ISSN: 1813-0410

Volume 4, Issue 2

Volume 4, Issue 2, Spring 2008, Page 1-293


The Grammatical Categories of Literary Prose Texts: A Study in Corpus Linguistics

Chassib Fanukh Abbas Al-Jubouri

journal of kerbala university, 2008, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 1-14

This study is one in corpus linguistics. It examines the frequency of the grammatical categories used in six prose texts .This aspect is studied through the variables of prose text type and writer's sex. The model used to analyze the corpus is adapted with modification from Ball (1993) and Burrows (1993). The study proves that the text type and the writer's sex, in addition to the text theme determine the grammatical category used. Thus, it accepts its alternative hypothesis

Structural and Linguistic Analysis of SMS Text Messages

Muayyad Omran Chiad

journal of kerbala university, 2008, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 15-27

The most obvious way in which the communicative behavior has changed is reflected in virtual environments with its different modes of communication.These new modes provide a rich testing ground for theories of language change.In accordance with all the other media, the Mobile technology,in particular SMS,has brought along its own language and culture.The language of the SMS is asynchronous,a single-channel,text-based,technologically mediated discourse.It reflects the unpredictable, unrestricted new communication technology and it evolves at an incredible speed.The following study hopes to provide an understanding of SMS English by analysing interactions in these texts as constituting another form of Computer-Mediated Discourse.The analysis tackles such topics as speech acts, humor ,the dichotomy of speech and writing in relation to SMS texts,and orthography.Based on more than 164 texts messages collected from the Internet and Personal correspondences,the study finds out that correspondents of SMS create new language to suit the restrictions of the media.Expressive speech acts comprise the majority among other acts because personal opinions and emotional state are conveyed in text messages intended mainly to build social relations.Humor is significant in SMS texts messages used as an attempt from correspondents to achieve relational goals.They use the established norms of writing and speaking discourse, in addition to a non-standard orthography.

Prevalence of bad oral habits and it،s relation with age in a sample of school students in Al-Mahmoodia city

Wael AI-Waely

journal of kerbala university, 2008, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 1-4

Background
Oral habits should be of primary clinical concern to orthodontist because they may cause malocclusion and interfere with treatment progress.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 60 patients were selected from students of relatively fair socioeconomic status background taken from primary, secondary and high schools of which a questionnaire and clinical examination to certify he presence of oral habits and examination of the types of malocclusion.
Results
Gender differences was shown between males and females were females show greater number than males in digit sucking, lip biting, while males were greater in tonque thrust, mouth breathing, bad oral habits seen most likely of all kinds in any age range of
(12-18),and most common type is lip biting then mouth breathing then digit sucking.
Conclusion
Digit sucking continued to decrease with age, tonque thrust increased with age until the age of 12 years where it start to decrease.

Dimeric Schiff Bases : Preparation, Characterization and Donor Properties

Ammar K.M.Al-Ba

journal of kerbala university, 2008, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 5-13

The bis (P-substituted-2-methoxy aniline benzylidene-4-oxy) Octamethane was prepared and used as a donor to form 1:2 complexes with (2, 3-Dichloro-5, 6-dicyanobenzoquinone) (DDQ), respectively. The equilibrium constants (K), molar absorptive extinction coefficients (ε ) and the dissociation energies of the charge transfer complexes excited states (w) have been calculated and discussed. The ionization potentials of Schiff bases have been determined and has been concluded that these complexes are predominantly of the (n → π) type.

METHODS OF IMPROVING PERFOMANCE FOR ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS IN IRAQ

ALI A. AL RAZZAQ AL - TAHIR

journal of kerbala university, 2008, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 14-32

The main purpose in this paper to improve the performance of the electrical power systems in Iraq being developed and thereby add to its value. In recent years, performance evaluation and analysis have become increasingly for any kind of projects and for both personal and equipments safety assessment. This paper presents efficient practical methods for performance improvement and enhancement based on scientific and practical fundamentals. Power stations play important role in performance calculations, the station elements are important factors in improving the quality and security of a power system taking into account the economic problems. Failures originating within a station can create significant electrical power system disturbances. Redundancy principle can be resulted in increasing design complexity through difficult in load distribution equally between redundant systems and increased costs through additional weight and space. Full benefit is resulting of studying the connection bus-bar scheme, if the incoming and outgoing circuits are distributed evenly on the sections of bus - bars. The main reasons for grounding the neutral points to limit over voltages, different types of ground fault currents and to permit the application of suitable ground fault relaying. Transient stability enhancement is the fold of transient stability object that means suggestion of various enhancing methods to improve or augment electrical power system transient stability. Programs and graphics are executed using MATLAB Vol . 7 and Excel programs.

