ISSN: 1813-0410

Volume 4, Issue 3

Volume 4, Issue 3, Summer 2008, Page 1-363


EFFECT Of SOME AMINO ACIDS, VITAMINS AND PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON MAINTENANCE AND LENGTH OF PLANTLETS DERIVED FROM IN VITRO CULTURE OF DATE PALM (Phoenix dactyliferaL.).CV.Barhee

Kadem Ibrahem Abbas; Ahmed Abdulla Saad

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 54-59

An experiment was conducted at Date Palm tissue culture laboratory-Date Palm Research Center-Basrah University to study the effect of some amino acids, vitamins and plant growth regulators on maintenance and length of plantlets derived from tissue culture of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.)cv. Barhee. The obtained results showed that, MS medium that contained a combinations of amino acids (100mg/L glutamine,25mg/l proline,25mg/L asparagine and 50mg/L arginine) and vitamins at (2,2,3,1 and 1,2,2,2mg/L) from biotin, pyridoxine, c-Pantothenate and riboflavin in the presence 0.5 mg/L IBA and 0.4 mg/L BA was the best combinations in the maintenance and Length of date palms plantlets. The 3rd and 4th amino acids treatments whth2nd and3rd combination of vitamins in MS medium contains IBA+BA steadily increased the plantlets Length compared with other treatments. In addition, it was noticed that 1st and 2nd treatments of amino acids, gave the lowest values in plantlets Length in MS medium free of growth regulators regardless the combinations of vitamins. The plantlets were grown up best without circumvolution in MS medium supplemented with growth regulators, and ready to be taken for laboratory acclimatizing process.

Investigation of the Inhibitive Effect of Tobacco Leaves Extract on Corrosion of Alpha Brass in Acidic Solutions

Ali Hubi Haleem

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 80-91

This study was a trial to find an organic inhibitor that can to easily be prepared and applied , as well as non- toxic , cheep and available. In the present study an aqueous extract of tobacco leaves as corrosion inhibitor to protect α brass alloy in acid solutions (hydrochloric and nitric acid) at 1 M concentration, the inhibitor efficiency was evaluated using the weight loss method and microscopic test. Results obtained reveal that the extract of tobacco leaves plants at various concentration (0.5, 1.5, and 3) vol. % show significant corrosion inhibition during immersion of brass in acid solutions. The inhibition efficiency increased with increasing concentration of the inhibitor, but decrease with increase in exposure time. Inhibitor efficiency in 1M HCl and 1M HNO3 at ( 3%) concentration of inhibitor reached to 75.64% and 73.17% respectively. Microscopic examination test shows the clearness of the metals surface which is under the corrosion medium and which contains inhibitor, from any kind of corrosion that can be found on those surfaces, which are under mediums completely empty from inhibitor, and also shows the clearness of that protect layer on the surface. The data of corrosion rate show that the way of doing this organic inhibitor is adsorbing and the inhibitor molecules are adsorbed on the metal surface according to Langmuir adsorption isotherm.

The effect of Age & Sex on some serum electrolytes levels in patients with cardiovascular disease

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 1-6

Serum electrolytes are considered one of the important markers for cardiovascular risk. Electrolyte abnormalities have been demonstrated to have an impact on the risk for Cardiovascular outcomes with onset and time of administration .Electrolyte balance has been regarded as an important factor to cardiovascular stability. Forty five events of myocardial infarction were collected from intensive care unite in AL-Husaini Hospital , they are classified into three age groups, A (30-45) , B (45-60), C(above 60). The aim of the present study is finding the influence of age & sex including the above groups on the levels of serum calcium , phosphorus , potassium and sodium within the maximum normal ranges in those patients, the study discussed the single effect of sex on that levels , results showed there were no any significant difference for sex on them (p>0.05) , and for the single age effect , there were significant differences (p≤0.01), while for calcium and potassium in the third age group (above 60) for both sexes comparing to the other younger age groups . Mainly, the study included the duple effect for age with sex on the studied parameters , and the results showed that there were no significant differences for serum sodium and phosphorus among all age groups (p>0.05) , but there were significant differences (p≤0.05) for calcium levels by the same magnitude in both sexes in the oldest age group(above 60 ) comparing to the younger age group (30-45)..Significant differences had been seen also (p≤0.05) for high normal levels for serum potassium in females with the oldest age group (above 60) comparing with the other age groups including the present study.

The Effect of Protective Coatings on Mirrors Reflectance of Nd-YAG Laser Resonator

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 92-99

Optical coatings of dielectric materials of MgF2 and SiO2 have been used to reduce the effect electric field intensity of pulsed laser radiation and atmospheric conditions (oxidization) on metallic coatings (Ag and Au). The spectral characteristic of the reflectance curve for the preparation specimen in the visible and infrared regions in the range (400-1200)m were studied. The effect of incident radiation of Nd-YAG laser has been studied and the value of threshold was determined and equal (10-16J/cm2). The prepared reflectors and mirrors were used in construction of Q-switched Nd-YAG laser and to obtained the output pulses laser with energy(10-100mJ) and pulsed duration (30 ns).

The Study Of Relation ship Between The Maturation Abnormalities Of Placenta And Late lntra uterine Fetal Death

Muntdher M.Kanny; Hadeel K.Mohamed; Abdul Ameer Oda Ismail

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 16-22

This study was done on 60 pregnant women that have case intra uterine fetal death in kerbala city. We determined the placental abnormalities that lead to intra uterine fetal death through histopathological sections. The resulting shown six groups of cases with defective placental maturation .The first group of cases shown absence of syncytio-vascular membrane formation and the second group shown immaturity and hydropic degeneration of chorionic villi.
The third group shownchronic villitis and the fourth shown fibrin depositions and loss of vessels in the villous stroma of placenta .The fifth group shown foetal thrombotic lesions which consist of large groups of vascular fibrotic villi as the result of vessel thrombosis .The last group shown umbilical cord abnormal coiling (over coiling) or under coiling . These groups of cases represent the most important causes of late intra utrine fetal death.

