ISSN: 1813-0410

Volume 4, Issue 1

Volume 4, Issue 1, Winter 2008, Page 1-240


Effect of Transformational Leadership and Information Technology in Operations Performance

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 1-15

The success of Organizations and its Survival is achieved through the use of human and physical resources in efficient and effective method. The research deal with a study two resources which are transformational leadership and information technology, and measure their effect in operations performance through five indicators (Cost, Quality, Flexibility, Delivery, and Innovation).To reach research objectives a simulate diagram has built to determine nature of relation and effect between the research variables which emerge two main hypothesis from each five hypothesis branched.A questionnaire was used as a method to collect information from employees in the investigated company by using stratified random sampling which consist of 200 person.The research was concluded with some finding and recommendation which can contribute in improving operations performance through focusing on the transformational leadership concept and adopt information technology in the production and managerial operations in the investigated company

Miraculous Nature of Koran Parable – "Yasin Chapter " as a Model.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 36-49

The Koran parable depends on the old aphorism not with regard to timed requirement but as a reminder and teaching lessons, because showing it clearly is something having a significance in presenting its parable as a preliminary; then going into its substantial, then making use of its parable phase, which keeps being miraculous covering all its phenomenon and secrets and cases.And as parable, in its substantial structure, contains a kind of presentation having sermon and educational remark, and the ideological aspect, then it becomes very necessary to have a presentation as in "Yasin Chapter" which suits the concept of field of the village. This concept represents a variety of correlated of events throughout time and place in a Koranic frame. As a result parable becomes a miraculous never-ending unseen 'flow' of other identical events… Koran has already determined that they were unbelievers who had followed the example of their ancestors….

Study Mechanisms and Kinetics of removal Cadmium Ions from Aqueous soultions on Bentonite surface

Eman. T. Kareem; Muneer. A. AL-Da; amy; Mohammad. J. Hassan; Sumea. M. Husen

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 1-8

In this paper a study was carried out to estimate the ability of Bentonite clay as a new adsorbent surface for removal and adsorption of Cadmium ion from aqueous solutions . The effect of contact time was evaluted and found that the removal process of Cadmium Ion by Bentoniite surafce was reached complete equilibrium at 60 min .The maximum removal or adsorption of Cadmium ion by Bentonite adsorbent were found 87.2% at 40 min . The kinetic results were well fitted to lagergren pseudo – second order models . This behavior was discussed depending on the chemical structure of Cadmium ion and Bentonite surface area. The intraparticle difusion model was also used to studied the kinetics and mechanisms of Cadmium Ion removal . Results model plays a significant role in the adsorption mechanism

Traffic Conflict Technique to Predict Countermeasure Effectiveness at 3-legs Signalized Intersections

Hussein A. Ewadh

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 9-15

Traffic accident reduction is a measure to evaluate the effectiveness of any proposed countermeasure. A draw back of estimating this reduction is that, traffic accidents involve; rare occurrence, under-reporting, unreliability, and difficult observation. This paper aims at estimating the effectiveness of countermeasures using traffic conflict technique (T.C.T) as alternative.
This paper involves a study of the traffic operations and safety analysis for a sample of three legs signalized intersections in Baghdad City. Traffic and conflict data are collected through observation of the selected sites. Regression analyses are performed to relate hourly traffic conflict and average stopped delay. Some countermeasures of traffic control and geometric design are adopted. Analysis of traffic operation before and after countermeasure is implemented using HCS software.
A developed statistical model indicates that 92.5 % of variation in hourly traffic conflict can be predicted significantly by average stopped delay. A countermeasure can be evaluated due to before and after average stopped delay based on HCS output and accordingly the involved conflicts based on the developed statistical model. The results show that, more than 35 % of potential conflicts can be reduced due to countermeasures and the highest reduction (62.6 %) is introduced due to increase of lane width. This paper maximizes the usefulness of T.C.T as a tool to predict the effectiveness of any proposed countermeasure before its implementation.

Studying of immunoglobulins ,C3 , C4 and IL- 8 concentrations in serum smokers and nonsmokers

Frial Gemeel Abd

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 16-19

The present study was included fifty healthy person (smokers and nonsmokers ).Sera were collected from them .IgA ,IgM ,IgG , complement 3 (C3),and complement4 (C4) concentrations were studied by using single radial immune diffusion .The results showed that IgA and IgG were decreased in smokers in comparison with non smoker while IgM ,C3 and C4 were increased in smokers . Interleukin IL-8 concentration was measured by using ELISA and found that Its concentration was increased in smokers .We found that cigarette smoking has affect on immunity in different forms .Some parameters were increased and other decreased in the same social individuals .

