated soybean with sodium azids induced variation which might be heredity and give plant breeders the possibility of using such experiments in detecting selecting of variants or mutants from the early states of the plant growth.

Analytical Comparison Study to The Effect of Fuel Type on The Cost Production of Electrical Energy for Stations Worked in Middle Euphrates Zone.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 156-170

This research take care the study of the economical benefit for production electricity between nuclear power stations and classical power stations which worked in middle Euphrates area like Musaib thermal power station , Hilla/Najaf Gas power stations and Hindiya/Kufa/ hydrolic power stations in comparison with (17) nuclear power stations worked in all the world with known power. World countries depend on coal, oil, gas, water and wind as sources for production power .Oil used to produce power in all the world but this type of fuel is exhausted, so the advance countries found that the nuclear fuel is the best alternative fuel to produce power and and this will make less in cost (kw/hr) for consumer. The drop level of Euphrates and Tigres rivers make thermal power stations out of work, so it is possible to consider that the nuclear energy as the ideally substitute source for production electricity in Iraq.


journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 190-196

A pot experiment was conducted in the green house of Biology Department, College of Education ( Ibn Al – Haitham ) , University of Baghdad , during the growing season 2009 . to study the interaction effect between applying Urea fertilizer at three levels ( 0 , 0.32 , 0.48 ) gm . pot-1 . which equal ( 0 , 80 , 120 ) kg . du-1 . and three levels of diammonium phosphate fertilizer ( 0 , 0.3 , 0.4 ) gm . pot-1 . which equal ( 0 , 75 , 100 ) kg . du-1 . in vegetative growth of lentil cultivar ( Baraka ) with in a completely randomized design with three replications.
The results showed that increasing by Urea and DAP fertilizer levels significant increased the above mentioned characteristics ( plant height , dry matter weight , number of branches and pods , relative and absolute growth rate, biomass duration ). The influence of the interaction between Urea and DAP at level ( 120 – 100 ) kg . du-1. respectively , was positive giving the highest values of the studied characteristics .

Anatomical comparative study of leaf from the some genus Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) in Iraq of

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 197-207

The present work comprises comparative anatomical study of Leaf from the some species that related to different genus of Brassicaceae in Iraq, the following species:- Brassica oleracea Var. botrytis L. & B. oleracea Var. capitata L. & Lepidium sativum L. & Mattholia incana R. Br. & Raphanus sativus L. the epidermal characteristics of leaves. It was clear that, the stomatal type were found to be paracytic and anisocytic type. Amphistomatic and hypostomatic were also found . Some of anatomical characters in leaf epidermal with their taxonomic importance of each character and its variation were discussed. Results showed that their characters have an important features for recognizing isolated species

Productivity losses of sunflower in relevent to the birds

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 208-214

The research was conducted at Babylon governate in 2005 at a farm with an area of 100 donum was cultivated by sunflower crop, RCBD design was used and questiona-
ires was distributed at 30 farmers and 10 of agricultural agents in research region .
Results showed that the losses in sunflower crop caused by birds attained to about 14.285% from production / donum equivalent to 137.5 kg/donum .
The questionaires appeared that the agriculture in general and sunflower in special suffer from many problems dealing with sunflower croping .
The research recommands to find styles to prevent birds by using lots of methods in addition to use agricultural methods in order to invest all land to reduce the effect of birds.

The Benefit of Summer Vegetables Farmers form Agricultural Extension of activities & services to introduced it for them in Al-Tarmiya District / Baghdad

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 215-220

The present research aimed to cognition the level of Extension of activities & services that introduced to vegetable farmer, and cognition the level of their benefiting form activities and services that introduced it for them ,in addition of uncovering form the relationship between the level of benefit for the activities & services and each of independent variables. The data was collected through personal interviews using the questionnaire consist of two, domain: the first domain included questions for measuring personal variables, whereas ,the second domain was for measurement of activates and services, it was consist of 10 items and forth scale consist of10 items for measuring the level of benefit form the extension and services.
The research population was consisted of 8 villages in Al-Tarmiya
District. A sample random of 2 villages was representing 25% of the total ;they are ALTabi ,ALZwer A sample random. Sample of34 farmers representing 10% of the total farmers, population were selected .
Results of the study that the level of activities and services was low and weak in benefit of the level of activities and services that were introduced of the farmers weak . The research was recommendation about increasing agricultural services introduced to vegetable farmers in the Al-Tarmiya area.

Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli isolated from fish to some antibiotics

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 221-227

Twenty five Tenualosa ilisha fish were collected during September,2008. Staph. aureus and E. coli were isolated from gills of these fishes after they had grown on specific culture media. Staph. aureus was identified according to the morphological characteristics and coagulase test, whereas E. coli identified according to the morphological characteristics and IMViC tests, then the antibiotic susceptibility test was done against 18 antibiotics.
The results showed that the inhibiting zones were 29,28.5 mm for Gentamicin CN and Ciprofloxacin CIP against Staph. aureus . Ampicillin AM, Carbenicillin PY, Cefamandole MA, Chloramphenicol C, Roxithromycin ROX, Cloxacillin CX, Spiramycin SP, Kanamycin K, Methicillin ME, Erythromycin E, Nalidixic acid NA, Streptomycin S and Vancomycin VA didn't show any activity towords this bacterium . The highest inhibition percentage of Staph. aureus in broth were (92.59, 84.1,63.1)% for Gentamicin CN, Ciprofloxacin CIP and Piperacillin PRL respectively ,whereas the lowest inhibition percentage were (4.06,5.12,14.31)% for antibiotic Ampicillin AM, Cloxacillin CX and Carbenicillin PY respectively.
E. coli were sensitive to Moxifloxacin MXF and Azithromycin AZM ; inhibiting zones were 28.5,25.5 mm respectively, while the antibiotic PY showed less activity, ( 7mm) whereas the S, ME ,NA,CX,MA,AM and VA had no effect on the bacterium .The highest inhibition percentage were (96.1,83.7,79)% for MXF,AZM,and CIP respectively whereas the lowest inhibition percentage were (3.7, 5.06,8.3)% for AM,CX and ME respectively.
The study concluded that the best antibiotic which showed activity to wards Staph. aureus and E. coli were CN,CIP and MXF while the antibiotics VA,NA,ME,MA,AM,AM and CX didn't show any activity when they were used.

Effect of Hubest and NaCl on growth and yield of Lettuce.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 228-233

This experiment was conducted during the growing seasons of (2005-2006) at the experimentel field of the Technical Institute/Musaib, to find out the effect of foliar nutrition by hubest (0.0, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g/l) and NaCl (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 g/l) on growth and yield of lettuce plant. This experiment designed factorial in (R.C.B.D) with (4) replicates. Results showed that (2.0 g/l) hubest resulted in a significant increasing of all characters studied, on the other hand NaCl in (1.5 g/l) led to a significant increase in leaf curl percentage, unbranched plants percentage,and non bloomed plants percentage. Interaction between of hubest (2.0 g/l) and NaCl (1.5 g/l) had a significant influence on yield and other qualities studied. However interaction gave highest mean of plant hight, leaf number, leaf curl percentage, non branched plants and non bloomed plants (104.1, 109.6, %96.9, %93.2, %96.6) respectively. This interaction, therefore had an obvions effect and increasing plant yield and early crop, and total yield (991.3, 3.866, and 14.791) respectively as compared with the control treatment

Effect of Eucalyptus, Myrtus and Nerium leaves extracts on plumule and radical length of wheat and annual darnel.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 234-245

An experiment was conducted at College of Science, University of Kufa on October/ 2001 to study the direct effect of Eucalyptus, Myrtus and Nerium leaves water extracts on plumule and radical length of wheat and annual darnel seedlings.
Extraction was done by cold water (at room terperature) and boiling water. Concentrations of ( 25, 50, 75 and 100%) were prepared for both extraction methods as well as control treatment ( distilled water). Measurements were done in Petri-dishes and in soil ( in small plastic pots), in laboratory conditions.
Results showed that, boiled extractions were more effective on plumule length, while cold extractions were more effective on radical length in Petri-dish and soil.
On the other hand, extractions were more effective on annual darnel than wheat seedling plumule and radical lengths. Nerium leaves extracts and the highest concentration of extracts were the most effective in plumule and radical lengths in both Petri-dish and soil.


journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 254-276

Through operations of investigation on soil test along Razaza drainage which is about 25km. the surface and for seven –meter –depth for some mechanical and dynamic properties (i.e. mechanical such as moisture content, bulk density and other dynamic properties such as liquid limit ,plastic limit and plastic index). Were studied to know the reasons which make drainage soil creeping resulting in reducing the drainage depth and this in turn raise will the level of ground water higher all over Karbala cultivated area .Randomized Complete Block Design (R.C.B.D.) was used. Four soil depths were tested {i.e.R1 (.0-2.0m), R2 (2.0-3.5m), R3 (3.0-5.5m), andR4 (5.5-7.0m). Five treatments were adopted (i.e. liquid limit, plastic limit, plastic index, moisture content and bulk density) representing here after by t1, t2, t3, t4, and t5 respectively. Results could be summarized as follows:-
A significant effect was found due to soil depth especially for those taken from1st and 3rd depths at 0.01 level when between the rest depth significant at 0.05 .A marked influence for treatment at P 0.01 was found especially between liquid limit and bulk density. On the other hand, there was significant effect at 0.05 between other treatments. Linear regression equation was calculated between dependent and independent variable, by using SPSS program to explain two properties i.e. liquid limit and bulk density only .Using these two properties, better linear equation could be obtained, preventing the liquefaction behavior of creeping by reducing liquid limit values.