Structural and Linguistic Analysis of SMS Text Messages

Muayyad Omran Chiad

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 1-13

The most obvious way in which the communicative behavior has changed is reflected in virtual environments with its different modes of communication.These new modes provide a rich testing ground for theories of language change.In accordance with all the other media, the Mobile technology,in particular SMS,has brought along its own language and culture.The language of the SMS is asynchronous,a single-channel,text-based,technologically mediated discourse.It reflects the unpredictable, unrestricted new communication technology and it evolves at an incredible speed.The following study hopes to provide an understanding of SMS English by analysing interactions in these texts as constituting another form of Computer-Mediated Discourse.The analysis tackles such topics as speech acts, humor ,the dichotomy of speech and writing in relation to SMS texts,and orthography.Based on more than 164 texts messages collected from the Internet and Personal correspondences,the study finds out that correspondents of SMS create new language to suit the restrictions of the media.Expressive speech acts comprise the majority among other acts because personal opinions and emotional state are conveyed in text messages intended mainly to build social relations.Humor is significant in SMS texts messages used as an attempt from correspondents to achieve relational goals.They use the established norms of writing and speaking discourse, in addition to a non-standard orthography.

The Grammatical Categories of Literary Prose Texts: A Study in Corpus Linguistics

Chassib Fanukh Abbas Al-Jubouri

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 14-27

This study is one in corpus linguistics. It examines the frequency of the grammatical categories used in six prose texts .This aspect is studied through the variables of prose text type and writer's sex. The model used to analyze the corpus is adapted with modification from Ball (1993) and Burrows (1993). The study proves that the text type and the writer's sex, in addition to the text theme determine the grammatical category used. Thus, it accepts its alternative hypothesis.

The effect of Age & Sex on some serum electrolytes levels in patients with cardiovascular disease

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 1-6

Serum electrolytes are considered one of the important markers for cardiovascular risk. Electrolyte abnormalities have been demonstrated to have an impact on the risk for Cardiovascular outcomes with onset and time of administration .Electrolyte balance has been regarded as an important factor to cardiovascular stability. Forty five events of myocardial infarction were collected from intensive care unite in AL-Husaini Hospital , they are classified into three age groups, A (30-45) , B (45-60), C(above 60). The aim of the present study is finding the influence of age & sex including the above groups on the levels of serum calcium , phosphorus , potassium and sodium within the maximum normal ranges in those patients, the study discussed the single effect of sex on that levels , results showed there were no any significant difference for sex on them (p>0.05) , and for the single age effect , there were significant differences (p≤0.01), while for calcium and potassium in the third age group (above 60) for both sexes comparing to the other younger age groups . Mainly, the study included the duple effect for age with sex on the studied parameters , and the results showed that there were no significant differences for serum sodium and phosphorus among all age groups (p>0.05) , but there were significant differences (p≤0.05) for calcium levels by the same magnitude in both sexes in the oldest age group(above 60 ) comparing to the younger age group (30-45)..Significant differences had been seen also (p≤0.05) for high normal levels for serum potassium in females with the oldest age group (above 60) comparing with the other age groups including the present study.

A new function of Aminophylline as antidermatophytic agent

Ali Abdul Hussain S. AL-Janabi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 7-15

Aminophylline (theophylline derivative) is an important drug compound which is generally used to treat bronchoconstriction diseases for a long period of times. Dermatophytoses is the most common disease on human skin caused by many species of dermatophytes.
Aminophylline was tested against three species with two variants of Trichophyton (one genus of dermatophytes) using two methods. Those species were Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes, Trichophyton mentagrophytes var.interdigitale, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton simii. Aminophylline was revealed a high activity against all species of dermatophytes at concentration of 5 mg/ml with a completely inhibited of colony growth on the bases of colony diameter and dry weight measurements. The efficiency of aminophylline to inhibit fungal growth was less than theophylline. Both of aminophylline and theophylline indicated no significant differences value (P<0.01) compared with griseofulvin
(0.5 mg/ml).
Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of aminophylline was also determined in this study. The MIC value of aminophylline against two species of dermatophytes was observed in 4 mg/ml.

The Study Of Relation ship Between The Maturation Abnormalities Of Placenta And Late lntra uterine Fetal Death

Abdul Ameer Oda Ismail; Hadeel K.Mohamed; Muntdher M.Kanny

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 16-22

This study was done on 60 pregnant women that have case intra uterine fetal death in kerbala city. We determined the placental abnormalities that lead to intra uterine fetal death through histopathological sections. The resulting shown six groups of cases with defective placental maturation .The first group of cases shown absence of syncytio-vascular membrane formation and the second group shown immaturity and hydropic degeneration of chorionic villi.
The third group shownchronic villitis and the fourth shown fibrin depositions and loss of vessels in the villous stroma of placenta .The fifth group shown foetal thrombotic lesions which consist of large groups of vascular fibrotic villi as the result of vessel thrombosis .The last group shown umbilical cord abnormal coiling (over coiling) or under coiling . These groups of cases represent the most important causes of late intra utrine fetal death.