Implementation Modified Counters using Fredkin & Feynman Logic Gates

Hawrra H.Abbas Al-Rubiae

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 20-28

In recent years, reversible logic has emerged as a promising computing paradigm having application in low power CMOS, quantum computing, nanotechnology, and optical computing. The classical set of gates such as AND, OR, and EXOR are not reversible In this paper, different type of counters designed using reversible Fredkin and Feynman gates(tested using electronic workbench v5.12)It is demonstrated that the counter architectures designed using the proposed gate are much better and optimized, compared to their existing counterparts in literature; in terms of number of reversible gates and garbage outputs. Thus, this paper provides the initial threshold to building of more complex system which can execute more complicated operations using reversible logic.

Synthesis 2-AlkylCyclohexanones by Free- Radical Addition of Cyclohexanone to Olefines

Saadon abdulla; M.K. Mamedov; Mouhannad M.AL-Hachamii; Mahmood J.Humady; Faris H.Mohammad

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 41-46

Free -radical addition of cyclohexanone to several alkenes studied in the presence of ammonium persulfate as initiator (In.) and as a result synthesized 2-alkylcyclohexanones that can be used as a source component of synthetic aromatic substances and use them as starting materials to produce various organic compounds.

A Modified Method for Calculating Reliability Allocation in Series – Parallel Systems

Zahir Abdul Haddi Hassan

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 72-74

In order to improve system reliability, designers may introduce a system of different technologies in parallel. When each technology is composed of components in series, the architecture belongs to the series-parallel systems. This type of system has not been studied as much as the parallel-series ones. There exists no method dedicated to the reliability allocation in series-parallel systems with different technologies. We propose in this paper a study of this reliability allocation problem.

GENTIC ALGORITHM FOR HARMONICS ELIMINATION

Riyadh M. Naife

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 75-85

One of the most important problems of power inverter is finding the desired harmonic frequency for representing the transmitted signal with low power consuming, so, to eliminate specific order harmonics, the switching angles must be calculated. There are many methods or techniques used to find optimum switching angles. In this research a new method is used which is a genetic algorithm (GA). GA used to find optimum switching angles which give a certain amplitude waveform with minimum harmonics frequency.

A Hybrid Compression Algorithm by Using Shannon-Fano Coding and Oring Bits

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 86-90

Text compression plays an important role and it is an essential object to decrease storage size and increase the speed of data transmission through commmunication channels. This reseach aims to combine two compression methods in one data compression system. The first algorithm is Shannon-fano coding that is a stastical compression method for creating the code lengths of a integer-length prefix code, the second method is Oring Bits that deals with data streams of 0 and 1.

Development of a Computer Program for Rigid Pavement Slab Thickness Design

Mohammed Abbas Hasan Al-Jumaily; Firas Hasan Alwan Asad

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 91-105

This paper focused on building a VBasic computer program for Concrete Pavement thickness Design coded as (CONPVD-93). This thickness design utility solves the 1993 AASHTO Guide basic design equation for rigid pavements. It also supplies some basic information on variable descriptions, typical values and equation precautions. CONPVD present both a direct and detailed thickness design process .In detailed mode the step- by- step calculations can be seen in CONPVD desing process.Three options for calculating the predicted ESAL applications namely direct,axle load equivalency facter ALEF-based ,and truck factor TF- based calculations, were presented.To account the composite K- modulus for the presence of rigid footing, a new model has been developed in this study. Seasonal effect was adopted in computing the effective modulus of subgrade reactions. The effect of different values for proposed slab thickness on the final results has been thoroughly studied also. CONPVD has proven very useful as an effective educational tool as well as a powerful design tool.

Photocatalytic Degradation of Salicylic Acid over Naked and Riboflavin Sensitized Zinc Oxide

Abbas A .Drea; Abbas J.Attia; Salih H.Kahdum; Ahmed A.Saadoon

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 106-112

Photocatalytic degradation of salicylic acid over suspended zinc oxide ,and its sensitized with riboflavin has been done in this work . Irradiation of reaction mixture carried out by sunlight ,and ultraviolet light from mercury vapor lamp. the reaction was followed spectrophotometrically by Infrared ,and ultraviolet-Visible spectrophotometer .The remaining quantity of the acid was determined by spectrophotometric method ,by using a suitable calibration curve .The calibration curve was obtained by using a standard solutions of the acid ,the absorbance is measured at 320 nm .the investigated result showed that, sensitized zinc oxide was more active than its naked for in this reaction . under irradiation with sunlight and using RF/ZnO ,The represented result of the reaction was more active according to activation energy equal to 30.88 kJ mol-1 respective than naked ZnO under the same conditions of reaction.