Viscometric Behaviour of Aqueous Solutions of Tetra Alkyl Ammonium Halides at ( 298.15 ) K.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 284-290

In accordance with the importance of the chemo-physical studies for the organic solution compounds from pharmaceutical side in particular. So, in this research, the viscometric behavior of aqueous solutions of Tetra Alkyl Ammonium Halides were studied depending on (Jones-Dole) equation at (25oC). By studying the effect of the Halide ionic size and the alkyl length series on the process of salts solubility and their viscosities were investigated.
In this research, it was found that Tetra butyl ammonium iodide is slightly soluble in deionized water than Tetra butyl ammonium bromide, Tetra methyl ammonium bromide and Tetra methyl ammonium iodide.

Differential Cross Section of Scattered Charge Particle by H- Atom in the State

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 291-297

The problem of scattering of fast particles by the target atoms is the most important problem in atomic physics.
We have studied the scattering of fast particle by H-Atom in the state .
We have detailed with scattering process as scattering by the nucleus of H-Atom and the electron of the atom.
We used nonrelativistic wave functions of the H-Atom.
We found a great agreement with practical results which were found by Rutherford.
The difference which are exist when the velocity of particles can be compared with light velocity are naturally known because in this case we must use relativistic Q.M (Quantum Mechanics) to find the wave function of H-Atom and the scattering particles.

A study of effect of ethanolic extract of propolis on growth of in vitro Staphylococcus aureus

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 298-303

This study was aimed to find the effect of the active components in propolis which were extracted by ethyl-alcohol on inhibition of the growth of Staphylococcus aureus for it is clinical importance us the causative agent of numerous disease. The present study was conducted in microbiology laboratory Department of biology of education of girls college ,of Kufa University in 13 at 1562008. This study proved from the preliminary chemical (filtration) test that; the ethanolic extractof propolis contains phenolic compounds(Flavonids,Tannins,Coumarin).Alkaloids and terpin ,the propolis extract was effected in inhibition growth of S. aureus and the highest inhibition zone diameter was (23)mm in concentration (100)mgm1.

Chartered Accountants Use Computerized Techniques for Purpose of Auditing the Financial Statements

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 323-345

The rapid evolution in a world of information technology and communications technology and generate awareness and understanding among the Iraqi governmental & private institutions, of the necessity to shift their administrative and financial system from manual to electronic system. through the use of software or system design to suit the nature of their work, all this requires auditors to have special skills in computerized systems and good understanding of programs and programming languages with the possibility of using special software auditing to detect of financial & administrative irregularities in order to express technical opinion reflecting authenticity of financial statements. The research has been dividing into tow areas. The first area discussed computerized techniques, concepts, and software applications in accounting, and Shown auditing evidences and responsibility of auditor in the manual and electronic systems. The second area questionnaire related to auditors to show to what extends a using modern auditing technology and analyze them, And the application program IDEA on a sample of factory Alnora accounts for the year 2007.

Alimentary Canal Microbial Content and some carcass characteristics of broilers fed on feeds containing thyme ground-leaves

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 346-350

The study was carried out at the colleges of Agriculture, Kerbala University to determine the effect of thyme ground-leaves added to broiler feeds on the total numbers of bacteria, especially colon bacterium, E.coli, in the broiler alimentary canal and some carcass characteristics. They study, consisted of four nutritional treatments applied on 120chicks one-day old age Hubbard classic broilers of unsexed was initiated on December 7,2008 and terminated on January 19,2009. The thyme ground-leaves were added at rates of 0,5,10 and 15g / kg of feeds by applying completely randomized design (C.R.D.) and using Duncan multiple range for determining significant differences between means of experimental treatments. The results of statistical analysis showed highly significant reduction (P<0.01) in the numbers of total bacteria as well as number of colon bacterium in all experimental treatments compared with control treatment which was devoid of thyme. The addition of thyme ground-leaves, however, had no significant effect on studied characteristics of broiler carcass including whole weight, net weight, weight of edible parts and dressing percentage on the other hand, the control treatment achieved significantly less relative weight of intestines (P< 0.05) when compared with other experimental treatments.

Study the effect of cigarette smoke exposure on the uterine histology and some blood parameters in pregnant female Rats.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 1-4

Thirty- two pregnant female rats exposed to cigarette smoke in three levels (5, 10 and 15) cig /day for one-month period, the pregnant females exposed to 10 cig /day had suffered from endometritis and inflammation occurred in the decidua capsularis and thrombotic phenomena, while pregnant female exposed into 15 cig /day had an increased frequency of coagulation necrosis and inflammation in the decidua capsularis and decidua basalis. The decidua basalis had arterial fibrosis. The two levels (10, 15 cig/day) cigarette smoking exposure causes fetal growth retardation and shorter gestation period, pregnant rats showed significantly reduced (P≤0.05) and (P ≤ 0.01) food intake and body weight. In the two levels (10, 15 cig / day) it was found significantly increased (P≤0.05) and (P ≤ 0.01) respectively Erythrocyte count but decrease (P≤0.05) and (P ≤ 0.01) in differential count in white blood cell (Lymphocyte).