Synthesis of New type of tetrazoles starting from D-ribose

Khalid Fahad Ali

journal of kerbala university, 2008, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 33-36

This work includes synthesis of sugar tetrazole derivative, D-ribose reacted with acetone in the presence of sulfuric acid H2SO4 to give 2,3-O-isopropylidene-D-ribose (1). The Aldol condensation of (1) with formaldehyde in methanolic K2CO3 solution gave 2-hydroxymethyl(2,3-O- isopropylidene-D-ribose) (2). Which was tosylated by Tosyl chloride in pyridine to yield compound (3), SN2 reaction of (3) with sodium cyanide in DMSO afforded compound (4). The [2+3] cycloaddition reaction of (4) with sodium azide gave the targeted compound (5). All prepared compounds have been characterized by: TLC, Specific rotation, Microelemental analysis and [FT-IR and 1H NMR spectroscopy]

Image edges detection using morphological operations

journal of kerbala university, 2008, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 37-49

Morphological operation consists of two types:- Basic operations and derivative. Basic operations are ,dilation ,erosion and (hit & miss) ,where as the derivative operations are :open ,close , tophat , bothat , skeleton. The process of finding the limits of the image (edge detection) means finding the boundary between the neighboring regions which differ from each other in gray levels value .There are three basic methods for finding limits of images:-
linear, non-linear and common approximating methods.
An algorithm is applied to identify the image edges of the image, there are generally three stages:-
1-filtering procedure to reduce the noise.
2-improvement operations
3-finding the strong border points which are required.
According to the method of change the intensity image there are several types of edges of images such as (line edges, step edge, ramp edge) .
Due to the absence of specific suitable method to detect all types of edges ,the present work has been implemented three methods based on the fundamental morphological operations to find the limits and the image terminals by selecting different size and extensions converted to images of grey levels ,results were compared to determine the most suitable and better methods . The present work using matlab functions (version 6.5)

Status of Selenium in seminal plasma of Male infertility and their correlation with Various Sperm Parameters.

Nawal.KH. Hussain

journal of kerbala university, 2008, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 50-54

Background;
Human semen contains low concentration of selenium (Se). The presence of abnormal level of this trace element may affect spermatogenesis with regard to production, maturation, motility and fertilizing capacity of the spermatozoa. The aim of this study is to evaluate the level of Se in seminal plasma in different groups of male infertility and to correlate their concentration with various semen parameters.
Subjects and Methods:
Forty primary infertile male individuals, who had regular unprotected intercourse for at least one year without conception with their partners, aged 25-40 years were involved in the present study. After seminal plasma fluid analysis they were grouped as, azoospermic,oligoasthenozoospermic, and teratozoospermic.
Twenty males selected from general population and after seminal fluid investigation they were taken as normospermic control group. Selenium concentration in separated seminal plasma of each infertile male and fertile control subject were determined by HPLC.
Results:
This study showed significant decrease of seminal plasma Se mean (±SEM) value in azoospermic and in oligoasthenozoospermic infertile males than in infertile male controls(p<0.05),and highly significant decrease in teratozoospermic patients (p<0.005) when compared with that of fertile males.
The results also showed that there was no significant correlation between Selenium concentration and sperm count, morphology and motility.
Conclusion:
On the basis of the findings of this study, it seems that the estimation of seminal plasma levels of selenium may aid in investigation and treatment of infertile males.

Copyright Watermarking in MPEG 1 Files

Ali Retha Hasoon Al-Moseaway

journal of kerbala university, 2008, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 55-63

We are living in a digital world in that extensive information exchange can be performed quickly and easily in digital format over the Internet or different storing devices in a cost-effective way. Digital data, such as music, image, video, text, e-mail, and so forth, are easily copied and transferred without any degradation. Concerns over ownership protection, data protection, and other security issues have therefore arisen. Digital watermarking is a general solution that can be used to identify illegal copying and ownership, authentication, or other applications by inserting information into the digital data in an imperceptible way. In order for a watermark to be useful, it must be perceptually invisible and have robustness against detecting processing and a variety of possible attacks by those who seek to pirate the material. In this paper we embedding watermark (text, icon) in MPEG1 file by using unused space in MPEG1 files to protect file from illegal copy and the same way could be used in secret communication (Steganography). The information embedded is hidden and the effect on the appearance and function of the work is minimized or invisible. It is supposed to survive even after digital-to-analog conversion, compression, or resizing.