Synthesis and Characterization of Some New Heterocyclic Selenium Compounds on 3, 5-Naphtho–1-Seleoncyclohexane

Hazam; Hanan Abdul galeel AL; Naeem Taki Faily; Ahmed Ali Alwaaly

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 113-117

A new series of heterocyclic derivatives from 3, 5 – naphtho 1- selenocyclohexane have been prepared (i.e.: C12 H10 SeX; X=CL Br, I) and C12H10 SeRX; R=CH3; X=I)
The new compounds were charactrized by elemental analysis, IR, H1NMR and molar conductance. Conductivity measurements of these compounds in DMSO solution indicated that they are behave as week electrolytes

Model optimization of SOA used in ultra-high bit rate OTDM demultiplexer

Raad S. Fyath; Ibrahim A.Murdas

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 133-146

The ultrafast femtosecond gain and phase dynamics of semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) are investigated in this work. Acomprehensive model is developed which takes in to account interband transition, intraband transition SHB, CH, TPA, polarization state of control pulse and data . the model is used to extract the femotosecond switching dynamics of the SOA under different operating condition such as injection current ,control pulse power ,control pulse polarization ,SOA length and TPA.

Determination of Left Ventricular Mass by Echocardiography in Normotensive Type 2 Diabetic Patients

Mohammad Abid Abdul-Hussein; Hussain S. Al-Janabi; Haydar Jawad Kadhum

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 161-168

Background: left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is often present in type 2 diabetics even in the absence of cardiovascular disease. Aim of study: to explore the presence of LVH in normotensive diabetic type 2 patients.Patients and method: twenty patients with type 2 DM (13 males and 7 females) recruited from the diabetic clinic in Assadir teaching hospital during six months period. All patients were normotensive type 2 diabetics. Twenty normotensive non-diabetic subjects were recruited as control. Echocardiography was performed to evaluate the LV mass (LVM) and LV mass index (LVMI) for each patient. Results: the study revealed a significantly high incidence of LVH in normotensive diabetics than the normal control subjects (p value <0.05). Four patients were found to have LVH (20%). Incidence of LVH was more common in females (28.5%) than in males (15%), but the difference was not statistically significant (p value >0.05). Older age group of patients is correlated significantly with LVH (p value <0.05). LVH didn’t significantly correlate with duration of diabetes and fasting plasma glucose (p value >0.05).Conclusions: LVH can be seen in the Type 2 DM patients even in the absence of hypertension. These patients have a higher LVMI than the normal control subjects.

An investigation of atmospheric turbidity of sixteen Iraq location

Sahib Nama Abdul-Wahid; Methaq Mutter AL-Sultany; Hassan Abas Godu; Lena Mohamed Hatem

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 118-121

Using sunshine duration, extraterrestal radiation and globle radiation as in put of some mathematical models, The average daily diffused solar radiation and atmospheric turbidity in various (16) placed around of Iraq are estimated by using a thirty years solar radiation data the period from ( 1961 – 1991 ).The diffused solar radiation have a maximum values are appeared in the summer season ( April, may, Jun, July and August) were found to range from( 5 - 7.5 MJ. M-2 day-1 ) while the minimum values in the other months. The turbidity values were found to range from 0.233 to 0.313 and the overall average ( ) was 0.269. The minimum value in Al- Hai 0-233 and the maximum value was 0.313 in Zakho. The low values of ( ) indicate that the Iraqi sky has relatively small disturbance and pollutant in the atmosphere. The correlation between the ( ) and geographical coordination have been shown a weak relation between them.
Key worlds: Atmospheric turbidity, Angstrom coefficient

Synthesis of Some New 1, 3, 4-Oxadiazole Derivatives Containing Azo Group from 5-[4-(p- Methoxyphenyl)azophenyl]- 2-thiol- 1, 3, 4 – oxadiozole

Zaid H.Abood; Rahman T. Haiwal; Sawsan K.Abbas; Sajid M.Radhi; Rabab K.Hameem

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 147-160

In this paper , the synthesis of 1,3,4-Oxadiazole derivatives containing azo group were achieved from 5-[4- ( P-methoxyphenyl ) azo phenyl ]-2- thiol-1,3,4-Oxadiazole [4].Treatment of compound [4] with ethyl 1- chloroacetate in alcoholic potassium hydroxide resulted in the formation of 2-thioester derivative [5] which was then converted to acid hydaizide derivative [6] by the reaction with hydrazine hydrate in ethanol .The reaction of hydrazide with carbon disulfide in alcoholic potassium hydroxide afforded 2 - [5 - (4 -(P - methoxyphenyl ) azophenyl ) -1,3,4 – oxadizol- 2 -yl methylthio ] - 1,3,4 - oxadiazole -5- thiol [7] . the latter was treated with propargyl bromide in basic media to give (5- propynyl)thio derivative [ 8 ] which was then treated with formaldehyde and piperidine to give5-(4-piperidino)butynylthio derivative[9]. Compound [7] was also treated with n-butyl chloride in basic media to give 5 - thioalkyl derivative [ 10 ] which was then oxidized with potassium permanganate in acidic media to give 5-sulfonylalkyl derivative [11]. The structures of the sythesised compounds were confirmed by melting points ,FT-IR spectra as well as elemental microanalysis.