Approximation algorithms for minimizing the total weighted earliness on machines scheduling

Hussam A. Mohammed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 23-33

Minimizing the total weighted earliness is not well-studied objective in scheduling theory, which is very little understood from the point of view of approximation algorithms. In an attempt to make progress, we study the approximability of minimum total weighted earliness with a modified objective which includes an additive the total weighted completion time. This ensures the existence of a positive lower bound for the minimum value. Moreover the new objective has a natural interpretation in Just-In-Time production systems.
Keyword: Scheduling, Weighted Earliness, Approximation

Inhibitory effects of Probiotic on growth and adhesion of some gram negative pathogenic bacteria

Ziad M. Al-Khozai

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 34-39

This work focused on three important human pathogens; Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumonae. Results showed that there is several virulence factors in this bacteria such as capsule, enzymes, motility and fimbriae. Escherichia coli included fimbriae type I, II and III . Salmonella typhi contained only type II and III. While Klebsiella pneumonae included type I and III. Probiotic preparations from Lactobacillus acidophilus appeared to affect the bacterial growth and adhesion. Bacterial growth was inhibited by using stock lactic acid bacteria filtrate and 50:50 diluted filtrate. Higher inhibition zones were recorded during the use of stock filtrate of the probiotic on the pathogenic bacterial isolates. Bacterial adhesion to epithelial cells was inhibited also by using the probiotic. In the case of Escherichia coli, the adhesion was reduced from 59-61 to 24-21 and 33-30 bacterium/cell by using the stock and diluted probiotic respectively. In the case of Salmonella typhi reduction of bacterial adherence was also observed from 55-53 to 11-13 and 16-14bacterium/cell by using the stock and diluted probiotic respectively. While in the case of Klebsiella pneumonae from 44-46 to 8-9 and 14-10 bacterium/cell by using the stock and diluted probiotic respectively. This results explained that the bacterial adhesion is a crucial step in the colonization and pathogenesis of bacteria, which can be inhibited by using probiotic preparations.

Noetherian Fuzzy Rings

Dareb; Areeg T. Abou

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 40-46

In this paper ,we have introduced the concept of Noetherian fuzzy rings as a generalization of the Noetherian rings .We have given several basic properties and theorems about this concept .

CORRELATION ENERGY OF THE (1s) 2 2s STATE OF THE Be+1AND B+2 IONS

Mohammed Abdulhussain Al-Kaabi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 47-53

A configuration interaction method is used to calculate the correlation energy of (1s) 2 2s state for the Beryllium and Boron ions. The specific form of the configurations used for the systems studied here is linear combination of Slater determinants taken from Weiss with expansion lengths equal to (18). The difference between correlated energy and energy (correlation energy) was found to be (-0.01476 a.u) to Beryllium ion,(-0.00787a.u) to Boron ion. Our calculations were also made on the expectation values for the two above ions.

EFFECT Of SOME AMINO ACIDS, VITAMINS AND PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON MAINTENANCE AND LENGTH OF PLANTLETS DERIVED FROM IN VITRO CULTURE OF DATE PALM (Phoenix dactyliferaL.).CV.Barhee

Ahmed Abdulla Saad; Kadem Ibrahem Abbas

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 54-59

An experiment was conducted at Date Palm tissue culture laboratory-Date Palm Research Center-Basrah University to study the effect of some amino acids, vitamins and plant growth regulators on maintenance and length of plantlets derived from tissue culture of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.)cv. Barhee. The obtained results showed that, MS medium that contained a combinations of amino acids (100mg/L glutamine,25mg/l proline,25mg/L asparagine and 50mg/L arginine) and vitamins at (2,2,3,1 and 1,2,2,2mg/L) from biotin, pyridoxine, c-Pantothenate and riboflavin in the presence 0.5 mg/L IBA and 0.4 mg/L BA was the best combinations in the maintenance and Length of date palms plantlets. The 3rd and 4th amino acids treatments whth2nd and3rd combination of vitamins in MS medium contains IBA+BA steadily increased the plantlets Length compared with other treatments. In addition, it was noticed that 1st and 2nd treatments of amino acids, gave the lowest values in plantlets Length in MS medium free of growth regulators regardless the combinations of vitamins. The plantlets were grown up best without circumvolution in MS medium supplemented with growth regulators, and ready to be taken for laboratory acclimatizing process.

A STUDY OF NATURAL HEAT TRANSFER FROM HORIZONTAL AND INCLINED CYLINDERS

HADI KATHUM KHUTHAIR

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 60-69

Heat transfer by free convection occurs at any temperature differences. This mode of heat transfer was covered with thousands of researches to find the relations that related between the heat transfer coefficient and the parameters affected the heat transfer by natural convection. This paper including the simple study of heat transfer by free convection from cylinders heated at constant heat flux exposited to the ambient air at low Grashof number (>3x105). Heated cylinders with a constant heat flux were fixed horizontally and with inclination angles with the horizontal until 45o. Results showed the relation between Nussult number and (Gr.Pr). Empirical relations between these numbers were obtained to calculate the heat transfer coefficient depending on the range of (Gr.Pr). It was also shown that the heat transfer coefficient was decreased with angle of inclination.

Preparation and Identification Complexes of Some Transition Metals with 4,4'-Bis(2-Hydroxy phenyl azo)- 3,3'-Dimethylbenzidine [BHADB] and Study of Itُs Biological Activity

Ahmed Fadhil Kadhier; Haitham Delol Hanoon; Hussein Kadhem Abid Hussein

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 70-79

This study included synthesis of ligand 4,4'-Bis(2-Hydroxy phenyl azo)- 3,3'-Dimethylbenzidine (BHADB), the ligand was prepared from reaction 3,3'-Dimethylbenzidine with 2-hydroxy phenol. Metal complexes of this ligand were prepared by reaction of transition metal chloride salt of Ni(II), Co(II) and Cu(II) with prepared ligand in ethanol. Characterization of the ligand and its complexes were investigated by FT-IR and UV-visible spectroscopy in addition to conductivity measurement. The molar ratio of ligand-metal were found to be (1:1) for Ni(II) complex and Co(II) complex, and (1:2) for Cu(II) complex.The spectral studies showed the geometry around the Ni(II) and Co(II) ions are distorted tetrahedral, the Cu(II) ion is octahedral.. Also includes, the study of biological effect for these complexes on four deferent pathogenic species: (Streptococcus faecalies, Staphylococcus aureus) , (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella peneumonia) the first and second species are Gram positive while the others are Gram negative (by using agar well diffusion method). Finally, it was found that these compounds show different activity of inhibition on the growth of the bacteria.