Design and Implementation of a File Splitter and Merger Software

Muhanad Hayder

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 5-20

This paper presents a file splitter tool that is based on Java for making our distribution of files easier in removable media like floppies, CD, …etc. For this it can split a large file that cannot be fit into a single USB flash memory or CD or any other media to one or more files that is easily or perfectly fit into them. Also it is possible to merge them back in destination machine.
For splitting, user will choose the file which he wants to split [for e.g. .txt, .doc, .mp3, .bmp, .xsl, .dat].then utility will ask for attributes of splitted files, location and size. Then reads the inputted file byte by byte write it into sequence of split files all these newly created files are stored either in default folder or in user define folder. All the above information related to splitted file is stored in ‘original file name.jfs ’. The splitting folder will be used to rebuild original file as it is. User have to give path of ‘*.jfs’ file to utility for all files to be merged.
The setting like (default split folder, default merge folder and default split) can be configured and saved by using File Splitter and Merger configuration under options tab.
This paper used object oriented programming with the Java2 Standard Edition (J2SE) programming language.

Design And Implement Attractive Tools For Coloring IRAQ 's Political Map With Minimum Cost

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 21-32

Many optimization problems such as certain events cannot occur at the same time ,or certain members of a set of objects cannot be adjacent . In map coloring problem, in which colors must be chosen for countries on a map in a way that makes bordering countries with different colors.
The aim of this paper is to design and implement attractive tools for coloring IRAQ's political map with minimum number of colors called (chromatic number ) that reduce the cost of coloring using graph vertex coloring algorithm. The IRAQ's political map was drawn manual by designing software , then , represented by equivalence graph data structure , where the nodes denoted to the cities in the map and the edges denoted to the political boundaries between these cities . Also these tools can be implemented to coloring any graph data structure which represent any country's map and finding the chromatic number of it with minimum cost .

Theorems on - dimensional Sumudu transforms and their applications

Amal Khalaf Haydar

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 33-46

In this paper we prove eight fundamental theorems that include the Sumudu transform of variables and a table of Sumudu transform of some familiar functions that is calculated in this paper . In addition , two partial differential equations are solved by using the double Sumudu transform .

Influence of Seed Size on Seed Yield and Its Components of Maize (Zea mays)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 47-51

A field study was conducted at an agriculture field in Babylon governorate /Musaiyib district to sort out the seed size effect on yield and yield components of maize. Two seed sizes i.e. small and large have diameter less than 7 mm. and more than 7 mm. respectively which they have accumulated from tip and base of ear respectively. The hybrid A6 Χ A1 and inbred A6 was used. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with factorial arrangement with three replications. The hybrid significantly surpassed it's inbred in ear weight, seed weight, seed yield and percentage of small seeds, while inbred exceeded its hybrid in row number. Non significant between hybrid and inbred was observed in seed number and ear length. The differences in seed size resulted in non significant effect on ear length, ear weight, seed number/ear and row number/ear, while seed weight seed yield and percentage of small seeds/ ear was responded for seed sizes. The percentage of large seeds superiority to small seed size in seed weight and seed yield was 5.4% and 10.5% respectively, while percentage of small seed size was 17.7% and 21.4% for large and small seed respectively. The decreasing of small seeds percentage is due to low aneuploidy of endosperm cells for large seed. It is concluded that large seed is the best for giving high seed yield a result of raise percentage of germination, seed weight, decreasing the percentage of small seeds and uniformity. At the end, it may be inferred from this research that further research may be conducted.

Preparation and Characterization of Some Transition Metal Complexes with Schiff base ligand (DBAB)

Muna. A. Hadi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 52-57

Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) metal complexes of Schiff base(DBAB)derived from 2-amino benzoic acid and 4-(N,N-dimethyl amino) benzaldehyde have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and electronic spectra, inaddition of molar conductance and magnetic moment measurements. It has been found that the Schiff base ligand behaves as mono basic bidentate (N,O) ligand forming chelates with 1:2 (metal:ligand) stoichiometry. The conductivity data for all complexes are consistent with those expected for an electrolyte.


Maha Mohsen Mohamed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 58-60

we present in this paper that to each tournament Tn with n nodes there corresponds the automorphism group G(Tn) consisting of all dominance preserving permutations, of the set of

Preparation , characterization and molecular models of a ligand derivative of the 1,3,4-thiadiazole and some transition metal complexes

Waleed Muhsen Sarhan

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 61-73

That thiadiazoles derivative are biologically active as antimicrobial agent(1) . therefore, the derivative of the 1,3,4-thiadiazole has prepared along with series of their metal complexes. The reaction of ligand; 2-amino-5-{[(diethylamino)carbonothioyl]dithio}1,3,4-thiadiazole with Cu(II) , Fe (II) , Ni (II) ions yield the following complexes [Cu(ligand)2Cl2], [Fe(ligand)2(H2O)2]SO4, . [Ni(ligand)2Cl2] . The ligand and their metal complexes were characterized using the appropriate techniques, which included melting point, IR,and UV-visible .According to the data obtained, the structural formula with three dimensions of our complexes were suggested.