Solid-liquid Extraction of phosphate ion using krypto fix 2.2.1 B polymer

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 1-7

This paper describe the high selectivity of krypto fix 2.2.1 B polymer to extracted phosphate ion from acid ,base and neutral solutions .And study the effect of time ,PH solution and ethanol-water ratio on the selectivity of an extraction of phosphate ion .From acid solution phosphate ion will be extracted by krypto fix 2.2.1 B polymer (PC 2.2.1 ) resin as association complex (H3O+)3LPO4-3 ,with mole ratio 1:1 .The highest molar distribution coefficient and percent of extraction reached to 97% were obtaind at 2.00 M sulfuric acid solution .From neutral solution phosphate ion will be extracted by PC 2.2.1 resin as association complex (M+)3LPO4-3 , with mole ratio 1:1 .The highest molar distribution coefficient and percent of extraction reached to 86% were obtaind at 0.01 M sodium chloride solution .From base solution phosphate ion extracted by PC 2.2.1 resin as association complex (M+)3LPO4-3, with mole ratio 1:1 .The highest molar distribution coefficient and percent of extraction reached to 84% were obtaind at 0.01 M sodium hydroxide solution .The sorption rate of phosphate ion by PC 2.2.1 resin was studied as a function of shaking time ,results obtained revealed that the extraction processes was reached to equilibrium at 20 Min .The effect of ethanol concentration of the aqueous phase for the extraction of phosphate ion by PC 2.2.1 resin has been evaluated .It was found to be that 20% V/V ethanol concentration was the better for its extraction .The thermodynamic factors of extraction were evaluated that the extraction process was endothermic and the process was speontenous .

Study the effect of Thymus vulgaris L.(Labiatae) and Myristica fragrans Hout(Myristicaceae) extract on the growth some isolated Skin pathogenic microorganism

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 8-13

The study showed that the two methods were used for extraction Thymus vulgaris L. leaves and Myristica fragrans Hout seeds aqueous and alcoholic extracts. Biochemical detection showed the contains of tannins, glycosides and oils that the Thymus leaves, with no alkaloids. Whereas, Myristica seeds extract contains essential oils and glycosides,with no alkaloids and tannins. As regards biological test, Both extract, have higher activity on the growth of dermatophytic fungi: Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogens in both concentration (5 ,10) mg/ml
Also revealed the results that alcoholic extract for Thymus and Myristica were more effective than aqueous extract in inhibition effects on the bacteria

Effect of watering with different water salinity and Nerium leaf powder on emergence and early growth of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 27-32

This experiment was conducted at a space of Biology Dept.,Education College, Kufa University, from the period of 28/12/2005 to 18/2/2006 to study the effect of watering with deferent water salinity (River water ; Mixed water , i.e. river water and drainage water at concentrations of Nerium dry leaf powder ( 0.0 ; 2.5 ; 5.0 ; 7.5 and 10.0 g/kg. soil) on emergence percentage and early growth of Wheat .The experiment included sowing Wheat seeds “ cv. Ipa 95 “ on pots with 24 cm. diameter and 12 cm. depth that filled with 3 kg. of Silty-Clay soil . Emergence percentage was measured after 10 days of sowing , and at 50 days from sowing growth parameters (plant height , leaf number , root length and its branches and plant dry weight) were measured . Completely Randomized Design (CRD) was used as factorial experiment with three replicates , Duncan’s Multiple Rang Test (DMRT) was also used to compare means at probably of 5%.Results showed that , watering with river water resulted in a significant increase in the measured growth parameters compared to mixed or deranged water . Nerium dry leaf powder of 2.5 g mixed with 1 kg . of soil had a significant effect on the measured growth parameters .On the other hand , the best values for the measured growth parameters , were obtained from the interaction between plants that watered with river water and the addition of Nerium dry leaf powder of 2.5 g/kg soil which produced 88.0% , 13.6 cm. , 7.0 leaf , 15.1 cm , 6.37 root and 987.3 mg/plant for emergence percentage , plant height , leaf numder , root length , root branch and plant dry weight , respectively , compared to 36.0 % , 7.8 cm. , 3.9 leaf , 5.17 cm. , 4.07 root branches and 372.0 mg/plant . Also , the use of mixed water with 2.5 g/kg soil of Nerium dry leaf powder on seedling emergence which was 86.0% .