t γ -Open sets and Separation axioms

Asaad M.A.Alhosaini

journal of kerbala university, 2008, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 64-70

In this paper by considering two types of operations on a topological space ( X,τ ), t-operation and γ-operation ,the researcher introduce the concept of tγ-open set (which is analogue to the concept of semi open set), and we study the concepts of tγ-Ti spaces (i=0,½,1,2,b,d,g) related to the new concept of tγ-open sets and we study the relations between them.

Extraction of Cobalt (II) form aqueous solution by use 2- [(4- carboxy methylphenyl) azo ] -4,5- diphenyl imidazole

Ibtehaj . R. Ali

journal of kerbala university, 2008, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 71-81

2- [(4- Carboxy methylphenyl) azo ] -4,5- diphenyl imidazole (4 – CMePADPI) used as sensetive and selective ligand for extraction cobalt (II) ions from aqueous solutions and this application shows the optimum conditions for good extractio was (pHex = 11) which was giving higher distribution ratio (D) and need (10minutes) for shaking the two layers to reach good extraction as well as the optimum concentration of Co + 2 ions in aqueous phase was (50μg)( 1.69x10 -4 M) to give higher Distribution ratio (D) . Stoichiometric study shows the structure of ion pair complex extraction for Co+2 ions with (4CMePADPI) ligand was 1:1 (metal :ligand ) [Co(4 – CMePADPI) +2 SO4-2 from other hand organic solvent shows there is not any Linear relation between dielectric constant (E) of orgonic solvent and distribution ratio (D) of extraction ,but there is an effect for the structure of organic solvent .At later the thermodynamic study demonstrate the complexation reaction betweenCo+2ions and ligand(4 –CMePADPI) was exothermic .

“Kinetic and thermodynamic study on the adsorption of Para Anisidine compound by Sepiolite clay”

Sadiq J. Baqir; Ayad F.Al-Kiam; Aseal M.K

journal of kerbala university, 2008, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 82-97

The removal of para anisidine (PA), with sepiolite clay have been performed investigating the effect of initial concentration, pH, temperature and contact time, on this process.The equilibrium concentration have been determined spectophotometrically using ultra violet- visible technique.The equilibrium data are fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equations.The rate constant and activation energy value for the adsorption process was calculated, and the equilibrium time, that’s equal to70minutes. The temperature thermodynamic parameters like , and have been calculated from the effect of temperature. Values of enthalpy showed that the adsorption process is exothermic.

Solving Eulers Equation by Using New Transformation

Ali Hassan Mohammed; Athera Nema kathem

journal of kerbala university, 2008, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 103-109

In this paper, we introduce definition of new transformation which we call it Temimi transformation .Also, we introduce properties ,theorems, proofs and transformations of the polynomials functions ,logarithms functions and other functions .Also ,we introduce how we can use this transformation and it's inverse to solve the Euler's equation [2 ] .

Effects of crude oil on the growth of horsetail tree (Casuarina equisetifolia)

Hassan. H. Ali; Basim A. Abd Ali

journal of kerbala university, 2008, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 110-116

A field experiment was conducted between March, 2005 and December 2007 to study the effects of different levels of crude oil ( 0.0 , 0.5 , 1.0 , 2.0 , 3.0 liter/ seedling ) on the growth of ( Casuarina equisetifolia ) under Baghdad district /Iraq environmental conditions. The results showed the adverse effects of crude oil on the plant growth. Seedlings of the experiment showed various symptoms of effects after exposing to crude oil pollution ranging from leaf paleness, yellowing, browning and drying to death depending on the level of crude oil used and period of exposure. These symptoms reflected interruption in the plant growth as a result of pollution effects on physiological processes carried out by plants. The plant growth was reduced significantly in low levels (0.5 and 1.0 liter/seedling) while the result with high levels was the death of 75% and 100% of seedlings polluted with 2.0 and 3.0 liter/seedling respectively. The present study approved that ( Casuarina equisetifolia ) could tolerate a specific levels of crude oil pollution, therefore it was suggested that this tree could be served as a plant bioremediation for soil polluted by crude oil.

