ISSN: 1813-0410

Volume 5, Issue 1

Volume 5, Issue 1, Winter 2009, Page 1-188


Interaction Anxiousness and its Relation with personality type of Karbala University Students

journal of kerbala university, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 14-36

قلق التفاعل حالة من التحسس يدركها المرء على شكل شعور من خلال التفاعل، قد يبدو ضيقا وعدم الارتياح او شعورا بالسعادة تجاه الاشخاص او الموضوعات او المواقف المتصلة بهدف محدد مما قد يؤثر على الصحة النفسية ونوعية وكمية الوظائف الحياتية وبضمنها اداء الالتزامات، زد على ذلك قد يؤثر في بناء شخصية ذو نمط محدد من السلوك. لقد كان لحالات قلق التفاعل منذ اقدم العصور في تاريخ الانسان اهمية في عملية المعايشة السلمية او الحروب من جهة او التفاعل مع البيئة الاجتماعية بجانبيها السلبي والايجابي من جهة ثانية .هذا التلاقح يولد امران الاول يتعلق بطبيعة القلق والثاني يتعلق بأنعكاساته على شخصية الفرد من خلال التفاعل . بناء على ماتقدم يهدف البحث الحالي الى:-
1-التعرف على مستوى قلق التفاعل لدى طلبة جامعة كربلاء تبعا لمتغيري الجنس والتخصص.
2-التعرف على نمط الشخصية لدى طلبة جامعة كربلاء بحسب قائمة أيزنك.
3-التعرف نمط الشخصية لدى طلبة الجامعة تبعا لمتغيري الجنس والتخصص.
4-التعرف العلاقة بين قلق التفاعل ونمط الشخصية لدى طلبة الجامعة

The Extent of Creative Thinking Skills Availability in the Palestinian First Three Classes Arabic Language Textbooks and Their Acquisition by Students

journal of kerbala university, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 103-114

This research aimed at knowing the extent to which creative thinking skills (fluency, flexibility, and originality) are available in the first three classes' Arabic Language textbooks of the Palestinian basic education and their acquisition by students. The textbook were firstly analyzed using two analysis cards: one for the reading text, and the other for the questions, exercises, and activities of the three textbooks. Both validity and reliability of the cards were measured following the usual research methods. In addition, a test was prepared to measure these skills acquisition by the students. It was applied on the third basic education class students after assuring its validity and reliability. It was implemented on a stratified random sample of: (males and females), (town, camp, and village); and include (267) students distributed over (8) schools: (4) of which were males', and (4) were females'. These schools also comprised the three population categories: (2) town schools, (1) camp and (1) village schools. Some classroom instructional situations of the (Human and Light) unit were taped-recorded in (8) schools include the pre-mentioned categories in order to observe the extent to which teachers implement the creative thinking skills during their explanations and discussions. The results showed a very low level of these skills in both the analyzed textbooks and in the field test. The sentences that include: direct creative thought in the three textbooks were at (1.3%); those with indirect creative thought were at (6.7%); and with a (4%) ration for both types of sentences. In regard to the availability of skills (fluency, flexibility, originality) in the three textbooks questions, the common ration was (4.1%): (3.7%) for fluency, (0.4%) for originality, and zero for flexibility. For their availability in the three textbooks exercises, the common ration was (1.6%): (0.2%) for fluency, and (1.4%) for flexibility. For their availability in the three textbooks activities, the common ration was (15.5%): (7.5%) for fluency and (8%) for flexibility. In regard to the acquisition of the skills, the test results showed that all of them are not acquired by the students. The least skills to observe was originality with a calculated mean of (0.47) and a theoretical mean of (4.5); followed by flexibility with a calculated mean of (3.69) and a theoretical mean of (6); then fluency with a calculated mean of (6.99) and a theoretical mean of (7.5). Results also showed a statistical significant difference in fluency between male and female students in favor of males. It also showed a statistical significant difference in terms of population categories in favor of camps students. The previously-mentioned results were interpreted in light of posed hypotheses, previous studies, and the literature; conclusion and recommendation were then drawn.

The difficulties that face the students in studying "the literature of latest ages curriculum" for Arabic language departments in Arts colleges from students' point of view.

journal of kerbala university, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 129-162

Language is the superior mean of communication that human reaches, and the most significant way to understand & communicate. Language is the common factor in forming families, groups, and nations. Arabic language is most eloquent language uttered by a man ever; it is the language of the Holy Koran, the language of poetry, and the days of Arab. It is also one of national unity pillars .
Literature is branch of that shady tree (language), and it is so close to it, and from it gets the strength and development .
Arabic literature is net preserved the entity of language, and keeps the entity of nation staid. The literature of latest ages left in shade almost invisible. In spite of the beautiful "jewels", but it suffered of the political life that controlled over the era of it.
For understanding the difficulties that faced students in studying the literature of latest age's curriculum, this paper prepared .
This paper covered a sample of (93 male/female) students, by using liaison coefficient(person), casting medium, percentage weight, percentage, and other statistics means the researcher concluded that the teaching methods and styles scored the first rank; its intensity degree(1.265), and its percentage weight(% 62.843). While the curriculum scored the fifth grade; its intensity degree was the minimum (1.128), and its percentage weight is (% 65.444) .
According to the research results, the researcher recommended that: providing students with references that help them to understand the literature of latest age's curriculum. Holding training courses for the lecturers to improve their scientific performance, and adopting modern and varied teaching methods, and paying more attention to libraries and make the lecturers aware of the latest methods of teaching, measuring, and correcting .
As completion of this paper, the researcher suggest that conducting similar research to identify the proficient lecturers to teach the literature of latest ages curriculum .