Effect of age and parity as adjustment factors on estimation of variance components for some fertility traits in Holstein by using REML , ML , MIVQUE and TYPE1

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 44-49

A total of 13817 records of calving interval and 13698 records of days open belonged to 4033 Holstein cows maintained at Nasr Dairy Cattle Station over period from 1990 to 2003 were analysed . The aim of the research is to make a comparsion between age and parity as adjusted factors for fertility ( calving interval and days open )and to study the effect of them on estimation of heritability for the fertility. General Linear Model (GLM) within the SAS program 2001 was used for comparison between the effect of age and parity on fertility after adjusting for each of them in addition to other fixed effects ( season , year of birth and sex of calf ) . Component of variance for the random effects in the employed mixed model were estimated by fourth methods REML , ML , MIVQUE , TYPE1 .The effect of age was high significant ( P < 0.01 ) on fertility whereas the effect of parity was significant ( P < 0.05 ) .
All heritabilities estimated for fertility after adjusting for age using REML,ML.MIVQUE and TYPE1 were low ,being 0.064 , 0.058, 0.029 and 0.057 for calving interval and being 0.085 , 0.078 , 0.032 and 0.067 for days open , whereas the corresponding estimates of heritability of calving interval after adjusting for parity being 0.078 , 0.071 , 0.033 and 0.075 , and the estimates of heritability for days open were 0.102 , 0.095 , 0.037 and 0.083 respectively.

Cationic Selectivity in Soils from Najaf and Dywinya provinces

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 50-56

This study was carried out on two soils (Najaf, dywinya) provinces to assess soil selectivity for monovalent cation (Na) than divalent cation (Ca+Mg) by determining of (kg) Gapon cofficient result from Gapon equationSoils treated by three electrolyte solutions with concentration (25, 75, 125) mmole.c.L-1 as (Na : Ca+Mg) system. Their included mixture of (NaCl : CaCl2+MgCl2) salts with these proportions of (Na: Ca+Mg) were (0:5, 1:4, 2:3, 3:2, 4:1, 5:0) respectively. the difference selectivity of these soil related with decrease clay mineral ratio which tend to absorpe (Ca+Mg) than (Na) in D location. while increase salinity degree (ECe) in N location . KG coefficients reached on (0.016, 0.019) mmole.c.L-0.5 respectively. withal the values of correlation factor was revealing no effect on the linear relation ESR,SAR their were (r = 0.98,r = 0.96, r = 0.98, r = 0.88, r = 0.93, r = 0.85) at mentioned concentrations of locations D, N, respectively.

Effect of some plant extracts and sodium azide on wheat crop protection from the infection by Rhizoctonia solani

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 57-68

This study was carried out to investigate the effect of water extracts of Cuminum cyminum L. , Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Datura metel Linn and Datura innoxia Mill on radial growth of R. solani with protection of seed wheat from infection and effect of sodium azide on emergence and seedling growth of wheat during winter season 2007-2008.The results showed that water extracts of Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. at concentration 25% was the most effective in inhibiting of the radial growth 100% of the R.solani .The highest percentage of emergence were from soil polluted with R.solani and seeds soaked in D. innoxia Mill extract and irrigated with Cuminum cyminum L. and each of two extract (50 and 75 %) and which were yield 100 % percentage of seed emergence .While Hibiscus sahdariffa L. water extract 20% in inoculated soil was the highest in percentage of seed emergence and wet wight of seedling (100% and 0.17 gm)respectively . soaked of seed in sodium azide 3mM and planted in soil inoculated by R.solans were the high parentage of seed emergence (85.80) % the period of socked seed (24) hours with concentration of sodium azide in soil inoculated by R.solani and concentration of sodium azide 1.5mM with period (24) hours in sterilized soil were the high in wet Wight (0.18) gm and this don't different significantly about socked in sodium azide 1.5 mM with (24)hours and planting in soil inoculated which gave (0.17)gm.

Effect of the digestive enzyme roxazyme added to local sunflower meal on the productive performance of broiler male parents (Fabrow)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 69-72

The digestive enzyme roxazyme was added to local sunflower meal in order to improve the meal nutritive value for the broiler male parents (Fabrow) and enhance their productive performance. Five hundred male chicks were tested. They were randomly distributed on five nutritional treatments; each treatment was consisting of four replication (25 chicks / replication). All the chicks were fed, from one day to eight – week – ages, on two types of feed: a control feed devoiding of sunflower meal and feed containing a constant percentage (18%) of sunflower meal. The latter was divided into four subdivisions based on the amounts of the enzyme added to the sunflower meal. These four amounts were 0, 100, 150, and 200 grams of enzyme ton of feed. The statistical analysis (P<0.01) showed that the control treatment had significantly surpassed all other treatments concerning all productive performance characters including body weight, gain weight, feed consumption, and feed conversion coefficients. However, the addition for the digestive enzyme to the sunflower meal did improve the above mentioned characters ( depending upon the amount added ) compared with the meal devoiding of the enzyme although all these treatment dropped significantly behind the control treatment.