Study the anti-Bacterial &Fungal activity of Junchus Arabica on Some Pathogenic isolates Invitro

Ali Muknes; Mahdi Murshd; Mohammed Abdul-Mounther; Abdulla Khadam

journal of kerbala university, 2008, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 117-120

To demonstrate and investigate in vitro the activity of antibacterial and fungal of fao junchus Arabica fresh and dry seeds obtained from different areas of Basrah especially against (5)isolates of pathogenic bacteria aerobic Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa klebsiella spp., Staphylococcus aureus and anaerobic bacteria Propinipionibacterium acnesisolated from different skin diseases as well as antifungal activity against (5) Tinea corporis , Tinea pedis, Tinea unquium , Candida albicans ,Tinea cruris dermophytes of skin- hair and nail besides candida albicans.Green and dry seeds showed high activity effect of both antibacterial and fungal.

Effect of Using Corrosion Inhibitors on Concrete Properties and Their Activity

Falah K. Matlob; Abeer Mohammed Abdul Amir; Nada Flah Hassan

journal of kerbala university, 2008, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 121-139

In this investigation, the effect of using sodium benzoate, potassium dichromate as corrosion inhibitors in concentrations (1%, 2%and 3% by weight of cement) is studied on concrete properties; compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength and absorption. Also the activity of these admixtures in their three concentrations were studied to reduce the corrosion rate where the three electrode polarization resistance is used to measure the corrosion rate and by measuring the electrical resistance of concrete. The reinforced concrete samples were immersed partially in 3.5% NaCl solution for three months. Half of these samples were loaded with 10% of the design load after 6 weeks of immersing to make micro cracks in the concrete body. The test results indicate that the use of sodium benzoate, potassium dichromate in 2% concrete. by weight of cement cause a considerable reduction in compressive strength about 15% and 4% at 28 days respectively, but in the later ages the specimens got an increase in compressive strength about 7% and 11% at 90 days respectively, with increasing in; splitting tensile strength about 17% for sodium benzoate and 21% for potassium dichromate, flexural strength about 18% and 20% respectively, also they cased reduction in absorption test with 38% and 42% respectively and inhibitor efficiency about 98% for each one.

Determination of some polyamines in serum of breast cancer patients

Ahmed Fadhil kadhier Al-Sultany

journal of kerbala university, 2008, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 156-163

In this study, serum polyamine (spermidine & spermine) levels were measured in 28 breast cancer patients and compared with 25 healthy controls. Blood samples obtained from two groups (control & patients) and quantitative determination of polyamine were determined by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). It was found that spermidine is significantly increased (p<0.05) in patients levels was observed when breast cancer patient compare with normal subjects, and significantly increase than the healthy control population to the spermine with (p<0.05).

In vitro effect of gamma radiation on human mononuclear cells compared with that of ordinary light

Ahmed Juma; a M; Ali Mansour J; Ishraq Rasoul Ibrahim; Zeena Hassan Abbas

journal of kerbala university, 2008, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 164-170

Study design and objective: This is an in vitro experimental study. It was performed to show the effect of gamma radiation on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) compared with that of ordinary light. Method: First of all, PBMCs were separated and incubated in specialized culture medium to form a cell pool. Tow sample groups were prepared; one containing phytohemaggluttinin (PHA) from which three subgroups; A, B and C each with 30 samples were prepared. The effect of gamma radiation on PBMCs (group A samples) was tested against that of ordinary light (group B) and a control (group C). Another set of samples was prepared similarly, but without PHA. These two groups were incubated under standardized conditions (37°C and 5% CO2). Wet film for direct cell counting 24 hourly and Gemsa staining technique examined by inverted microscope to predict the growth curve, cell count and structural changes induced by irradiation. Results: There was a significant reduction in PBMCs counts in group A, compared to group B and C samples. Furthermore, the growth curve showed prolonged lag phase and delayed and shortened log phase in group A samples. In addition, there were more PBMCs structural changes including anisocytosis, ghost cells and abnormal mitotic figures. These finding were restricted to PHA-containing samples rather than the PHA-free set. Conclusion: The effect of gamma irradiation, represented by reduction in cell count and structural abnormalities, in vitro, was shown to be specific for activated PBMCs (i.e) exhibited on the actively dividing mononuclear cells.