Abandoned women (characteristics and problems

journal of kerbala university, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 180-195

This study aims to identify the problems and characteristics of abandoned women, whether economic problems, psychological, or social. Ones , in addition to identify the most important reasons and effects for abandon and . This study applied to all abandoned women beneficiaries of the National Aid Fund in the governorate of Jarash using the questionnaire , personal interview as tools to collect data and was applied on survey sample consisted of 40 abandoned women ,One of the findings of the study that there are social problems facing women abandoned but it has no significant impact on the relations and dealings in their society to a certain extent and there are many economic problems suffered by abandoned women regarding securing the main needs for family which affects them greatly and psychological problems with greatest impact on them and on their children.
The study suggested a set of recommendations including:
1. Educate Muslim societies in general and Jordanian society, in particular regarding the concept of abandoned women and their rights and duties of their socites towards them .
2.Paying Full attention to women's issues in general and abandoned women in particular

HOMOPHONY IN ENGLISH AND ARABIC

Iman Kh. Oda

journal of kerbala university, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 1-14

The aim of the present paper is to explore homophony in English as well as Arabic as one of the lexical relations. Homophony then refers to the phenomenon of words with different meanings having the same sound. Those words are called homophones. Homophony offers a fertile ground for a paper of a small size which falls into three sections. The first deals with the concept of homophony in English through some definitions by Western linguists. Related terms to homophony are also provided in this section with reference to different types of homophony in English. The second section is concerned with homophony in Arabic. The same approach adopted in the first section is followed in the second one. Definitions of homophony by Arab rhetoricians are surveyed followed by the various different types of homophony in Arabic. The third section is intended to shed some light on similarities and differences in terms of definitions and types of homophony in both English and Arabic. The findings of the paper are summed up in the conclusion.

The Semantic Implications of the Imperatives in English and Arabic

Besma Khalid Ingeish; Saadiya Wudaa Hassan

journal of kerbala university, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 15-29

This paper is intended to shed some light on the semantic implications of the imperatives in English as well as Arabic. The semantic implications refer to the functions (meanings) of the imperatives in both languages. It has been divided into four parts. The first one gives a description of the semantic implications of the imperatives in English while the second is concerned with those of the imperatives in Arabic. The third part is reserved for the similarities and differences between the implications of the imperatives in English and Arabic. The conclusions are summed up in the last part of the paper

A Linguistic Study of Oxymoron

Reja; a M. Flayih

journal of kerbala university, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 30-40

The study deals with the linguistic analysis of oxymoron as a figure of speech in which two words or phrases with contrasting meanings are brought together intentionally for effect. The effect can be ironic, humorous, paradoxical or merely emphatic.
The starting point of this paper is an attempt to explicate oxymoron as a figure of speech. Then the study aims at drawing general parameters by means of which the grammatical structure as well as the semantic perspective can be described. A manifestation for the various rhetorical effect of oxymoron and its kinds will also be highlighted. The practical part includes certain text extracted from Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet. Finally, the findings of the study will be summed up in the conclusion.

Borrowing and Lexicon

journal of kerbala university, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 41-46

It is natural that the meaning of any word in a language changes , develops or disappears across time. So every language has to adopt certain criterion in order to expand its vocabulary. The most common source of adding new vocabulary to a language is called borrowing .The present paper sheds some light at the concept of borrowing and displays the major periods of borrowing in the history of English . In addition , it introduces with some examples the basic types of borrowing. Finally , some conclusions are pinpointed through explaining the concept under study.

Prophet Abraham’s Call : Reasoning in order to approach the Proof

Abbas A. AbdulRidha

journal of kerbala university, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 47-52

Prophet Ibrahim has applied successfully the philosophical dictum “a doubt is the first step of reasoning “and in order to lead his people to the faith. He planted the seed of doubt into their cult of the stars and heavenly bodies.
According to the analyzing the evidence that Ibrahim had followed,
We conclude that he is the one who first established this way of reasoning in order to approach the proof, without forcing them to say that their idols could not speak, useless and powerless creatures .

Effect of spraying with NAA and Vapor Gard on quality characters of local fruit pomegrante (Punica granatum L.).

journal of kerbala university, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 1-4

The experiment was conducted in a local pomegranate trees / Najaf on 1/ 7/ 2006 on 10-years old to investigate the effect of two concentrations of Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) (25 and 50) mg / L and Vapor- Gard wax (2 and 4) % and combination treatment between them on quality characters of fruit.
The Results indicated that, NAA gave a significant increase in the moisture peels, pulp, juice percentage and reducing the cracking, T.s.s, acidity, anthocyanine and vitamin C in juice during fruit ripening .
Vapor Gard was more effective than NAA in that respect but the combination of NAA and Vapor- Gard were more compared with effective single treatments. The treatment (NAA 50mg / L + V-G 4 %) gave the best result than others.

Effect of temperature on the external parasites which recorded on the mugilid fish Liza abu (Heckel, 1843) in AL- Hilla River, BABYLON PROVINCE

journal of kerbala university, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 5-11

During the period from March 2008 till September 2008, a total of 193 Liza abu from AL- Hilla river, Babylon province were inspected for ectoparasites. The inspection results showed the occurrence of nine species of ectoparasites which included of Ichthyophthirius mulifiliis, Trichodina cotidarum, T. nigrs, Paraergasilus inflatus, Ergasilus sieboldi, Dactylogyrus simplex, D. extensus, D. minutus and D. pavlovskyi, The Liza abu is considered as a new host in Iraq for D. minutus. The percentage incidence of infection with the studied parasites varied according to different months.