The Effect of Protective Coatings on Mirrors Reflectance of Nd-YAG Laser Resonator

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 92-99

Optical coatings of dielectric materials of MgF2 and SiO2 have been used to reduce the effect electric field intensity of pulsed laser radiation and atmospheric conditions (oxidization) on metallic coatings (Ag and Au). The spectral characteristic of the reflectance curve for the preparation specimen in the visible and infrared regions in the range (400-1200)m were studied. The effect of incident radiation of Nd-YAG laser has been studied and the value of threshold was determined and equal (10-16J/cm2). The prepared reflectors and mirrors were used in construction of Q-switched Nd-YAG laser and to obtained the output pulses laser with energy(10-100mJ) and pulsed duration (30 ns).

Spectrophotometric Determination of Trace Amounts of Copper (II) Using 5 - (phenyl azo) – 4,6 – dihydroxy -2- mercapto pyrimidine .

Majed . J .Mohammed; Hussain . J . Mohammed; Raad . K . Al-Sabaag

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 100-107

A new , simple , sensitive and rapid spectrophatometric method is proposed for the determination of trace amounts of copper (II) . The method is based on the formation of a 1 : 2 complex with 5- (phenyl azo) – 4,6 – dihydroxy -2- mercapto pyrimidine (PDMP) as a new reagent is developed . The complex has a maximum absorption at 490 nm and εmax of 0.85 × 104 L . mol-1 cm-1 . A linear correlation (0.2-3 μg /ml) was found between absorbance at λmax and concentration . The accuracy and reproducibility of the determination method for various known amounts of copper (II) were tested . The results obtained are both precise (RSD was better than 0.50%) and accurate (relative error was better than 0.21%) the effect of diverse ions on the determination of copper (II) to investigate the selectivity of the method were also studied . The stability constant of the product under optimized conditions and at room temperature was 1.43×1010 l.mole-1 The method was applied to the determination of Cu (II) ion in some standard practical samples .
Key Words : 5- (phenyl azo) – 4 , 6 –dihydroxy -2- mercapt pyrimidine , Copper (II) determination , Spectrophotometry

Modeling Computer Laboratories in University that Contains Eight Colleges by Using OPNET Software

Ahmed Abdul Hadi Ahmed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 108-123

This paper presents the University Network Model with eight colleges, each college has a computer laboratory connected with each other, with university servers and also connected to the internet. The main applications that used in this model are web browsing by using Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), file transfer (FTP), electronic mail (E-mail), Remote Login and finally Messenger. According to the time of scholastic year in the university, three types of user profiles are defined. They are Exam Time, Weekdays and Weekends. By applying these profiles to the university model and using some main statistical to collect results, the best use of the network will get. This means that maximum throughputs with minimum time response and delay. The statistical that used in this model are delay time (response time) and throughputs.The university network model is modeled and simulated by using OPNET MODELER software package and all the results are collected from this simulator.Keywords: computer laboratory, HTTP, FTP, E-mail, Remote Login, Messenger, OPNET Modeler.

Oxidation of Ni – Al Electrodeposited Composite Coating of Inconel 600 Alloys

Newal Mohammed; Ali Hubi Haleem; Jaleel Kareem Ahmed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 129-140

The oxidation behavior of nickel matrix/ aluminum particle composite coatings in air at (600-800°C) for 25 hrs. was studied. The composite coatings were applied to Inconel 600 alloy by the electrodeposition technique and heat treated under argon atmosphere for three hours at 800 °C prior to oxidation testing. During heat treatment, coating morphological development was found to occur by the exothermic reaction Ni +Al = NiAl. For all samples, weight gain kinetics was obtained from furnace exposure and the composition and morphology of the oxidation products were examined using XRD analysis and light optical microscopy. An outer Al2O3 layer was formed on the composite coating surface. At test temperatures such as 800 °C, the coatings benefits from a small grain size that enhances Al diffusion to the surface to form the protective alumina layer.

Applied in Assignment Problem Solving

Asia.M.AL-Zubidy; Ashwan A. AL-Ali; Dhmyaa A. AL-Nasrawy

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 141-152

This paper attempts to implement survival of fittest by several selection strategies to solve the assignment problems through genetic algorithm . The assignment problem is basically the “N men- N tasks” problem where a single job can be assigned to only one person in such a way that the overall cost of assignment is minimized . Diversity has been measured of each generation and analyzed for a number of popular selection algorithms(Rolette Well Selection , Random Selection,and Tournament Selection with 4,8 size).Partial Matched Crossover(PMX) with mutation have been used with experiment crossover probability Pc = 1 and mutation probability Pm = 0.5 .

Synthesis and spectral studies of 2,6-diformyl-4- methylphenolsemicarbazone ligand and their binuclear metal complexes

Ashour Hamoad Dawood; Mohamad J. Al-Jeboori

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 153-162

A new binuclear complexes of Ni+2, Pd+2, Zn+2, Cd+2 and Hg+2 ions with [H3L] {where H3L= 4-Methyl-2,6-bis(formyl semicarbazone) phenol} type (N2O3). The ligand was prepared from reaction two equivalent of semicarbazide hydrochloride with 2,6-diformyl-p-cresol and then reacted with metal ions to form the title complexes. The precursor, ligand and complexes were characterized by {IR, UV-Vis, 1H, 13C, 1H-13C NMR and mass spectroscopy}, molar conductivity, atomic absorption, the microanalysis of elements (C.H.N) and chlore contain. The spectral studies showed the geometry around the Ni+2 and Pd+2 ions are square planar and the Zn+2, Cd+2 and Hg+2 ions are distorted tetrahedral

Single machine scheduling to minimizing sum penalty number of late jobs subject to minimize the sum weight of completion time

Qhassan A. Khtan; Hanan A. Cheachan; Hussam A. Mohammed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 163-173