Antimicrobial Activity Of Lincomycin and Gentamicin delivered from Chitosan and Chitosan-Gelatin Matrices

Hanaa Jaafer jabaar AL; kabee

journal of kerbala university, 2008, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 171-180

The antimicrobial activity of lincomycin and gentamicin released from chitosan and chitosan-gelatin matrices against gram positive and gram negative bacteria were studied. The inhibition zone diameter were determined After (24,48) hrs of incubation using agar diffusion assay . The results showed that both matrices were very active to deliver the antibiotics.there are significant increasing p<0.05 in inhibition zone after 48 hrs compared with 24 hrs of incubation. Also there is non significant increasing in the antibiotics delivery in chitosan-gelatin matrix. This study suggest to use such matrices in drug delivery system for local (directed) bioavailability of compound antibiotic against gram positive and gram negative bacteria at the same time which is very important in the treatment of some bacterial infections.

Behavior, Activity and Pollination Effect of Apis mellifera L. and Native Bees Foraging on Hybrid and Open-Pollinated Varieties of Sunflower, Helianthus annuus L.

Murtadha K. Glaiim; Siena; a M. Abid; Ayad K. Al-Sindy; Ali A. Kareem

journal of kerbala university, 2008, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 181-191

This field study carried out in 2008 at the College of Agriculture, Kerbala University dealt with different aspects of behavior, activity and pollination effect of Apis mellifera L. and native bees foraging on heads of two varieties of sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., a hybrid produced in Turkey and called “ Coban ” and an open-pollinated variety called “ Sinn el-Theeb ”. The percentages of total recorded individuals of A.mellifera and all native bees were 52.34 and 47.66%, respectively. The most abundant species of native bees were Megachile sp. and Nomia sp. while Xylocopa fenestrate, X.aestuans and other unidentified species were in fewer numbers. About 72 and 28% of all A.mellifera individuals were nectar-collectors and pollen-collectors, respectively. The displacement behavior practiced by all insect species was very remarkable. About 44% of A.mellifera and 22 to 50% of native bee individuals were forced to leave flowers through physical disturbance committed by other visitors. The study also covered other aspects including seasonal and diurnal visitation patterns and duration of a single visit / insect. The pollinating insects had insignificant effect on the yield of hybrid variety for it was highly self-compatible while they had a great benefit in this regard for the open-pollinated variety which was highly self-incompatible. For instance, mean seed-setting rates of first variety reached 88.1 and 81.4% in open and bagged heads, respectively. The rates of second variety were 79.8 and only 10.1% in open and bagged heads, respectively.

Statistical Analysis for Autoclave Expansion of Sulphate- Resisting Cement

Hussein Ali Ewadh; Majeed Khudair Jassim

journal of kerbala university, 2008, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 192-200

Excessive volumetric change may have great influence in collapse of hardened cement mortar. Autoclave expansion test provides an index of potential delayed expansion and thereby the soundness of cement mortar. This paper presents an effort to model autoclave expansion in relation with factors affecting soundness of cement mortar.
A statistical analysis is performed for a data base of 575 chemical and physical tests obtained from archive of quality control at Kerbala plant for SRC cement. These data sets are refined to 444 by excluding outliers to avoid errors in measurement, recording, and observations. Multiple linear regression by SPSS16 software is used to develop a statistical model relating autoclave expansion with some explanatory variables (MgO %, F. CaO %, C3A %, C3S %).
Stepwise regression shows that linear model explains 89.4 % of variation in autoclave expansion by percentage of free lime to 0.05 degree of significance, while excludes other proposed variables. If the degree of significance is changed to 0.1, C3A may be included in the statistical model as second explanatory variable. The low percentage of MgO makes its effect insignificant for inclusion in the developed model. Also, the analysis shows that the restricted percentage of Tricalcium Aluminate C3A in the sulphate resisting cement may serve positively in mitigating the expansion of hardened cement mortar. On the other hand, the developed relation may give indication to control a recommended percentage of free lime in the raw materials to assure allowable soundness of cement.

Structure and piezoelectricity in blends of PVDF films PVDF

Rajaa R. Abbas; N. N. Rammo; Ekram A. Al-Ajaj

journal of kerbala university, 2008, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 201-208

The crystalline structure, band vibration and piezoelectric properties of PVDF (neat and blend) oriented in the -phase have been investigated utilizing X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and piezoelectric measurements respectively. The -phase and -phase always exist in the solvent cast films, but with fading orientation caused by the blending content of PMMA and PVAc. Miscibility in the PVDF-PVAc blend was confirmed by vibrational band shift. It was found that the piezoelectricity of PVDF blends might strongly be affected by the final crystal structure of PVDF resulted from blending process and on the nature of blending polymer. However, the magnitude of piezoelectric constant d33 was found to be decreasing with the content of blending polymer for both PVDF-PMMA and PVDF-PVAc blends.