Optical properties of silicon nitride thin films deposited by TEACO2 laser induced chemical vapor deposition

Hammad Rahaim Al-Azawi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 74-80

Amorphous silicon nitride thin films were deposited on quartz substrate at temperatures 350C with deposition rate o.6 nm/pulse by TEACO2 laser induced chemical vapor deposition (LICVD). The reactant gases photo decompose through collision assisted multiple photon dissociate (MPD). The optical properties (absorption spectra, transmittance, absorption coefficient, and optical energy gap) of these amorphous silicon nitride thin films have been characterized, the optical band gap of the films was varied between (1.5-3.0 eV) by changing the reacting gases SiH4 and NH3 ratio in reactant chamber. It was seen that the transmission of these films for visible wavelength increase by increasing the content of nitrogen in the films than that for high silicon content.
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) used to determine the composition and purities of the deposited films. The nitrogen content of the films was varied between (16%-57%) where the later represent stoichiometric silicon nitride Si3N4. Also from (XPS), these films have high purity and content about 4% oxygen. this high quantity of oxygen attributed to that the amorphous silicon nitride thin films have nanostructure.

Study the Effect the Pressure on the Plasma Emission Intensity

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 81-85

In the present work we study the effect of the pressure which surrounds the laser targets on the plasma emission intensity. The laser produced plasma has been carried out using Nd : Glass laser with energy (0.5) j for two different metal targets. A new detection system set up has been used for plasma emission intensity measurements

Synthesis and Characterization of New Ligand type (N2) and it's polymeric Complexes with (Co (II), Ni (II), Cu (II), and Pd (II)) ions

Ahmad Thabit Numan

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 86-94

The reaction of acrylamide with diacetylmonoxime was realized under reflux in methanol to give the new bidentate ligand [N-acryloyl-2-3-butaylidine mono-imine mono- oxime] [HL]. This ligand was used as monomer to react with some metal ions (Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Pd(II)) in methanol in the presence of methyl ethyl keton peroxide as an initiator with (1:1) metal : ligand ratio to give a series of new polymeric complexes of the general formula[Ni(HL)Cl2 .H2O] , [M(HL)Cl2], where ( M= Co(II), Ni(II),Cu(II) , and Pd(II) ). All compounds were characterised by spectroscopic methods (I.R, U.V-Vis), atomic absorption, (EI-mass for the ligand)], microanalysis (C.H.N) along with conductivity measurements. The obtained data propose a tetrahedral structure for Co and Cu complexes
and square planar for Ni and Pd complexes.

Shape Transition and Collective Excitations in 166-180Hf Isotopes

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 95-106

The low-lying collective levels in 166-180Hf isotopes are investigated in the frame work of the interacting boson model (IBM-1). The contour plot of the potential energy surfaces, V (), shows two wells on the prolate and oblate sides which indicate that all hafnium nuclei are deformed and have rotational characters. The levels energy, electromagnetic transition rates B(E2) and electric quadrupole moment [ ] are calculated. All calculated values are compared with the available experimental data and show reasonable agreement

On The Topological Projective Group

Hussein Abed Al-Hussein Abbas

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 107-111

In this search obtain the following results on as a projective topological group ;
1. A necessary and sufficient condition for ) to be a topological group has been established . From Proposition (2-4).
2. A necessary and sufficient condition for ) to be a topological free group has been established . From Proposition (2-5) .
3. A necessary and sufficient conditions for projectivity of ) has been established . From Proposition (2-6) .

The Prevalence of Impacted Third Molars ( M3) in Baghdad City.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 112-116

Dental epidemiological studies in Iraq are scarce and not updated. This study was conduct¬ed to evaluate the impaction status of third molars in Baghdad to define the need for surgical in-tervention and to establish a baseline data. A total of 2105 male and female subjects were examined. Their ages were ranging between 19-70 years old.
In addition to M3 impaction, fluorosis, TMJ complaints, mucosal bony lesions and pain from the impaction were recorded. All subjects were examined in the dental clinics
Results showed that 10% of the sample had impacted M3, 50% of those complaining of pain, while the percentage of mucosal and bony lesions was 2%.

Topological Quasi Projective Modules

Hussein Abed Al-Hussein Abbas

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 117-121

In this search obtain the following results on a topological quasi projective modules and on a topological quasi projective cover :
1. A topological direct sum of two topological quasi projective modules each one has a topological projective cover is a topological quasi projective module has a topological projective cover which is a direct sum of topological projective cover of it is summand.
2. A topological finite direct sum of a topological quasi projective modules is topological quasi projective if each one has a topological projective cover.
3. A topological module has a topological projective cover if it has a topological quasi projective cover which is unique up to a topological isomorphism over the identity on topological module.