Anatomical study of stem of the genus Asteriscus Mill (compositae) in Iraq

journal of kerbala university, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 12-19

Species of the genus Asteriscus L. in Iraq has been systematically studied. Work involving anatomical study of the stem transverse section. The anatomical characters like diameters and the numbers of the layers of the epidermis , cortex , phloem , xylem and pith were found to be considerable taxonomic value which separated and diagnosed the two species. So the characters like the shape and thickness of the cells of different stem tissues were found to be with taxonomic value. In conclusion two species of three were recognized for Iraq which belong to the genus Asteriscus L. ,A.graveolens and A.pygmaeus

Taxonomy , chemical , pollen grain , and distribution study of Species Solanum nigrum L( Solanaceae )In Iraq.

journal of kerbala university, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 20-25

The study conclude the chemical content of plant parts ( Leaves , Flowers and Seeds ) of Speies Solanum nigrum L Results showed that there were showed eleven chemical compounds which were differ in color and Rf in Solanum nigrum L plant parts . The pollen grains are smooth and tricolporate . In concern to the distribution study of this genus indictate that it has been found in the most region of Iraq .

Study the Image of Line Object for Optical System Using Synthetic Circular Aperture

journal of kerbala university, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 51-61

In this research, the line spread function)LSF( has been investigated for group of circular synthetic in place of one circular Aperture which usually used in optical systems, which use optical system diffraction limited or contain focus error (W20=0.25λ,0.5λ), when the Aperture (N=1,3,5,7).The results have been showed that the increment of number of multiple circular Aperture leads to increase the image intensity of the line object and resolution power for optical system, also the circular Aperture which contain seven multiple Apertures was a preferable from the other.

Effect of cultivation mediums and different concentrations of kinetin acid on seed germination and seedling growth rates of albizzia plant, Albizzia lebbek (L.)Benth .

journal of kerbala university, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 62-71

The experiment was carried out at the Department of Horticulture , College of Agriculture , Karbala University in 2008 to determine the effect of different concentrations of kinetin acid and different cultivation media on seed germination and seedling growth rates of albizzia seedling , Albizzia lebbek (L.)Benth .The Reeds were treated with the following concentrations of this acid : ( 0 , 10 , 20 , 30 and 40 mg /l ) and many types of cultivation media were used including : sand , peat moss , sand +peat moss at ratio of 1 : 1 v/v , sand + peat moss at ratio of 2 : 1 v/v and sand + peat moss at ratio of 1 : 2 v/v . The experiment results were as follows : The acid concentration of 40 mg /l was the most effective regarding all studied growth characteristics . The cultivation medium consisting of sand + peat moss at ratio of 1: 2 v/v was the most effective regarding germination percentage , the cultivation medium consisting of sand + peat moss at ratio of 1 : 1 v/v was the most effective regarding mean number of leaves , the medium of peat moss was the most effective regarding seedling mean length , dry weights of leaves , vegetative branches and root system , and amount of chlorophyll .The effect of interaction of acid and medium was found that acid concentration of 40 mg /l and cultivation medium consisting of peat moss was the most effective interaction on mean length of seedling , dry weights of leaves , vegetative branches and root system and chlorophyll content . The interaction of acid concentration of 20 mg / l and cultivation medium consisting of sand + peat moss at ratio of 1 : 2 v/v was significantly the most effective regarding seed germination rate .

Improvement of food Value for chemical poor rations and its effect at efficiency of Awassi Lambs economically

journal of kerbala university, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 93-98

This study was conducted to determine the economical efficiency and economic return of using a cheap alternative diets. Different levels of yellow corn cobs treated with molasses (30,40,50 and 60%) with different levels of urea (0,1,2 and 3%) on fattening of Awassi lambs . Estimated production function was used to determine the best level of production and investment rate of return at dinar in the diets are also calculated . Simple Regression model was used to estimate the weight gain response to feed consumption . The results that :- Achieved value by second group was 15.25 Kg animal , whereas first , third , and fourth groups were 13.60 , 14.55 and 13.50 Kg animal , respectively . The weight increasing had achieved economic profit were 31213 , 34962 , 34119 and 32188 dinar to the animals groups 1,2,3 and 4 respectively .In conclusion the using 40% of corn cobs which treated by molasses with 1% urea in fattening lambs ration represents the best production level in this study .

The role of gibberellic acid and DAP fertilizer on growth of lentil (Lens culinaris Medic.)

journal of kerbala university, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 88-92

Pots experiment was conducted in the green house of Biology Department, College of Education (Ibn Al-Haithum), University of Baghdad, during growing season of 2009, to study the effect the interaction between three concentrations of gibberellins (0, 50, 100) mg/L and three levels of Diamonium phosphate fertilizer (0, 40, 80) kg/ donum this equal (0, 0.16, 0.32) gm/2kg pot respectively, on vegetative growth of lentil cultivar (Baraka). Factorial experiment with in acompletely randomized design with three replications was adopted.Results showed that, the gibberellin concentrations and fertilizer levels increased the above mentioned characteristics namely plant height, number of branches, dry matter weight, absolute growth rate and biomass duration. The interaction between 100 mg/L gibberellin and 80 kg/ donum fertilizer giving the highest values of these characters except the number of branches.

Response of Broad bean crop to sowing date and boron foliar application.

journal of kerbala university, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 99-103

A Field experiment was conducted at the Experimental Farm, Agriculture College, Kerbala University, during growing Season 2008 – 2009.The experiment was arranged in split plot design with RCBD. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of three sowing dates (10/ September, 30 / September and 20 / October) assigned in the main plots and 4 concentrations of boron (0,75,150 and 225)mg/ litter assigned in subplots on some agronomic characteristics, yield and its components of ( Vicia faba L.). Results showed that planting in the first sowing date ( 10 / September ) with 225 mg B/litter gave the highest number of pods per plant (12.46) pods , number of seeds per pod (5.00) seeds and biological yield (14533)Kg/h and these were reflected on highest seeds yield (7033) Kg/h . Planting in the third sowing date with control treatment (without foliar fertilizer) gave the highest l00 seeds weight (157.00) gm.