Distribution of some aerobic bacteria in an infected Cyprinus carpio L. fish farm in Basrah and its resistance to antibiotics

Eman A. Al-Imarah

journal of kerbala university, 2008, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 209-215

During April 2004, 30- carp male infected fishes and 25 water samples from fish farm ponds in Basrah city were collected. swabs were taken from: under scales , gills , air sac , intestine , spleen , liver , heart , gonads , and kidney. Both samples were tested for bacteria. The following Gram-negative bacterial species were isolated from all samples: Pseudomonas fluorescence (41isolates),Aeromonas hydrophila (28 isolates), Escherichia coli (27 isolates),Klebsiella pneumoniea (21 isolates), Pseudomonas sp.(18 isolates), and Proteus vulgaris(17 isolates). Pseudomonas fluorescence was the dominant among Gram- negative bacterial species isolated from fish samples while Escherichia coli was the dominant among Gram- negative bacterial species isolated from water samples. The Gram- positive bacterial species which isolated from all samples were: Staphylococcus aureus(31 isolates),Sterptococcus faecalis (25 isolates), S.faecium(19 isolates) , Staphylococcus epidermidis(11 isolates), and S.pyogenes(11 isolates). Numbers of Gram- negative bacterial species that isolated from all samples were greater than those of Gram-positive bacterial species. The Minimum Inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for 10 isolates of each bacterial species were determined; Gram- negative bacterial species showed more antibiotic resistance than Gram-positive bacterial species

Effect of Different Acids, Heating Time and Particle Size on Pectin Extraction from Watermelon Rinds

Asseel Majid Rasheed

journal of kerbala university, 2008, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 234-243

Watermelon cultivation has widely been expanded in Iraq and industrial by-products like watermelon rinds play an important role in pectin manufacture. The objective of this investigation was to determine a practical follow-up to the extraction of pectin from watermelon rinds and to characterize it in a laboratory, on a small scale, aiming at establishing the optimum conditions for acid extraction. The independent variables were citric acid concentration (0.08 – 5 g/ml) and heating time (20 – 110 min). The highest yields were obtained when watermelon rinds was dried and ground to obtain a watermelon flour to be used as raw material, citric or nitric acids were used and when the citric acid concentration was (5 g/100 ml) and the time of reaction was (110 minutes). The watermelon variety in itself was not significant in pectin yield. The degree of esterification (DE = 44.37 %) of the product obtained, as well as its physical looks, show the success of pectin extraction. Results have shown that the generated model adequately explained the data variation and significantly represented the actual relationship between the independent variables and the responses, with a correlation coefficient of (0.938) and a (44.9454 %) absolute average percent error.

Effect of black seed Nigella sativa (L.) seed extract on reproductive organs of male albino rats

Amal Ali Al-Taee

journal of kerbala university, 2008, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 244-251

This study aimed to evaluate the probable effect of Nigella sativa L. seed extract (NSSE) on reproductive organs of male albino rats .The extract was administrated orally for 30 days at ( 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 ml/100 gm of body weight (b.wt.) .day 1) to adult male rats in addition to control group .Body and reproductive organs weight (testes, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate) for control and treated rats were measured. Histological study were performed in testes and epididymis to calculate the thickness of germinal layer, diameter of seminiferouse tubules and diameter of lumen of seminiferouse tubules in testes and thickness of epithelial layer, diameter of seminiferouse tubules and diameter of lumen of seminiferouse tubules in epididymis .Also the testes used to calculate the number of spermatogenic cell spermatogonia, primary and secondary spermatocyte ,spermatids , sperms and sterol cells after treatment. Results of experiment indicate that the extract decreased significantly (p>0.05 ) the body weight in all groups in contrast with control group ,while the weight of testes, seminal vesicle and prostate were not changed , the weight of epididymis increased significantly (p<0.05 ) in concentration of 0.4 ml /100 gm b.wt. .In testes, the diameter of seminiferous tubules and the diameter of its lumen showed no significant changes when compared with control group, while the thickness of germinal layer of seminiferous tubules increased significantly (p<0.05 ) in concentration of 0.4 ml /100 gm b.wt..In epididymis the diameter of seminiferouse tubules and the diameter of lumen of seminiferouse tubules not changed, but there was significant changes between other groups ,while the thickness of epithelial layer which lying the tubules decreased significantly (p>0.05).The volume density of spermatogonia in concentration of 0.4 ml /100 gm b.wt. and secondary spermatocyte in concentration of 0.1 ,0.3 ,0.4 ml / 100 gm b.wt.increased significantly (p<0.05 ).