Synthesis and physicochemical characterization of Zn-2,4-dichlorophenox acetate layered nanohybrid and controlled release properties

Abbas Matrod- Bashi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 122-131

Reaction of ZnO with 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (24D) for the formation of a Zn-24D-layered nanohybrid (ZDN), was accomplished . Powder X-ray Diffractogram shows a well ordered crystalline nanomaterial in two phases with a spacing 25.2, and 24 Ǻ. SEM and TEM studies show a flower-like morphology which is highly effected by the concentration of the 24D used. The release studies showed a rapid release of 94% of 24D for the first 100 min. which govern by the inter particle diffusion pseudo second order was found to govern the release of 24D from ZDN. This study suggests controlled release formulation.
Key words: Nanocomposite, 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid, zinc oxide layer nanohybrid, controlled release.

Synthesis and physicochemical characterization of Zn-2,4-dichlorophenox acetate layered nanohybrid and controlled release properties

Abbas Matrod- Bashi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 122-131

Reaction of ZnO with 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (24D) for the formation of a Zn-24D-layered nanohybrid (ZDN), was accomplished . Powder X-ray Diffractogram shows a well ordered crystalline nanomaterial in two phases with a spacing 25.2, and 24 Ǻ. SEM and TEM studies show a flower-like morphology which is highly effected by the concentration of the 24D used. The release studies showed a rapid release of 94% of 24D for the first 100 min. which govern by the inter particle diffusion pseudo second order was found to govern the release of 24D from ZDN. This study suggests controlled release formulation.
Key words: Nanocomposite, 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid, zinc oxide layer nanohybrid, controlled release.

Studying of Citric acid Efficiency in Removal of lead and copper with neutralization of Soil's Bicarbonate

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 132-139

The Efficiency removal of lead and copper and neutralization of Calculus contain of soil by organic acid ( Citric acid) as a chelating were carried out by using of UV-Spectrophotometry technique. The result demonstrated the complexation formulating between the Citric acid and heavy metals. The high efficiency of Citric acid played an important role in removal of lead and copper with neutralization of soil's bicarbonate , in addition to these removal were increased by increasing the Citric acid. The Enhancing of Citric acid in phytoextraction lead and copper caused slowly growing of plant , reducing of Electrical conductivity ,pH and increase soil's porosity.

Evaluation of Manganese (Mn+2) in Serum of Acne Patients

Ahmed Ali Abdulsahib; Rana Abd Al-Aly

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 140-143

This work aimed to determine the effect of manganese in acne patients. This study showed statistically decreased in manganese levels in acne patients in the range (0.0185-0.0496) mg/dl compared with the normal value (0.05-0.07) mg/dl. The design of the project included twenty acne patient (11males, 9 females) and (15) apparently as controls (8 males, 7 females) .Sex difference was obtained as rises for manganese concentration (P≤0.05) in females when compared with those of the male patients. The influence of treatment was studied, the data stated significant increase (P≤0.05), in treated acne patients when compared with those of the untreated.

The role of anti-islet cell autoantibodies (GADA & IA-2A) in type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Kareem Thamir Mashkoor

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 144-152

A case-control study has been conducted to determine the prevalence of islet cell autoantibodies, (Glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies"GADA" & Tyrosin phosphatase –like protein autoantibodies "IA-2A")in type 2 diabetic patients .
During the period from November /2007 through the end of June /2008, the study enrolled 64diabetic patients who attended AL-Hakeem Centre for Researches and Treatment of DM in AL-Sader Teaching Hospital in Al-Najef city –Iraq.
Fasting blood sugar test was done for every patient , fasting insulin concentration & serological tests for GADA ( by using Enzyme –linked immunosorbent assay "ELISA" )& IA-2A by ( Immuno radiometric assay"IRMA") have been done for all sera of the study groups .
it is noticed that (15, 23.4%) and (10,15.6%) of those patients were positive for GADA and IA-2Arespectively and those patients(Latent autoimmune diabetes of adult "LADA" patients) characterized by certain clinical features that differentiate them from islet cell autoantibodies negatives type 2 diabetics as it was found that the majority of patients with islet cell positivity develop the disease at younger age than those negative patients (30.95% Vs 9.1%) regarding GADA & (21.42% Vs 4.5%) regarding IA-2A
Also it was found that type 2 diabetic patients with islet cell autoantibody tend to be none obese & had lower body mass index "BMI" than those with negative islet cell autoantibodies. Statistical analysis showed high significant correlation between BMI & islet cell autoantibody positivity (P <0.001).
When fasting insulin concentration was measured in islet cell autoantibodies positive type 2 diabetic patients, the majority of them(80.95%) had low fasting insulin level & no one of them exhibit hyperinsulinemia in contrast to type 2 diabetic patients where hyperinsulinmia is the predominant feature.