Study of The Effect of The Reinforced by Rock Wool (Smooth and Rough) For Polyester Composites

journal of kerbala university, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 104-106

The research study Study of The Effect of The Reinforced by Rock Wool (Smooth and Rough) For Polyester Composites . The main postures of results based upon the structural properties of the fibers rock wool (smooth and rough) .Where find that the tensile strength measurement shows increasing as the Wight fibers of rock wool are increasing .It is also noticed that the most tensile strength which is obtained is for the smoothing rock wool fibers the tensile strength (32.7 Mpa) in the weight(10 gm).

Studie on Determining Maturity Standard and Harvesting Indices in Eggplant Solanum melongena L.)) in plastic house condition

journal of kerbala university, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 107-109

An experiment was conducted under plastic house conditions to determine the harvesting index of Eggplant fruit Solanum melongena at AL –Usoffia District, Baghdad governorate during 2001-2002 and 2002- 2003 seasons.The experiment al results showed an increase in all parametes height, length and weight fruit to the besides it size seed , Ascorbic acid to seasons from first day of flowering until the day19 from flowering.A clers decrease in this parameter after 35days from flowering was noticed , so that eggplpant fruits can be harvested after 19days from flowering

Study of two types of parasitic-intestinal cestoda In Streptopelia decaocta

journal of kerbala university, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 116-121

In the present study and during the period from November 2007tillfebruray2008, 38 birds are Streptopelia decaocta collected which in AL-Dywania city . where anatomized this birds. They have been notes that these birds infection with two types of cestoda in the intestine that are Cotugina sp. and Raillietina sp.
Most of the birds where infected with 2_8 worms form both genus while each host contains more than one types of worms, and as it has appeared that the presentage of infection during the months of study reached 2-55 % which increased during November to presentage of 60% . In addition, the male birds was more infected with a present age of 9- 61%while the female birds reached the present age of 47%. In addition to being infected with Cotugina sp. reached 42.1% while infected with Raillietina sp. reached 13.1%

Bringing on proportionable mechanisim by using target programming for cities development

Ali Asghar Jomah Jobore; Meeras Salman Juwad; Azhar Ali Abbas

journal of kerbala university, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 127-133

The research aimed to finding a relative ideal Mechanism to achieve fiscal balance in the development aspects of life in urban. We have been using more than one technique to conduct this balance have been using algorithms and many recall the most important Khorzmih Dijstra as well as using Artificial Intelligence techniques optimal path foundation associated with techniques developed to solve math equations proper first-class Liner - Iinteger programming and operations research techniques to collect reports and statistical tables required to complete Draft users so how best path search application as one of the traditional methods that were used for some time period for the above goal has been compared with other methods, where he was to use Artificial Iintelligence techniques are the best ways to implement the theme "We discussed this. Action has been implemented using Visual Basic programming language and the calculator compliant specifications.

Chemical , ecological and distribution study of species Atracytils carduus (compositae ) in Iraq .

journal of kerbala university, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 134-139

The study was carried out in plant laboratory – department of Biology , College of Science , Kufa University . The study aimed to determined the chemical content of plant parts root ,Leaves and Flowers ) of genus Atracytils carduus L.The results there were eleven chemical compounds which were differ in their color and Rf . The first and second compounds were found in root where some color was violet and yellow . The leaves had five chemical compounds ( 3,4,5,6 and 7 ) and their colors was clear violet while the compound ( 8,9,10 and 11 ) appeared in flower extract , with different Rf and the color . the study of ecology show that the species Atracytils carduus L grew at different soil types such as sand , stone and desert . In concern to the distribution study of this genus in dicate that it has been found in sixe region of Iraq .

Prevalence of brucellosis in human and sheep and goats in Baghdad province

journal of kerbala university, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 140-147

This research had been carried out in order to give epidemiological picture of brucellosis in both animal and human in Baghdad governorate, which was a representative area.
Achievement of research including two tests on blood specimens, the first including 1314 patients( males& females) suspected to brucella infection , from Aug. 2006 to end of July 2007 by using rose Bengal test. The second including
336 blood specimens from ewe &goats which are main sources for human infection.
Results showed that 95 cases were positive or suspected infection their ratio is 7.23%. 38 positive cases were males their ratio is 4o% ,while 57 positive cases were females their ratio was 60%. On the other hand the examination of 336 blood specimens give 40 positive cases of ewe &goats.
Research confirm that Iraq is an endemic area for brucellosis diseases. It is still economic & medical trouble, needs strategic &scientific plane to control the disease.

Propagation of ( Gladiolus hybrida ) cv. Priscilla by shoots production and multiplication in vitro

journal of kerbala university, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 169-174

An experiment was conducted at tissue culture laboratory belong to private sector company which located at Abu-Alkhasib Basrah Iraq, from September 2003 to December 2004 .The objectives of the experiment were to test the effect of many treatments on response of gladiolus corm slices cv. Priscilla in vitro culture .The experiment included 14 treatments which were a combination between ammonium nitrate at 0.825 gm/l and 1.65 gm/l with coconut milk 10% and 20% and Benzyl adenine 0.5 mg/l .A combination also made between Naphthalene acetic acid 1 mg/l and ammonium nitrate and coconut milk .Treatments of shoot multiplication medium included four concentrations of Benzyl adenine which were : 0 , 0.5 , 1 , 1.5 , mg/l . It could be suggested.
Best response of corm slices was to that cultured on MS medium supplemented with coconut milk 10% and Benzyl adenine at 0.5 mg/l , its response was 80%. The response was the production of adventitious bud on slice. Benzyl adenine treatment of 1 mg/l caused the highest multiplication rate which were 5.2 shoots after six weeks and 17.2 shoots after twelve weeks.The lowest concentration of benzyl adenine ( 0.5 mg/l ) increased shoot length after 6 and 12 weeks of culture which was 10.25 cm and 15.81 cm respectively, whereas , The highest concentration of benzyl adenine ( 1.5 mg/l ) reduced shoot length.