This paper considers of scheduling ( ) jobs on single machine to minimize the sum penalty number of late jobs with minimum sum of weighted of completion time . To solve this lower bound and some dominance rule are derived and it is incorporated in a branch and bound (B&B) algorithm. We propose heuristic method to find near optimal solution. We also report on computational experience with the branch and bound. Also we develop compare and test different local search method (Threshold accepted (TA), Tabu search (TS) and Ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm) for the problem. Computational experience is found that these local search algorithms solve problem to 5000 jobs with reasonable time.
Keyword:- Scheduling Single machine, Bicriteria, Lexicographical optimization, Branch and bound, Local search methods

Synthesis and Evaluation of some new DDT resins and their IPNs

Georgius Abed. Aladam; Emad Mohamed Abdelrazaq; Naeem Taki Faily; Salah Shaker Hashim

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 174-180

Acrylate resin derived from tetramethylol DDT resin have been synthesized and characterized by IR, NMR and CHN. Several IPNs were prepared from the unsaturated resins and commercial unsaturated polyester (palatal).Also the amine resins was used as hardener for epoxy resins and resole.The new IPNs were curable at room temperature according their curing characteristics were investigated by DSC technique, several parameters were found; i.e. curing temp., rate of curing, curing energy and activation energy.The thermal stability and thermo-oxidative stability of new resins and their IPNs were studied by TGA technique in the presence of inert atmosphere. Several thermal stability parameters were calculated from TG thermograms. The obtained results confirmed the outstanding thermal stability of new IPN’s.

The In vivo And In vitro Effects of Eugenia Caryophllus, Quercus infectoria and Terminalia Extracts On Dermatophytes Infections

Kareema Amine AlKhafajii; Zuhair HamideAl-Dhawahery

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 181-189

A total of 340 specimens were collected from skin or hair of patients suffering from dermatophytic infections, during a period of one year (July/2005 to july/2006) at AL-Hussein Hospital / Karbala And Mirjan Teaching Hospital / Babylon . Four species of dermatophytes belong to the genus Trichophyton were isolated in this study;
- Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes .
- Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale.
- Trichophyton verrucosum.
-Trichophyton rubrum. .
The prevalent clinical type of tinea (T.) infections was Tinea corporis which accounted for 154 cases (45.25%), then Tinea pedis 79 cases (23.23%), Tinea cruris 61 cases (17.94%), Tinea capitis 25 cases (7.35%), and Tinea mannum 21 cases (6.17%). The response of these isolates toward; aqueous, alcoholic and acetonic extracts of three different medicinal plants; fruit of Quercus infectoria , fruit of Terminalia citrina and flower of Eugenia carryophyllus was investigated. The results of preliminary chemical analysis revealed that Quercus infectoria contained ;Glycosides , Tannins , Saponins , Flavonoids , Carbohydrates , Phenols , Fuocoumarins , Coumarins and Volatile oils , while Terminalia citrina contained; Glycosides , Tannins , Saponins , Resins , Flavonoids , Carbohydrates , Phenols , Fuocoumarins , Coumarins and Volatile oils , whares, Eugenia carryophyllus contained ; Tannins , Saponins , Resins , Flavonoids , Carbohydrates , Phenols , Fuocoumarins , Coumarins and Volatile oils. Phenols, Volatile oils of Quercus infectoria, Eugenia carryophyllus and Tannins of Terminalia citrina were extracted and studied their inhibition activity against the isolated fungi. The active components showed higher activity against fungal isolates than crude extracts. The results indicated that the effect of the active components (Phenols , Tannins and volatile oils) being extracted from the three plants in treatment of the laboratory infected skin of rat with Trichophyton mentagrophytes were highly as anti-inflammatory, antibacterial as well as antifungal. A prepared ointments from phenols extracted of Quercus infectoria, Tannins and volatile oils extracted of Terminalia citrina and Eugenia carryophyllus in the recovery period in mice infected by T.mentagrophytes were 13 days, 14 and 15 days respectively in compared with the recovery period of 16 days by using Clotrimazole

Spectrophotometric study and Characterization of Aurintricarboxylic acid as analytical reagent for Manganese (II) determination

Ahmed Fadhil Kadhier

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 190-197

Aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA) has been synthesized , and prepared complex with Mn(II) was characterized by spectrophotometeric methods UV-Visible, FT-IR and molar conductivity measurement. The octahedral geometry around Mn(II) ion can be suggested. The ligand used as a reagent for the spectrophotometer determination of micrograms of manganese ions. The reaction between Mn2+ and ATA form a pink complex having a molar ratio of 2:1 (M: L) at pH 7 and the stability constant was found to be (1.62x1010 L2.mole2-). The molar absorptivity of the complex is 2.55x 104L.mole-1.cm-1 at max 552 nm. This method sensitive and the complex formed high stable which can used a reagent ATA to spectrophotometric determination of the manganese (II).

Survey study of Bacterial & Parasitic diarrhea in children under five year In Al-kufa (Barakia)

Abdul Razzaq yaseen Abdullah

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 198-201

This survey study was carried out in the primary health care center of Muslim Ibn Akeel in al-Kufa town(Barakia) –Al –Najaf Al- ashraf governorate district to survey the risk of contaminated water and prophylactic measures for diarrhea (during 2005 and 2006) with (40254 population and the number of children under 5 years approximately 6600 child). In 2005 there were 340 children under 5 year suffering from diarrhea, but in 2006 there is a clear increase 670 cases. (Archive of PHC of Muslim Ibn Akeel) This work proposes to study some suggestions to reduce pediatric diarrhea in a low-income area by using filtration tools and new method for water sterilization (water pasteurization) and participation of organizations of civilization society for a large area with poor water, food hygiene, and sanitation are common in communities with high levels of diarrhea. Underlying conditions, such as malnutrition, which modify the risk of contracting diarrhea, are also common in such regions. These factors combine to facilitate the spread of enteropathogen including demographic, Precoded questionnaires with demographic details, clinical history, and physical signs were completed. 60 samples of water for chlorine test were negative and samples of stools that collected for routinely general stool examination there were showing high rates of G. lamblia, Ent.Histolytica, E. coli, motile monilia, motile bacteria, H.nana & others. Cultures of water samples were showed growth of E.coli on selective media such as (Mackonky agar).