Design and Implementation of Email Filtering Agent by using Clustering Algorithm

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 163-172

This paper will describe the system of email filtering agent which utilize clustering algorithm that classify the messages into two lists negative and positive according to the features that extracted from each message. The agent will receive emails of its client, along with a set of examples, both similar and dissimilar, in order to develop a sense of what the user requires in his clustering. The agent has the task to group the emails into folders based on the similarity between them in the form of common subjects, common email address.. etc. . In fact, each user decides his own gold standard; in other words a user himself decides as to what he wants to be considered as similar/dissimilar. For example, someone might want his emails to be foldered based on the month of receipt whereas someone else would want the clustering to be done based on subject and content. List emails provide another such example.
To implement EMFA system, JAVA language was used. It provides a set of abstract classes defining objects that comprise the E-mail system also supporting the creation of sophisticated user interfaces.


Mohammed Abdulhussain Al-Kaabi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 173-181

Approximation calculations using Hartree-Fock wave function are carried out on the 2S ground state for the Beryllium atom in position space .For each shell in this atom the partial distribution function, radial statistical coefficients, density distributions and expectation values are studied .This properties are achieved from the partitioned form of the density distribution. The effects of the electron–spin in both inter-and intra-shell on the above properties is taken into account.


journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 182-188

This study aimed at evaluating the transverse strength of cold cured acrylic resin denture base as an alternative material for heat cure acrylic resin denture base material when processed in water bath. 30 samples of (65mm length X 10mm width X 2.5mm thickness) were made for transverse strength test. There were 3 experimental groups, (n = 10 per group): G1) heat cure acrylic resin (fast way- water bath curing) as a control group; G2) cold cure acrylic resin (fast way- water bath curing); G3) cold cure acrylic resin (slow way- chemical curing). Transverse strength was assessed after specimens were completely cured, finished and polished. The results revealed that the cold cure acrylic specimens which processed in water bath at 74ºC for (1 ½ hr) then 100ºC for ½ hr have better transverse strength than cold cure acrylic which polymerized under hydraulic press for (2 hrs) in spite of the curing time equivalence .

ZnSe/Porous Si/Si(p-type) Heterojunction Investigation

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 189-196

In this research n-ZnSe films were deposited on glass and porous Si (P-Type) substrates by thermal evaporation in vacuum (10-5)(using Edward coating system 306)with thickness 200nm. All the films prepared at different annealing temperatures were studied by X-ray diffraction method and shown that ZnSe films at Ta=303K have polycrystalline structures,while we show that the films have single crystal at (Ta=343,363K).Optical measurements indicated that films have a direct energy gap in the range of (2.61-2.55eV) for films at room temperature and increases at different annealing temperatures. The effect of annealing on structural properties is observed. Hall Effect measurements showed that ZnSe films have a negative conductivity, also the concentration of charge carriers (n) and Hall mobility increases with increasing of annealing temperature. Porous Si (P-type) with (100) orientation and resistivity (1*10-4 ohm cm) is fabricated by photochemical etching process. Multijunction of ZnSe/Porous Si/Si(p-type) diode device were fabricated, electrical properties of fabricated junction is investigated by current density- applied voltage(J-V) measurements and from (C-V) measurement the built in voltage can be found. The effect of annealing temperatures on the heterojunction is observed
Keywords: Porous Silicon heterojunction, Porous silicon

Determination of Sn2+ by using a new ligand 2-[(2-Benzimidazolyl) azo ]-4-methoxyphenol

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 197-206

BIAMP was used to determine Sn2+, optimum conditions were maximum absorption of complex at (523 nm), pH (9), temperature (40 ºc) .
Beer's law was obeyed in the range (0.02-1.8) ppm, detection limit was (0.0009) ppm, linearity ( R2 ) was (0.9995), correlation factor (r) was (0.9997), molar absorbitivty (ε) was 4.09 x 104 .
The ratio between metal to ligand was (1:2) of complex, Statistical units were recorded, R.S.D % (1.63) % and Erel.% and Re % were (-1.66) %, (98.34) % . The interferences of ions were study.



journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 207-212

objective of this study was to measure the alterations in two of important serum trace elements, including zinc (Zn++) and copper (Cu++), in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in AL-Hakeem hospital in Najaf city. In the study, serum trace elements were determined by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer in sera of patients with RA (n=22), and statistically compared with healthy individuals (n=12). Serum Cu++ concentration was found significantly higher in patients group than those of healthy individuals (29.06±3.78 and 20.74 ±4.30 µmol/L, respectively) (p<0. 01). In contrary, Zn++ levels were lower in patients (7.78±4.41 µmol/L and 13.55±6.00 µmol/L, respectively) according to the healthy subjects (p<0.05).
The present study indicate no significant changes between active RA group and non-active group patients copper when evaluated copper metal. But there was significant difference between two groups (p<0.0 5) for zinc metal. Additionally positive correlation between serum cu levels and disease duration, while the correlation between serum Zn levels and disease duration was negative.
Our results showed a considerable amount of evidence indicating that cu++ and zn++ may contribute in etiopathogeesis of RA disease and that serum (Zn++,Cu++)concentrations are altered in RA patients ,we suggest that potential role for Cu and Zn may cooperate in the development of the disease .