Effect of - rays on some electrical & optical properties of P. V. C. solved in dimethyl formamide

journal of kerbala university, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 175-181

This study, was explained the effect of Gamma radiation on the some optical and electrical properties for Poly Vinyl Chloride liquid which solve in dimethyl formamide with (1% - 14%). The results show the effect of decrease conductivity at dielectric constant, dielectric loss and loss angle by increase of constriction after and before irradiation.
As its explained the effect of decreasing reflectance on transmittance and coefficient finesse by increase of constriction after and before irradiation.

Synthesis of Nano particle ZnO-organic Nanohybrid and its role in Controlled Release of 4-Chlorophenoxy Acetate from the lamella of ZnO nanocomposite

Abbas Matrod Bashi

journal of kerbala university, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 1-8

Direct intercalation of 4-Chlorophenoxyacetate into ZLH interlayer was obtained by reacting ZnO with 4-Chlorophenoxyacetic acid. The resulting Nanohybrid material is white needle like-crystals with two phases at 21.25. and 18.69 Å respectively. This was characterized using XRD. SEM and TEM to show a fibrous nonohybrid structure. The controlled release study showed that within 2000 min. the accumulation of 4-Chlorophenoxyacetate is 94% and t ½ value of 990 min. That is an indication, ZnO can be used to study the controlled release delivery of herbicide active molecules.

Description of a new species belonging to the genus Bradleystrandesia Broodbakker,1983(Crustacea : Ostracoda) from Iraq.

Sabah F. Bassat; Hanan Z.M. AlDaa

journal of kerbala university, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 9-16

The Present study provides description of a new species of Ostracods genus Bradleystrandesia Broodbakker,1983. External morphological characters particularly shape, size and structure of left and right valves of carapace and body appendages were described and illustrated. Locality and date of collection were given. This study showing some new and important characters such us:carapace with reticulate patterns anteriorly and posteriorly,first antenna:basal segment large, second antenna: natatory setae short ,mandible: first segment of pulp enlarged and irregular in shape, second thoracopod :six –segmented, third thoracopod: basal segment short

Correlation between the Compressive Strength of Concrete and Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity; Investigation and Interpretation

Adil .M. Abdul Latif; Zainab Mohammed Ridha Abdul Rasoul

journal of kerbala university, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 17-29

The literatures on ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) as a nondestructive test for evaluating the properties of concrete have been reviewed. Many researchers attempted to correlate compressive strength of concrete to (UPV) and they suggested many equations for this purpose. In this study the reliability of these equations has been investigated. It seems that none of these equations is reliable enough to be recommended to be used in practices. This conclusion may be interpreted on the basis that some properties of composite material, such as compressive strength, are a function of the weakest component, while the UPV through the composite is a function of UPV in all components. Griffith theory is also used to interpret this phenomenon.

Lower Melting-Point Lead-Free Solder Alloy

Tarik T.Issa; Farah T.Mohamed; Nadia A.Ali

journal of kerbala university, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 30-33

A lower –melting – point solder alloy composition Sn42-Bi57.3-Zn0.7 has been studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC), a large portion of the alloy melts sharply at a approximately 136˚C, the melting point of Sn-Bi , Sn- Zn eutectic alloy .The produce alloy was analyzed by XRD and optical microscopy for microstructure characterization .The hardness of alloy has been tested and was found of a value 10HRB as a ductile form .

Effect of sowing date and phosphorus fertilizer on growth and yield of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. ).

journal of kerbala university, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 34-41

A field experiment was conducted at the experimental farm, Agriculture College, Karbala University, during 2007-2008 growing season. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of sowing date (15/11 , 25/11 and 5/12 ) assigned in the main plots and 5 levels of phosphorus ( 0,30,60,90 and 120) kg P2O5 ha assigned in the subplots on some characteristics of wheat plant. Plant growth , yield and yield components of wheat plant cv. Alfateh were determined. The experiment was arraneed as split–plot within randomized complete block design R.C.B.D. means were compared using LSD at p= 5%. Results could be summarized as follow :
First and second sowing dates gave the highest number of spike/ m2 and biological yield. The second sowing date gave the highest number of grains / spike . whereas the third sowing date gave the highest weight of 1000 grains.
The highest percentage of determination coefficient(r2) during 1st sowing date was obtained from flag leaf area and number of grains per spike (0.82 and 0.77),. respectively .
The highest percentage of determination coefficient during the second sowing date was obtained from the biological yield ,flag leaf area ,number of grains / spike and number of spike /m2 (0.93 ,0.83,0.77 and 0.76 ), respectively. The third sowing date gave the highest percentage of determination coefficient represented from 1000 grains weight.
Regarding phosphorus fertilization ,120 kg P2O5/ha gave the highest flag leaf area , number of spike / m2 , number of grains/ spike and grains yield (46.59 cm2 , 346.60 spike , 36.83 grains and 5310 kg P2O5/ha ), respectively.

Description of a new species of the genus Cypridopsis Brady,1867 (Crustacea : Ostracoda)from Iraq.

Hassan S. AlAsady; Hanan amy; Z.M. AlDa

journal of kerbala university, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 42-48

In the Present study a description of a new species of the genus Cypridopsis Brady,1867(Ostracoda). External morphological characters particularly the shape, size and structure of left and right valves of the carapace and body appendages were described and illustrated. Locality and date of collection were given.This study showing some new and important characters such us: Carapace, with 5 dark green regions ,outer surface pitted and covered with hairs. First segment of endopod of second antenna with one plumose setae. First thoracopod, vibratory plate bear three equal setae.Uropod, reduced , rhombus in shape.

A Simple spectrophotometeric Assay for determination of L-Dopa in pharmaceutical preparations via oxidative coupling reaction.