Prelimenry study about the insecticides efficiency in controlling Autumn generation of Date Palm Dubas bug Ommatissus binotatus De Bergevin (Homoptera: Trobiduchidae)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 73-78

This study was carried in Date Palm orchard at Snieja / Diyala,80 KM North- East of Baghdad. Using new insecticides{Phosalone[Zolone300ULV],Deltamethrin[Decis12.5 ULV], pyridaphenthion [Ofunack25ULV], phenthoat [Phenthold 92ulv] and Etofenprox [Trebon 7.5ULV]}. USING Agricultural helicopter,type Mi-2in spraying by Micronair AU 5000 atomizerwith average 2L/Ha. the treatments distributed according to Randomized Complete Design [CRD] in addition to control treatment [water only], treatment area [12Ha]. infestation severity has been calculated one day before application and 1,3,5,7 & 10 day after spraying by taking samples from Date Palm leaflets or 150 leaflet / treatment. Killing percentage has been calculated according to Henderson - Telton equation. Result showed that all insecticides had high efficiency but Etofenprox was the best, the killing percentage was 94.72 & 91.76 in the 1st & 2nd year respectively. The application of spraying in autumn followed by spring generation caused high mortality, the average number of population density was reached to 1.03 insect / leaflet compared with 6.42 insect / leaflet in spring generation only.

Study in level of the immunoglobulins IgG, IgM and lymphocytes transformation level by using PHA, ConA in the patients of chronic lymphocytes Leukemia

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 79-86

This study included measured specific humoral immune response in the patients of chronic lymphocytes Leukemia by Study in level of the immunoglobulins IgG before treatment stage , during treatment stage and the control groupe .it was found significant decrease in the immunoglobulins levels comparision with control groups . Study of the immunoglobulins IgM level found significant decrease before treatment stage , during treatment stage comparision with control groups. this study included measured level of cellular immune response and lymphocytes transformation before treatment stage , during treatment stage and the control groupe by using Phytohaemagglutinin in three concentrations PHA=(100,150,250) and Concanavalin A The analysis appeared significant decrease in the cellular immune response comparision with control groups.

Epidemiological study of hydatid disease in patients underwent Surgical treatment in Al – Hussain – General Hospital / Karbala

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 87-93

Hydatide disease or hydatidosis is a zoonotic infection of humans , which is widely spreed in world . The disease recorded to be importans public health and epidemic problem that play a serious role on human and animal health . The present study was conducted to determine the incidence of this infection in Karbala governent during the period 2004-2007 . 157 patients who underwent hydatid cyst surgeries in Al – Hussain hospital were enrolled in this study . Demographic information included ( age , sex , occupation , residence ,and anatomical site of infection ) . The results showed that 68.78 % of cases were female while 31.21 % were male . Liver was the most commonly infected organ with prevalance of 68.15 % .The percentage of urban residents 72.38 % in compare with 27.38 % for rural residents . According to occupation , howsewives , were the hieghst prevalance 52.68 % .

Effect of some anti microorganisms in controlling tomato seed rot and seedling damping – off diseases caused by the fungi Rhizoctonia solani (Kühn) , Pythium aphanidermatum (Fitz) Edson , and Fusarium solani ( Marti )

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 94-104

The study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of the fungi Tricoderma harzianum and Chaetomium elatum and the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescence for controlling tomato seed decay and seedling damping – off diseases caused by the pathogenic fungi Rhizoctonia solani , Pythium aphanidermatum , and Fusarium solani .The results showed that the antagonistic fungi and bacterium and their infiltration had remarkable effect for reducing the diameters of radial growth of the pathogenic fungi . The bacterium P. fluorescence was the most significantly effective agent in this regard on the growth diameter reached 2.87 , 2.34 and 2.21 cm of R. solani P. aphanidermatum , and F. solani , respectively compared with 9.00 , 8.87 , 7.23 cm in the control treatment . The results also showed that the antagonistic fungi had no effect on the seed germination percentage inside the Petri-dish . There was no significant difference between the number of germinated seeds in both the antagonistic fungi and bacterium treatment with control treatment . On the other hand , the pathogenic fungi caused a remarkable reduction in seed germination rates to reach 3.11, 8.23 and 8.87 seeds in the above mentioned treatments , respectively . Moreover , antagonistic fungi played an important role in protecting seeds against fungal infection . All the integrated treatments had significant effect for increasing seed germination percentage and decreasing the percentages off seed rot , seedling death , and dry weight of root and shoot system compared with those of the pathogenic fungi treatment . The most effective treatment in this regard was P. fluorescence + F. solani treatment , for it caused 74.45 %increase of seed germination and 25.55 % reduction in the number of rotten seeds .