Possible Correlation between Helicobacter pylori and Duodenitis in Non-ulcer Dyspeptic Iraqi Patients.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 203-209

In this study, we have attempted to show the relations between degrees of duodenal mucosal inflammation in biopsy specimens from non-ulcer dyspeptic (NUD) patients with the presence of anti–Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) IgG. For this purpose, duodenal biopsies, taken during orogastroduodenoscopy, and sera were obtained from 42 consecutive NUD patients. Anti –H.pylori IgG levels in those patients were determined using ELISA and correlated with histopathological findings. Five cases (11.9%) have demonstrated normal mucosa without any sign of inflammation. Mild inflammation was shown in 26 patients (61.9%) while sever inflammation was shown in 11 cases (26.2%). A positive correlation was found between presence of anti- H.pylori IgG and degree of inflammation of the duodenal mucosa (r = 0.306, p= 0.049). However, no correlations could be found with either the histological changes of the duodenal villi and endocopical findings. These results may indicate a causal relationship between H.pylori and duodenitis in nonulcer dyspeptic patients and, moreover, may implicate duodenitis as an important etiological cause of NUD.

Adsorption Study of Methylene Blue Dye on Rice Bran in Aqueous Solution

Hussein Kadhem Abdul Hussein; Rafah Muhammed thiyab

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 210-218

The extraction of certain pollutant substances from solution on solids is one of the cheapest and easiest separation methods. Furthermore, some of the extracted substances are economically important. In this work, an attempt was done to obtain cheap adsorbent, rice bran, for adsorption and extraction of methylene blue dye (MB) from aqueous solution. Study of some practical parameters affecting adsorption process such as initial dye concentration, acidity, and compute the thermodynamic parameters (ΔHº, ΔGº, ΔSº) for the adsorption process. The extent of the MB removal by rice bran increased with increase in the initial concentration of the dye and temperature. Thermodynamic parameters, such as ΔHº, ΔGº, and ΔSº have been calculated by using the thermodynamic equilibrium coefficient obtained at different temperatures and concentrations were: ΔHº=10.28KJ.mol-1, ΔGº=-5.08KJ.mol-1, ΔSº=52.39J.mol-1.ºK-1. It can be concluded from the results of the present study that the process of adsorption of MB on rice bran may be used effectively to remove the dye from aqueous medium as acidity is increased. The dye removal increased with increase in the initial concentration of the dye and temperature indicating that the process is endothermic and spontaneous. MB can be used to remove the dye even the solution is hot with good efficiency.Keywords: Rice bran, adsorption, methylene blue.

Determination of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant System in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD

Bassam Faron Abed; Zainab N.AbduAllah; Abbas J. Kadhum

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 219-223

Airways are exposed to high levels of environmental oxidants, yet they also have enriched antioxidants. Airways disease such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has evidence of increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidants.The aim of this study was to examine oxidant/ antioxidant status in 45 patients with COPD (Age range: 30 to 50 years) and in (40) healthy subjects. The status of oxidants in serum as represented by malondialdehyde (MDA) levels increased significantly (p<0.01) in the conditions of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), than their controls, also, non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin E, albumin and uric acid) which protects the lung from increased oxidative stress, were estimated in both of patients and controls groups. Vitamin E levels in patients with COPD were found to be significantly lower (p<0.01) as compared to control, On the other hand, low serum albumin (p<0.001) and uric acid levels were observed in the study group than controls. The changes in oxidant/ antioxidant status may be the effect of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease state.

EVALUATIONS AND COMPARISON OF SOME MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THE SELF AND HOT – CURE – ACRYLIC DENTURE BASE MATERIALS UNDER DIFFERENT PRESSURES MODALITY

RAYA Mohammad Jawad AL- Ghabban; Sabah Sahib Al-Habeeb; Berqdar; Faiz Ahmed Al

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 224-235

The objectives of this study were to evaluate and compare some mechanical properties (compressive strength, tensile strength, shear strength, impact strength and transverse strength) of the self and hot–cured acrylic denture base materials under different pressures modalities. 250 samples were constructed, 200 sample were divided into four groups (50 for each, 10 for each test), subjected to different pressure forces (25psi, 50psi, 75psi, 100psi) and compared with 50 samples of hot – cured acrylic resin (10 for each test processed in water bath according to the conventional method -temperature 74Co, pressure 1200psi and time was 8 hours- as a control group). The results showed that at 100psi (compressive strength, tensile strength, shears strength, and impact strength) were improved. At 75psi (transverse strength) was improved, at 50 psi (impact strength, shears strength and transverse strength) were deteriorated. While 25psi lowered the (compressive strength, tensile strength, shears strength, and transverse strength).Using 100 psi pressure improved most of self-cured acrylic resin properties compared with hot-cured acrylic while 75psi improved the transverse strength.Key words: self-cured acrylic, hot-cured acrylic, pressure modality.