Abdul Barry Mahdi. Mahood

journal of kerbala university, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 49-59

A sensitive and simple spectrophotometric method for the estimation of levodopa (LDP) in either pure form or in its pharmaceutical formulation is described. The method is based on the reaction of levodopa with thiourea in the presence of ferric chloride as oxidative reagent , to form an intense blue – water solution dye that is stable and has a maximum absorption at 660 nm. A rectilinear relationship between absorbance and concentration range 2-32 g.ml-1 with a molar absorptivity of 2.027x103 L.mol-1 .cm-1 sandell sensitivity of 0.97x10-4 g.cm-2 , a relative error of ((-0.625)-3.06%) and a relative standard deviation(RSD) of(0.823-1.247%) depending on the concentration of levodopa . The detection limit of the method was found to be 0.349 g.ml-1. The stoichiometric ratio was found to be 1:1of Levodopa- Thiourea .The mole ratio was applied for determination of the conditional stability constant of the formed compound and was found to be 9.2x107L.mol-1. Finally, the proposed method have been applied successfully for the determination of levodopa in pharmaceutical preparations.

DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF A DUAL BANDD KOCH CURVE DIPOLE FRACTAL ANTENNA

Header.S.Jaafer

journal of kerbala university, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 57-63

In this study ,the analysis and design of small size dual band Koch curve dipole antenna is presented .The proposed antenna design ,analysis and characterization were done using NEC4 which is moment –method (MoM) based software. The radiation characteristics ,voltage standing wave ratio(VSWR)and input impedance are also calculated. The new design antenna has operating frequencies 470,940 and 2670 MHz and so it can be used in communication system.

Synthesis, Characterization, Theoretical studies and Biological activities of bimetallic Complexes of new Schiff base thiadiazole derivative with some trivalent metal ions

Rehab A.M. Al-Hasani

journal of kerbala university, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 64-79

Tetrachloro [5-(5---phenyl-3---N-ethyl-2---thiazolene)imino-3-N-ethyl-2-thion-1,3,4- thiadiazole].tetanium(IV), of a new Schiff base{TiL}derived from[ tetra chloro (5- amino-3-N- ethyl – 2 -thione-1, 3 ,4 – thiadiazole).tetanium(IV)] and(3-N-ethyl- 2-one –1 ,3,4-thiadiazaole) have been prepared.The product was characterized by by (FT-IR) ,(UV-Vis) Spectroscopy and elemental analysis (C.H.N.S) . {TiL}has been used as a chelating ligand to prepare a number of metal complexes with[Cr(Ш), Fe(Ш) , Ru(Ш), Rh(Ш) and Au(Ш)] . The prepared complexes were isolated and characterized by using (FT-IR) and (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, elemental analysis (C.H.N.S), Flame atomic absorption technique, in addition to magnetic susceptibility and conductivity measurements. Molar ratio method measurement in solution gave comparable results with those obtained from solid state studies.
The work also include a theoretical treatment of the formed complex in the gas phase, this was done using the Hyperchem-6 program for the Molecular mechanics and Semi-empirical calculations. The heat of formation (∆Hf°) , binding energy (∆EB ) and bond length (∆EL) for [ASN] , [TiA]and {TiL} ligand and their metal complexes were calculated by (PM3 and AMBER) methods at 298 K°. Furthermore the electrostatic potential of the free ligand{TiL} was calculated to investigate the reactive sites of the molecules .PM3 were used to evaluate the vibrational spectra and electronic spectra of the ligand{TiL} and it's metal complexes(A1-A5( then compare the theoretically calculated wave numbers with the experimental values by using the [ASN] and [TiA]as authentic compounds .The theoretically obtained frequencies agreed with those found experimentally, in addition the calculation helped to assign unambiguously the most diagnostic bands.

MEASURMENT OF RADIATION LEVELS OUTSIDE X-RAY MAMMOGRAPHY ,FLUOROSCOPY AND CT SCAN ROOMS OF AL-HUSSAINI HOSPITEL,KARBALA,IRAQ

Header S.jaafer; Mahdi J.saeed

journal of kerbala university, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 83-88

In this work the radiation levels out side x-ray, Mammography ,fluoroscopy and ct scan rooms of AL-Hussaini hospital at karbala city were measured. The measured doses were a random selection of 48 examinations for different cases. For each patient the age and sex were recorded, also the main technical parameters of tube voltage (kv),current (mA) and time (T ) or current time product (mAs) were recorded during each radiographic exposure with an average of eight readings for each room. The radiation levels were measured in μsv/h and for an actual duty cycle in this hospital of 5 hours a day ,5 days a week ,50 weeks a year, all measured doses converted to msv/y and compared to the dose limits of ICRP .The results show that the radiation out side room 2 where about 1141 to 735 times greater than the general public limit of ICRP and about 57 to 36.75 times greater than the occupational limit of ICRP.The radiation levels outside room 3 where less than the occupational limit but were about 1.66 to 1.5 times greater than the general public limit, and for ct scan the levels of four readings were about 2.05 to 1.75 times greater than the occupational limit and all the ct scan readings greater than the public limit. For fluoroscopy and mammography rooms the limits were less than both the occupational and general public limits of ICRP

Effect of Annealing On Some structure Properties and Hall effect of (ZnS0.1Se0.9) Films.

journal of kerbala university, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 89-97

The effect of annealing (Ta=300,373,423) K on some structural properties and hall effect has been studied (concentration (nH), Hall mobility (µH),and drift velocity (vd)) had been measured for ZnS0.1Se0.9 films with different thickness (t=0.3,0.5, and 0.7 µm) which were prepared at room temperature using thermal evaporation under vacuum . We notice from this study that the films at all thicknesses and tempertures have a negative Hall coefficient (n–type charge carriers).