ٍStudy On Electrical Properties of ZnS thin Film

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 105-109

Zinc Sulfide (ZnS) thin film was prepared Vacuum Evaporation technique . Glass substrates with (1 * 2.6 * 7.6) cm were used. The substrate temperature was 300°C and seems to be One of the more important parameters affecting the physical properties of the semiconductor. Electrical properties such as conductivity , resistivety are measured. Then the effect of Pliable on the conductivity is study. Furthermore, By used relation between Voltage and Current in Hall – effect the type transportations Charge is shown.

Cytoplasmic inheritance and maternal effect in degree of some genetic resistance of the reproductive disease in Holstein cattle

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 132-136

At the Nasr Dairy Cattle Station , United Company for Animal Resources L.td. (50 Km South of Baghdad ), over period from 2005 to 2007, 750 Holstein cow were randomly picked out from the herd .The aim of this study was to investigate the role of cytoplasmic inheritance ,maternal effect of the genetic resistance of reproductive disease of mastitis (M1) , metritis (M2) and retained placenta (R), and to estimate of heritability by various methods. The SAS program was used for statistical analysis. Components of variance for the random effects in the employed mixed model was estimated by using the Restricted Maximum Likelihood procedure(REML). The heritability of the M1 , M2 and R were 0.29, 0.35 and 0.26 respectively by using heritability estimate by half-sib whereas decreased to o.23, 0.24 and 0.19 respectively at the estimate by half-sib with adjusted of maternal effects, while these estimates were 0.34 , 0.36, 0.36 respectively at the estimate by regression (daughter dam). The variance of maternal effect in M1, M2 and R were 412.66, 6565.17, and 319.33 respectively , but the variance of cytoplasmic were 22.54, 9.886 and 2.82 respectively.

Effect of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Artemisia herb – alba plant on the phagocytosis

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 137-141

This study aims to evaluate effects of one of the medical plants in its natural form which is called Artemisia herb – alba and its activity of phagocytes which has two kinds ( monocytes) and ( polymorph nuclear ) PMN by experiment test namely( phagocytosis). A test has been made of two types of extracts of this plant ( water and ethanol extract) for the plant part (leaves) . and there are rate of extract record as 22 % for the water extract of the leaves,but ethanol extracts record 17%. The results showed that when addition different concentrations from extracts were not increase percentage of phagocyte number compared with control sample as beginning from concentrated 62.5 to 1000 µg / ml . The water extract was more efficient in increasing the phagocytosis .

THE EFFECT OF USING DATE PITS AFTER TREATEMENT WITH MIXED ENZYME IN PERFORMANCE OF ROSE BROILER CHICKENS

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 142-148

This study was conducted at the Technical Institute / Al-Musaib (50 km south of Baghdad) during 20 July 2007 to the 22 September 2008 , 240 Rose chickens were analyzed statistically. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of date pits after treatment with β- klocaties or mixed enzyme in performance of Rose broilers chickens (weight gain , feed intake , feed conversion ratio , some carcass traits and economic efficiency) .The completely randomized design (CRD) within the SAS program was used to study the effects of treatment in/ productional and blood traits.The treatment effect on body weight and feed intake were non –significant at 28 , 56 and 70 day from age. Non-significant effect of treatment in feed concemption rate (FCR) through 28 and 56 day from age , wheares significant (P<0.05) effect in FCR at 70 day from age, where the highest rate of FCR was recorded for the treatment at use of 15% date pits with mixed enzyme (2.31 kg feed intake / kg weight gain).While the difference treatment had no significant on dressing percentage. Highly significant (P<0.01) effect of treatment on mortality rate, the lest mortality rate (2 %) recorded to treatment that fed of 15% date pits with β- klocaties enzyme, where the highest mortality rate (6.5%) at the contol treatment. The pointer of economic at 56 day from age according to body weight and feed intake for treatment in this study were 3300 , 3605 , 3768 and 3963 dinar respectively (P<0.01). The calicum concentration, paket cell volum (PCV) and glucose had no significant with difference treatment, while the highly significant effect of treatment in cholistrol in blood

The use of dairy cows manure in fattining Awaasi lambs

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 156-160

Lambing in Iraq usually being during fall season. Male lambs usually sent to slaughter house after weaning due to high prices of concentrates. Therefore it is the objective of this study to find a low cost non—conventional feed staff to be used for fattening lambs to increase meat production and consequently increase return of the owners. Four different rations were used in this experiment.Ration(1) as a control ' ration(2) contained 1% urea ' ration (3) contained 11.5% of dairy cows manure treated with urea and formaldehyde and ration (4) contained 10% untreated dairy cows manure. All rations were isocaloric—isoprotein and all treatments were assigned at random to 24 male Awassi lambs at a rate of 2.25% of live body weight. Results indicated that average daily gain for treatments 1'2'3'and 4 were 146 , 182, 126 ,and 161 gm. Per day respectively.