Thermodynamic and Synergistic effect on the extraction of Cu(II) & Ag(I) by use ligand 2-[α-Naphthyl azo]-4,5-diphenyl imidazole

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 213-228

2-[2-[α-Naphthyl azo]-4,5-diphenyl imidazole (α-NADPI) synthesized as new ligand and used for extraction Cu+2 ions Ag+1 ions and demonstrated the thermodynamic of reaction metal ions with ligand, as well as the effect of salting out, anion types and synergism effect on the extraction method ,the results shows thermodynamically the reaction between metal ions and ligand (α-NADPI) was exothermic for both metal ions ,salting out effect shows MgSO4 was the best electrolyte salt which is giving higher distribution ratio(D), and shows the effect of electrolyte salt increase with increase the concentration of electrolyte salt solution ,anion effect shows picrate anion was the best anion and giving higher distribution ratio(D), synergism effect shows there is an effect for synergism to enhancement the extraction ability by participate synergic agent in the ion pair complex extracted and increase stability of complex extracted ,and shows there is one molecule of synergic agent TBP in the complex structure [Cu(α-NADPI)(TBP)]+2SO4-2, [Ag(α- NADPI)(TBP)]+NO3- .

Effect of Zinc deficiency on the average numbers of sperms in white mouse

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 229-231

The effect of zinc deficiency on sperm count was studied in mouse drinking water containing zinc-deficient diet. Thirty balb-c- mice were divided randomly in to 3 groups of 10 animals in each. Group 1 act as controls, group 2 was supplied with drinking water containing0.3gZn/100 ml water and group 3 was supplied with drinking water containing 0.3gZn/100 ml water.
The results of hole period 3 weeks show a significant reduction(P≤0.05)in the group3 compared with group 2 and 1 the control. The sperm count in group 3 was significantly lower than in group 1 and 2 .

Certain Properties of N- Proper Functions

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 232-235

In this work, we introduce and study N-proper function by using the concept of N-closed function .A function f: (X,)(Y,) from topological space (X,) into a topological space (Y,) is said to be a N-proper function if f is continuous , N- closed ,and for every yY, f -1(y) is compact . Several properties of N-proper functions are proved.

Determination of Co2+ and Cd2+ by using 2-[(2-Benzimidazolyl) azo ]-4-methoxyphenol

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 236-249

Co2+ and Cd2+ are determined by using (BIAMP) reagent, the maximum absorption of the two formation complex are (522) and (627).
Optimum conditions are recorded pH (9) , (7), temperature (20), (30), Bear’s low (0.03-1.7), (0.02-1.5) ppm, detection limits were (0.0015), (0.0005) for Co2+ and Cd2+ complexes.
RSD, R2, r and molar absorptivity were recorded, also interferences of ions are studying.

Synthesis and characterization of N-(4- Nitro benzylidene)-N-{2-[(4-nitrobenzylidene)-amino]-ethyl}-ethan-1,2-diamine as aligand and their metal complexes with Cobalt(II) , Nickel (II) & Cupper (II)

Atheer H. Yas

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 250-259

¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬ New chelate complexes of Co (II) , Ni (II) and Cu (II) with N-(4- Nitro benzylidene)-N-{2-[(4-nitrobenzylidene)-amino]-ethyl}-ethan-1,2-diamine were prepared.
All these chelate complexes have been characterized by ( FT.IR) , ( Uv – vis. ) spectra , magnetic moment and conductivity measurements .
The studies suggested that the geometry around Co(II) and Cu(II) are tetrahedral shape and the geometry square planar shape is suggested to Ni(II) complex.

Three-dimensional numerical investigation of flow at 90° open channel junction

Waqid Hameed Al-Mussawi; Musa Habib Al-Shammary; Husam Hadi Alwan

journal of kerbala university, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 260-272

Open channel junction flow is of interest in environmental and hydraulic engineering. It occurs in many hydraulic structures such as wastewater treatment facilities, irrigation ditch, fish passage conveyance structures, and natural river channels. This paper provides the details of application of numerical solution (Finite Volume) by FLUENT-3D software in simulation of 90° open channel junction flows. A three-dimensional turbulent model is developed to investigate the flow characteristics (velocity profiles) in open channel junction with different discharge ratios. Were comparisons of Weber made between numerical results and measured experimental velocities. Good agreement is obtained between the model simulation and experimental measurements. Statistical analysis of results obtained was, also, applied by using chi-square test (goodness-of-fit test) to ensure the previous conclusion.The correlation coefficient for all tests was not less than (0.952) .