Evaluation The Behaviour of Reinforced Loose Sand under Inclined Loading

amal A. H. Al-Saidi

journal of kerbala university, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 98-108

This paper presents the results of laboratory models test on the behaviour of a model footing resting on loose sand reinforced by geogrids under inclined load.
Several parameters were studied in order to find the general behaviour of improvement in the soil by using the geogrid. These parameters includes depth of the reinforcement layer , vertical spacing of reinforcement layers and the angle of inclination of load.The results show that the optimum ratio of reinforcement for the first layer is (0.5) . The increase of such ratio between vertical spacing layer and footing width above 1 has no effect on soil improvement and an apparent increase is observed in the load carrying capacity for treated soil (200%,170%,156%) for inclined load (25o , 45o, 65o),respectively.

Sero-Diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in pediatric patients in Mid-Euphrates area

HASHIM RAHEEM TARISH; FUAD MUHSEN JAWAD; KHAREY DAWOD ABDALA

journal of kerbala university, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 109-120

This study was conducted in the mid euphrate region (Al-Qadisya, Najaf and Karbala provices) during the period between 1/June 2004 to 1/ May 2006.
Three types of laboratory tests were used in this study for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in suspected patients attending to the pediatric hospitals in these provices.
The study included 3 groups :
The first group included 150 child (the total patients ) admitted to Al-Qadisya, Najaf and Karbala hospitals and the diagnosis made on serum samples using Dipstick and Elisa tests and the results indicated the sensitivity of these tests to be(71.4 % and 67.4 %), respectively.
The second group included 33 child suspected of having visceral leishmaniasis depending on the clinical features and 3 tests (Dipstick, Elisa, and Bone marrow) were used for the diagnosis and the results indicated that the sensitivity of these tests were 21/33 (63.6%), 27/33 (81.8%), and 17/27 (62.9 %), respectively.
The third group included 17 patients who proved to be infected with VL by bone marrow test and the sensitivity and specificity by dipstick, Elisa, tests were 15/17 (88.23%), 16/17 (94.1%) respectively.
This study proved that dipstick test was the simplest, cheapest, and rapid for the diagnosis of VL. It is a safe, highly sensitive (80.2%) and specific (67.4%) and can detect the disease early.
Concerning Elisa test, it was found to be sensitive and specific (94.1% and 100%) for diagnosis but there are some difficulties that may limit its use for the time being.
It found in this study that all children are susceptible for the disease but those who are 13-24 month old are the most susceptible age was proved by all applied tests,
The present study found also that both sexes are susceptible, but the highest incidence of infection found among males (59.3% and 40.7%) among females respectively.
The present study proved that, Visceral leishmaniasis found to be more prevalent in Rural than Urban populations (68.3% and 31.7%) respectively.

Optimum selection of truss joints coordinates

SALAH NOORI ABBOOD

journal of kerbala university, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 121-126

The overall stiffness of trusses can be improved by increasing external supports along the trusses length. In this paper, an improvement in truss stiffness was satisfied by minimizing the strain energy of the loaded truss without adding any external supports or change in elements material or cross sectional areas. This was done by changing some joints coordinates and makes an optimum selection to the angle of the truss model’s free end which was found as (61.46o)

Measuring MDA & GSH as Biomarkers for Oxidative Stress in Bladder Cancer Patients

Dafer A. Faysel Al-Kufy

journal of kerbala university, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 127-131

The aim of this study was to evaluate the oxidative stress in bladder cancer. Thirty bladder cancer patients of ages 66.4±14.2 years and, 33 healthy individuals of ages 61±3.8 years used as a control group were enrolled. The concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured in sera of patients and the control group. The results analyzed by ANOVA analysis don’t exhibit a significant elevation for MDA concentration, while seen a significant (P<0.005) decrease for GSH concentration were indicated in the group of patients when compared with those of the control group.
Smoking was found to increase significantly (P<0.005) the levels of MDA and decrease significantly (P<0.005) the levels of GSH in the group of patients when compared with healthy individuals.
MDA levels were illustrated to increase significantly (P<0.001) in patients of current smoking and significant (P<0.005) decrease for GSH levels when compared with control group.

Two Dimensional Dictionary –Based Lossless Image Compression

Inas R. Shareef

journal of kerbala university, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 132-142

Images compression usually considers the minimization of storage space as its main advantage. It is desirable, however, to code images so that the ability to process the resulting representation directly is possible.
In this paper, a compression system based on Dictionary-Based compression methods is proposed for compressing images. The design and implementation of novel compression and decompression algorithm are described.
Dictionary-Based compression methods are a popular form of data file compression. LZ77, LZ78 and their variants are likely the most famous of these methods. These methods are implemented to reduce the one-dimensional correlation in data, since they are designed to compress text. Therefore, they do not take advantage of the fact that, in images, adjacent pixels are correlated in two dimensions. In this paper, a true two-dimensional dictionary-based lossless image compression scheme for grayscale images is introduced.
The proposed compression method and the compression system are examined using different images with different sizes. Good compression ratios have been obtained from the proposed system, and this depends on image nature. Comparisons between the proposed method and different methods is also given and the proposed algorithm gives better results than the other methods.
Testing results show that the compression performance of the proposed scheme outperforms and surpasses any other existing dictionary-based compression scheme. The results also show that it slightly outperforms JPEG-2000's compression performance, when it operates in its lossless mode, and it is comparable to JPEG-LS's compression performance, where JPEG-2000 and JPEG-LS are the current image compression standards.