A new colorimetric method for determination of procaine in pharmaceutical preparations via oxidative coupling organic reaction

amy. Yahya. Y. farid; Muneer A.AL-Da; Mouyed. Q. Al; Abachi; Mohammed jassim hamzah

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 236-242

A new and sensitive colorimetric method for determination of procaine in pure and pharmaceutical preparations has been developed. It is based on coupling the nucleus of procaine molecule which is p-amino benzoic acid(PABA) with promathazine HCL in the presence of sodium periodate as oxidizing agent in an acidic medium.The product stable green-bluish coloured has a λ max=610nm.The calibration curve is liner over the range of (0.4-18 µg .ml-1)of p-amino benzoic acid with a molar aborpitivity of 1.718x104 l.mole-1.cm-1,a sandal sensitivity of 0.0079µg.cm-2,a relative error of(-1.15)-2.26% and a relative standard deviation of(0.24-1.45%) depending on the concentration of p-amino benzoic acid.The proposed method is applied satisfactorily to pharmaceutical preparations containing procaine

Study the Properties of Microplasma Oxidation Coatings (MPO) Deposited on Aluminum Alloy under modified Conditions

H. A. Samir

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 243-250

Over the past years, great achievements have been made in the domain of existing many surface coating technologies for surface improvement of aluminum alloys. Despite these achievements, the domination in the market is strongly affected by ability of surface coating technology, by means of technical and economic considerations, to meet the increased demands for heavy tribological applications of aluminum alloys. The MPO technology has recently been studied as a novel and effective means to provide improved properties such as thick and hard ceramic coating with excellent load-bearing and wear resistance properties on aluminum alloys. The aim of the present research is to study the properties of MPO coatings deposited on aluminum alloys under modified conditions so as to improve the hardness of MPO coatings by reducing the porosity which is the most complex phenomenon can affect the distribution and measurements of hardness, and wear rates of the coatings. The results proved that the coatings produced by the modified conditions show significant improvement in porosity and hardness properties for thicker coatings.
Key words: Micro plasma oxidation MPO; aluminum alloys; hardness; porosity

The effect of grading of fine aggregate on some properties of concrete

Adil .M. Abdul Latif; Riadh S. Al-Rawi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 251-257

In concrete construction, sands of good grading used in preparing concrete mixes is considered as one of the important problems in Iraq .The reason is that the quantities of sand conforming to the Iraqi specifications in grading are beginning to decrease .There are, however, large quantities of sand which can not be used in preparing concrete mixes because they are not conforming to the Iraqi specifications. During this research, many trials have been made to increase the range of grading of fine aggregate . 576 concrete cubes were cast using different concrete mixes designed according to the (ACI 211.1 1991) . Two types of cement are used with variable water cement ratios and different grading of fine aggregate . Most of these grading were out of Iraqi specifications. Slump test was made for all concrete mixes and compressive strength was made for all concrete cubes at ages of (7,28,56 and 90)days. The results obtained show the possibility of using different grading of fine aggregate with fineness modulus ranges from (1.4 to 3.7) which is much wider than the range of fineness modulus in (ACI 211.1 1991) ,noticing that these different grading of fine aggregate did not adversely affect the slump or compressive strength.

Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Macrocyclic ligand and its complexes with (Co(II),Ni(II),Cu(II),Zn(II), and Cd(II)) ions.

Mazin Saleh Breesam; m Ismail Yousif; Ena; Ahmad Thabet Numan

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 258-266

A new Macrocyclic Schiff base ligand Bis[4-hydroxy(1,2-ethylene-dioxidebenzylidene) pheylenediamine] [H2L] and its complexes with (Co(II) , Ni(II) , Cu(II) , Zn(II) and Cd(II)) are reported . The ligand was prepared in two steps,in the first step a solution of (o-phenylene diamine) in methanol react under reflux with (2,4-dihydroxybenzylaldeyed) to give an (intermediatecompound) [Bis-1,2 (2,4-dihydroxybenzylediene)pheylinediamine] which react in the second step with (1,2- dichloro ethane) giving the mentioned ligand.Then the complexes were synthesis of adding of corresponding metal salts to the solution of the ligand in methanol under reflux with 1:1 metal to ligand ratio. On the basis of, molar conductance, I.R., UV-Vis, chloride content and atomic absorption the complexes may be formulated as [M(H2L)] [MII =Co,Ni,Cu,Zn and Cd] . The data of these measurements suggest a tetrahedral geometry to Co(II), Cu(II) , Zn(II) ,and Cd(II) complexes and a square planar to Ni(II) .

Histopathological study of nasal osteosarcoma in calf in Basrah

Kareem Helal; Abdalbari A. Alfars; Zanib Wihaed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 267-270

Four cases growth tumor masses of osteosarcoma in nasal origin of calves which it was characterized by sold, limit, clear, closed end and projected surface mass tumor as well as it was adhesion with some part of skeleton bone. The type of nasal discharge is bloody purulent. On the cut surface there were highly vascular with marked hemorrhage. The weight measure of tumor mass about one kilogram. There were many pathological changes like congestion and odema, fibroplasia and periosteal new bone formation accompanied by different shape and size of neoplastic cells like pleomorphic cells as well as there were muscular atrophy.

A Suggested Numerical Solution for the Master Equation of Nuclear ٍReaction

Ahmed Abdul-Razzaq Selman; Shafik Shaker Shafik; Mahdi Hadi Jasim

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 271-282

Numerical solution for the master equation of the preequilibrium statistical model has been presented, assuming one-component Fermi gas model. This numerical method has been shown to give the same accuracy for the simple as well as the more advanced schemes. The present method showed fast convergence for a wide range of physical system parameters and it was applied for two reaction examples that include neutron and proton induced reactions with 54Fe nucleus at energies 20 and 80 MeV. Comparisons with standard earlier results indicated that the present method is proper for low reaction energies, but with worse accuracy at higher energies. The behavior of the present method was examined against the energy, exciton numbers, and time variation.