Nonlinear polarization density behaviour simulation in media by electromagnetic wave influence

journal of kerbala university, 2008, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 252-259

Bloch's equations have been solved numerically by Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method to evaluate the medium nonlinear polarization density behaviour. The medium has been represented as a two- level system according to the quantum theory. In this representation, matrix density formula describes the two levels coupling, under rotating wave approximation (RWA). The effect of frequency detuning (Δ) on the nonlinear polarization density shows the nonlinear polarization density decreases when the interaction becomes far away from exact resonance interaction. The response of time for nonlinear medium is increase for certain values of  (relative ratio of longitudinal to transverse relaxation time).Then, the responses will be very little as it increase

The changes in the hatchability & survival of Egg & Larvae of sheep nematode after exposure to Ultraviolet radiation

Karrar Mohamed Abdul-Sada; Sundus Nsaif Abd Al-Hucheimi

journal of kerbala university, 2008, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 260-264

The effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the hatchability & the activity (survival) of sheep gastrointestinal nematode;Haemonchus contortus, trichostrongylus colubriformis , Oesophagostomum columbianum and Strongyloides papillosus eggs & Larvae were examined. The hatchability decreased with increasing exposure to radiation. The difference in hatchability of eggs irradiated for 15.30 & 60 minutes were highly significant (P< 0.01 dα = 3.08,3.25 and 3.76 respectively) compared with the hatchability of the non-irradiated eggs. The life span of irradiated was shortened , only (19%) of those expose to UV radiation 60 minutes survive for 2 days as against (100%) survival rate in the non-irradiated larvae . Batches of nematode larvae (L1) were irradiated with ultraviolet light for varying time interval to determine the influence of radiation on the transmission potential of the irradiated larvae. There was a decreased in the survival rate of the hatched free-swimming larvae that corresponded with the increasing radiation exposure time .

Design and Implementation for Intelligent Logic Simplification Program

Hawrra H.Abbas Al-Rubiae; Riyadh M. Naife

journal of kerbala university, 2008, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 265-268

Before built any complex logic system we must find all the possible way to establish this system with minimum logic components so, in this paper we design and implement intelligent program (using DELPHE programming language), this program work on simplifying and drawing any logic equation according to knowledge base built from Boolean algebra rules.

Effect of Iraqi probiotic as an additives feed on carcass characteristics and composition of Awassi lambs

journal of kerbala university, 2008, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 269-277

Thirty individual Awassi male lambs weighing 25.97 kg and 5-6 months of old were used ,to test the effect of using four levels (0 , 20 ,40 ,and 60 g /kg DM) of Iraqi probiotic in the fattening diets on changes in body weight and carcass gain . At the beginning of the experiment ;Six lambs were randomly allocated to each of the four diets ; the remaining ( six lambs) were slaughtered to provide data to relate empty body weight (EBW), hot and cold carcass weight and physical dissected gain to initial body weight. Lambs in T1 group were fed diet with no probiotic . Lambs in T2 T3 and T4 groups were fed on diets supplemented with 20 , 40 and 60 g/kg DM of Iraqi probiotic respectively .Daily nutrients intake were similar across treatments. Live weight gain slaughter weigh, hot and cold carcass weights , Empty body weight and Killing –out proportions of lambs fed diets supplemented with probiotic were significantly higher (p<0.01) than those fed control diets . However, higher improvement was achieved by lambs fed diet contain 40g/kgDM probiotic (T3). Physically dissected gain ,clearly indicated that supplementation of diets with probiotic approximately doubled the weight of lean gain (p<0.01) and slightly increased the weight of fat and bone gain (p<0.05) as compared with those fed control diets . Physically dissected lean : fat ratio was significantly (p<0.01)greater for lambs fed supplemented diets with probiotic than for those fed control diet (without probiotic) .