Out come of oral Acyclovir& prednisolone therapy versus prednisolone alone for patients with Bell’s palsy ; A randomized clinical trial

Hayder K. Hassoun

journal of kerbala university, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 143-149

Background: Bell’s palsy is a common disorder affecting all age groups and both genders, there are a lot of controversy in therapeutic lines. Although this syndrome was first described in 1821 by the Scottish anatomist and surgeon Sir Charles Bell, controversy still surrounds its etiology and management . The viral etiology have been mentioned in many reports and the use of Acyclovir therapy is controversial too.
Objective : To assess the out come of antiviral therapy in treatment of Bell’s palsy among our patients.
Design: Randomized controlled clinical trial.
Methods: One hundred patients with Bell’s palsy who had attended neurology out patient clinic and neurophysiology unit in Al Sadder Teaching Hospital in Najaf during the period from September 2005 to August 2007 . The cases were randomly assigned into two groups of therapy. which were age and sex matched. The first group; included patients who treated with prednisolone and Acyclovir (50 patients) . The second group was treated with prednisolone alone (50 patients). House BrackMann grading system was used to assess the therapeutic response after two weeks of treatment and two months of follow up period ..
Results: The bell’s palsy was coming more from urban areas , and male affected more than females .The functional recovery among cases treated with prednisolone- Acyclovir and those treated with prednisolone alone was similar (P>0.05) . . The only difference was that recovery time taken for the patients received oral Acyclovir was more rapid than the other group .
conclusion : Both treatments ended with same response but adding Acyclovir shortened the duration of therapy.

A method for finding the general solution of the LODEs and a system of two LODEs via two integral transforms

Amal Khalaf Haydar

journal of kerbala university, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 150-160

In this paper we prove three theorems to introduce a new method for finding the general solution ( without using any initial conditions ) of the linear ordinary differential equations ( LODEs ) and for the systems of two linear ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients using the integral transform Laplace transform with the aid of the residues and then we prove another two theorems to show that the integral transform Sumudu transform can be used exactly equivalently to Laplace transform in finding the general solutions for these two types of differential equations .

Structure and piezoelectricity in blends of PVDF films

journal of kerbala university, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 161-169

The crystalline structure, band vibration and piezoelectric properties of PVDF (neat and blend) oriented in the -phase have been investigated utilizing X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and piezoelectric measurements respectively. The -phase and -phase always exist in the solvent cast films, but with fading orientation caused by the blending content of PMMA and PVAc. Miscibility in the PVDF-PVAc blend was confirmed by vibrational band shift. It was found that the piezoelectricity of PVDF blends might strongly be affected by the final crystal structure of PVDF resulted from blending process and on the nature of blending polymer. However, the magnitude of piezoelectric constant d33 was found to be decreasing with the content of blending polymer for both PVDF-PMMA and PVDF-PVAc blends.

Variation of Soil Temperature with Time and Depth in Karbala Region

Talib R. Abbas; Rajaa R. Abbas

journal of kerbala university, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 170-175

A theoretical investigation of factors affecting soil temperature variation with time and depth is presented. Annual soil temperature variation with time and depth declares that there is a considerable temperature variation in the upper few meters that is necessary to several application fields include agriculture, civil engineering, and environmental engineering. One-dimensional mathematical model is used to study the annual soil temperature variation. The model solution was calibrated with soil temperature measurements at Karbala region. The calibrated mathematical expression is a useful mean to describe the soil temperature variation with time and depth in Karbala region. Results show that at depth below about six meter the soil temperature is approximately constant.

Visual Acuity as a Function of Age and Sex

Eman Abdul Al Malik Al Hilo; Ahmed Jumah Mhaws; Runak Taher Ali

journal of kerbala university, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 176-185

A total of (607) normal subjects (289 males& 318 females ) where tested for visual acuity by using Snellen charts. The subjects are divided into five age groups at (10) years intervals.
They showed a marked decreasing in a percent visual acuity of right and left eye with advancing age for both sexes. The decreasing began obvious at E-chart line (6/12) especially at old age groups (40-49) and (50-59) years.
Statistical analysis by using chi tests showed no significant difference in the percent visual acuity between right and left eyes and between males and females in all E-chart line for all age groups.
Also it appears no significant difference between age groups [(10-19) & (20-29)], [(10-19) & (30-39)], [(30-39) & (40-49)] & [(20-29) & (30-39)] years for all E-chart line for both sexes, but a significant difference has been found between age groups [(10-19) & (40-49)] ,[(20-29) & (40-49)],[(10-19) & (50-59)] ,[(20-29) & (50-59)], [(30-39) & (50-59)] & [(40-49) & (50-59)] years for different E-chart line for right & left eye and for both sexes.

Supplementary Vitamin C in the Treatment of Parkinson's Disease.

Fizel Al-Himyari

journal of kerbala university, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 186-188

Background: Parkinson's Disease(PD) is a slowly progressive, age related neurodegenerative disease characterized clinically by bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor, postural instability and gait dysfunction. The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficacy, of Vitamin C as an adjunctive therapy to Levodopa in Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD).
Patients and Methods: The study was conducted at Mirjan Teaching Hospital, Babylon, Iraq from 1-June-2006 to 1-Dec.-2007. Twenty patients (10 males and 10 females) with insufficient response to Levodopa (motor fluctuations and dyskinesia) and 20 control patients comprised the study groups. The Patients were given an oral vitamin C (200 mg), administered once daily for a period of six months. Vitamin C was taken with Sinmet (l-dopa: Carbidopa) tablet which is of 25/250 concentrations, associated with further followup for 12 months. The UPDRS (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale) Part 11 and 111 were used for assessment.
Results:There was a short term (one week) and long term (6 months) clinical benefit to the Vitamin C therapy, [ P-value<0.05]). . The dyskinesia was not increased in the PD patients. Gastric upset was seen in 25% of the PD patients and in 10% of the control group.
Conclusion: Vitamin C in a dose of 200 mg once daily is effective as an adjunctive treatment in patients with PD. We recommend that Vitamin C is added to Levodopa in a dose of 100-200 daily. Further studies are needed to determine whether Vitamin C is effective and tolerated if administered for periods longer than 6 months.
Key Words: Parkinson's disease, Vitamin C.