A STUDY ON THE ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY OF THE MITRAL VALVE IN NORMAL INDIVIDUALS AND PATIENTS WITH FUNCTIONAL MITRAL VALVE PROLAPSE

Ghazwa Hatem AL-Zubaydi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 283-296

The patient with mitral valve prolapse suffers from changes which occur in the myocardium , especially the left side , due to the changes which occure in orifice of mitral valve during the period of systole of left ventricle.The research worker classify the causes of mitral valve prolapse to pathological heart causes , or congenital and others of unknown origin. Objective: the use of echocardiography instrument this study undertaken to evaluate the unnatural changes which occur on the left side of the heart , as a result of functional mitral valve prolapse , there are two test including: the functional mitral prolapse and the structural mitral prolapse.Setting: Marjan teaching hospital , echocardiography unit: The study included(78) individuals divided into two groups; the first is the standard group which included normal of (40) persons, the second is the group of functional mitral valve prolapse which included (38) patients.The study is done by the use of Ultrasound wave (Echocardiography instrument ) type ''Combison 530 D model Voluson 530D''. All the subjects were subjected to M-mode and Two- Dimensional and Doppler echocardiography techniques which were used to evaluate the left atrial parameters that include: internal transverse diameter and internal longitudinal diameter in diastole and systole and that to find atrium volum in both situations.As well as echocardiography techniques , which were used to evaluate the left ventric- ular structure parameter: ( Left ventricular internal diameter in diastol and systole (LVIDs, LVIDd), Inter ventricular septum thickness in diastole and systole (IVSTs,IVSTd), Posterior wall thickness of LV (cm) in diastole and systole(PWTs and PWTd). Evaluation of left ventricular structure by using specific formula of (Left ventricular mass (g) in diastole and systole (LVM), Left ventricular mass index (g/m2) (LVMI) and Relative wall thickness of LV in diastole and systole( RWT)).The results: The study showed hypertrophy of the left atrium in functional prolapse and the results illustrated that there are differences among left atrium measurement for control and patients group (P value < 0.01). Aswell as our observations indicated an increment correlation between body surface area and (LVM) among patients group (P < 0.01), so as the relation between body mass index and stroke volume were significant . There is no much change in the function of the heart as a result of age and body mass index ( Kg / m ² ). There is no much change in the heart including ages of those included in the study. Data are presented as means ± SD; two means were compared by paired student T test, and P value less than 0.05 was considered to be significant, P value less than 0.01 was considered to be high significant.Conclusions: Most of the measurements which were recorded left the atrial hypertrophy (recorded size) during contraction and the relaxation condition and this is what proved with what the previous researches pointed at the mitral valve prolapse.No significant effect of (BMI) that depends on body length and weight was noticed on the results of measurement, or on the nature of diseases.

Enhancing Adhesion between layers of Babylon tyre

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 317-322

There are three types of adhesion difficulties faced by the Babylon Tyre manufactured: bonding the inner liner to the fabric cord, bonding the tread to the breaker bandage, and bonding the sidewall to the bead apex. We have investigated the adhesion between layers of tyre by using maleic anhydride (MA) in an elastomer while using phenolic resin, resorcinol, or novolak in another elastomer to understand the role of (MA) as an adhesion promoter. The cure rate slowed down when MA was added to the rubber compound, but changes in the physical properties were not significant. An improvement in adhesion was seen in presence of MA with phenolic resin (PH) and with (resorcinol) more than MA with novolak. Esterification reactions are the postulated mechanism for the observed promotion of adhesion.

“Kinetic and thermodynamic study on the adsorption of Para Anisidine compound by Sepiolite clay”

Aseal M.K; Ayad F.Al-Kiam; Sadiq J. Baqir

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 331-345

The removal of para anisidine (PA), with sepiolite clay have been performed investigating the effect of initial concentration, pH, temperature and contact time, on this process.
The equilibrium concentration have been determined spectophotometrically using ultra violet - visible technique.The equilibrium data are fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equations. The rate constant and activation energy value for the adsorption process was calculated, and the equilibrium time, that’s equal to 70 minutes.
The temperature thermodynamic parameters like , and have been calculated from the effect of temperature. Values of enthalpy showed that the adsorption process is exothermic.

Study of laser drilling mechanism parameters for a Ni-based superalloy

Methaq Mutter Mehdi Al-Sultany

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 346-363

The time of laser drilling process for Hastelloy-x by using hybrid Ti:sapphire/KrF excimer chain laser has been calculated at different values of each ( number of shots , distance of sample from lens focus , intensity as well as fluence ) according to the establishment results of drill depth .Many parameters of laser drilling process have been calculated as heating stage time ( th ) , drilling velocity ( ds/dt) , temperature gradient (dT/dZ) , temperature of metal surface ( T ) and energy flux absorbed by the surface ( φEa ) at different values of photons intensity and in many different positions;infront of the lens focus and behined it . The laser drilling parameters have been calculated also by variation of ambient temperature ( T◦ ) according to one dimensional model of laser drilling . We found that ambient temperature (T◦)was more efficient parameter than laser photons intensity in laser drilling velocity and the metal position in front of the lens focus or behind it was not affect on most drilling parameters. It can be concluded that small divergence laser beam is adequate in laser drilling of metals

Improvement of Durability of Reed in Cement Media

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 21-28

It is well-known that the durability of vegetable fibres, such as reed , in concrete media is very low because of high PH value of concrete.The improvement of the durability of reed in concrete media is investagated. Many coatings( namely epoxy paint,SBR,PVD, and liquid mastic) were used as wll as many types of salts ( soduim chloride,soduim sulfates and soduim nitrite).It is concluded that epoxy paint is the best coating in this respect. Soduim chloride is the best salt. It is,also, reported that no one of these measures is sufficiently effective in improvement of the durability of reed in concrete media.It seems that using reed with gysum plaster is more practical.

Improvement of Durability of Reed in Cement Media

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 21-28

It is well-known that the durability of vegetable fibres, such as reed , in concrete media is very low because of high PH value of concrete.The improvement of the durability of reed in concrete media is investagated. Many coatings( namely epoxy paint,SBR,PVD, and liquid mastic) were used as wll as many types of salts ( soduim chloride,soduim sulfates and soduim nitrite).It is concluded that epoxy paint is the best coating in this respect. Soduim chloride is the best salt. It is,also, reported that no one of these measures is sufficiently effective in improvement of the durability of reed in concrete media.It seems that using reed with gysum plaster is more prac