Synthesis and Characterization of New Ligand type N2O2 and its complexes with (Co(II),Ni(II),Cu(II),Zn(II) and Cd(II) ions

Ahmad Thabet Numan; Issa Omeran Issa; Leqaa Khalid

journal of kerbala university, 2008, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 278-285

The [2-hydroxy -1,2-diphynel-ethanone oxime] was reacted with 1,2- dichloroethan to give the new ligand [H2L].this ligand was reacted with some metal ions (Co(II),Ni(II),Cu(II),Zn(II) and Cd(II) in methanol as a solvent to give a series of new (1:1)complexes of the general formula [ M(HL)]Cl ,( where : M= Co(II),Ni(II),Cu(II),Zn(II) and Cd(II)) are isolated All compounds have been characterized by spectroscopic methods [ I.R , U.V -Vis ] atomic absorption . Chloride content along with conductivity measurements. From the above data the proposed molecular structure for (Co, Cu, Ni, Zn and Cd) complexes adopting a tetrahedral structure.

Study of sputtering parameter in D.C. planar magnetron sputtering

Majid. H. Dwech; Sarmed. S. AL-Awadi; Qusay A. Abbes; Fadhil Yousif Hadi

journal of kerbala university, 2008, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 286-293

In this research used the D.C. planar magnetron sputtering and measurement the some parameter to magnetron sputtering to effect to deposition thin film; this parameters were the pressure, voltage the glow discharge, distance between the target and the substrate, and thickness for thin film. We found the best conditions in the pressure (300mtorr) and distance (4cm) to good thin film.

DETERMINATION OF MERCURY IN WATER AND SEDIMENT FROM QARMAT – ALI AND PAPER FACTORY ALONG SHATT AL-ARAB RIVER

A.Z.Raheem

journal of kerbala university, 2008, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 98-102

The determination of mercury achieved by means of Cold Hg Vapor Atomic Absorption (CVAAS ) was determined in the water and sediment samples from 7 locations at Qarmat –Ali and paper factory along shatt Al-Arab river during 2006 ,also some physical and chemical parameters were obtained during this study. The results showed low Hg content of water at station (2) (0.06 μg/ml), whereas high content of Hg has been found (0.083 μg/ml) at station (1). Another hand the lower conc. of mercury in the sediment samples recorded at station (3)(0.32 μg/g) and higher conc. observed at station (5)(0.39 μg/g). The main source of Hg in the discharge of paper factory is expected from electric cells of chlorine unit. The result also shown that conc. of mercury in sediment higher than in the water samples; This is the first study carried out in this region, and could serve as a baseline in this important area.

Synthesis of Some New Azo Schiff Bases and Tetrazole Derivatives from 2-Amino -1,3,4-thiadiazole-5-thiol

Sawsan K.Abbas; Rabab K.Hameem; Sajid M.Radhi; Khulood O.Gzar; Ibrahem L.Kadum; Rahman T. Haiwal; Zaid H.Abood

journal of kerbala university, 2008, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 140-155

In this paper new azo schiff bases and tetrazole derivatives of 2-Amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-5-thiol have been prepared.2-Amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-5-thiol [1] was prepared by the reaction of thiosemicarbazide with carbon disulfide in alcoholic sodium carbonate solution .Compound [1] was converted to the diazonium salt which was directly converted to the azo derrivative [2] via a coupling reaction with salicyldehyde.The new azo Schiff bases derivatives [3-6] were prepared by condensation of aldehyde group of the new azo aldehyde derivative [2] with some primary amines ( 3-Amino phenol, 3-Bromo aniline ,2-phenyl ethyl amine ) and with 2,4- Dinitro phenyl hydrazine respectively in absolute ethanol. The resulting imines [3-6] were converted to the corresponding tetrazole derivatives[7-10] through 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction with sodium azide in tetrahydrofuran. All new synthesized derivatives were identified by their melting points,elemental analysis and FT-IR spectra. They have long been known to posses hypnotics activities and it is hoped that our compounds would do so.

Improvement of Durability of Reed in Cement Media

journal of kerbala university, 2008, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 125-138

It is well-known that the durability of vegetable fibres, such as reed , in concrete media is very low because of high PH value of concrete.The improvement of the durability of reed in concrete media is investagated. Many coatings( namely epoxy paint,SBR,PVD, and liquid mastic) were used as wll as many types of salts ( soduim chloride,soduim sulfates and soduim nitrite).It is concluded that epoxy paint is the best coating in this respect. Soduim chloride is the best salt. It is,also, reported that no one of these measures is sufficiently effective in improvement of the durability of reed in concrete media.It seems that using reed with gysum plaster is more practical.