Effect of different Concentrations of Lead on some Physiological parameters on white rabbits

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 172-178

I have experimented this study at college of Science laboratories / Kufa University from 1/6/2003 to 1/2/2004 . biochemical . That resulted of the white rabbits and the study included the following . 1- Indication action of different concentration for lead in total number of red blood cells and packed cell volume and total chloride . Concentration in blood and the total number to the white blood cells and resulting from this study form decreasing (p < 0.05) in total number of red blood cells and paket cell volume and Hemoglobin concentration and making increasing (p < 0.05) in total number of white red cells and as it seems the statistic analysis indicated increasing period of action of injection (p < 0.05) to lowing the total number of red blood cells and packed cell volume and concentration of Hemoglobin and moral increasing in total number of red blood cells as comparing the all resits with controlling group .2- The Study has been experimented to know the action of different concentration for lead at some blood parameter which include packet cell volume and concentration mean . corpuscular hemoglobin . Erythrocyte dasimention Rate and the study indicates existence of decreasing of (p < 0.05) in every volume of red blood cell and concentration mean . corpuscular hemoglobin and the increasing during the period of ingection having moral action during anter evening the time with concentration . Either for Erythrocyte sedimentation Rate the study indicated occurrence decreasing the time and inter evening between the period and concentration comparing with controlling group .

Effect of Irradiation Time by Electrons on the Hardness for (Tungsten Carbide – 6% Cobalt) Alloys

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 179-185

In this study, The calculation of Frenkel pairs generated as a result of irradiation of (Tungsten Carbide – Cobalt 6%) alloys by 25 keV, The value of radiation dose was (6.25×1018 particle / cm2) and the range of the irradiation time between (60-420) sec .The hypothetical irradiation was made using light charge particle electrons .A special program was written in "Q-Basic" to obtain the theoretical results. A ccording to this study, it was found that the increasing of the irradiation time causes increase of Frenkel pairs (Interstitial – Vacancy) generated by light charged particles. These Frenkel pairs are generating dislocations and deformations in crystal lattice which in turn lead to an increase the hardness of the alloys.

Microbial Contamination of Local and Imported Poultry meat in Al _anbar city

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 186-190

Local markets witness a significant demand for various variety of local and imported poultry meat with almost a complete absence of healthy surveillance.The current work was designed to assess possible microbial contamination of such products and therefore 40 different samples (80 swabs)from skin of poultry meat were collected from local markets and examined using three kinds of media, i.e. nutrient agar, Macconkey agar, and blood agar. To detect bacterial growth and Sabauroud- Dextrose agar medium for fungal growth. The results obtained show clearly that all inverstigated samples were contaminated, mainly with Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas and E. coli. Positive growth was also deducted in both nutrient and Macconkey agar at 37 C also in blood agar at 5ْ C for 24-48 hr. However, this study shows another sort of contamination to be due to several fungi such as, Aspergillus Penicillium, and Mucor.

Epidemiology of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Karbala Governorate center and some villages and cities 2004-2005

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 191-195

This study aimed to compare between rates of respiratory tuberculosis infections in different regions of Karbala Governorate (Karbala center, Al-Hindiya, Al-Husseiniya and Ein El-Tamur) in both males and females from the period of December 2004 to March 2005. Ziel-Neelsen stain method used as one of acid-fast staining methods.Results showed that the rate of infection in Karbala center was 9.2% (7.2% males and 1.9% females) while in Hindiya was 18.7% (males only), in Husseiniya the rate was 23.8% (14.2% males and 9.5% females), and there was no infection reported in Ein El-Tamur.

The Reliability of Bayes Estimators for the Partial Mixture samples of the Exponential Family

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 203-209

The object of this paper is find formula to estimate the reliability of mixture exponential distributions, for two sub populations. It is used Bayesian estimate method for failure times, in two cases of sub population. In one case it is possible to assign each unit to the appropriate sub population; while in the other case information is not available

Immunological Study of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in Al-Diwanyia City

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 210-216

This research aimed to determine some humeral immune aspects in infected people with toxoplasmosis. Total of 56 sample as 38 sample of infected women and 18 healthy controls their ages ranged between 20-39 years old. Results showed a significant elevation (P<0.05) in IgG levels in patients group 112.4 ± 91.87 mg/dl in comparison to control group 850.99 ± 75.78 mg/dl. Also results showed a significant reduction (P<0.05) in IgM levels in the patients group 103.9± 8.31 mg/dl comparison to control group 412.95±112.4 mg/dl. IgA levels were non significantly elevated 197.29 ±17.3 mg/dl comparison to control group 149.2 ±30.22 mg/dl . C3 levels were also non significantly elevated 135.38±11.29 mg/dl in comparison to control group 107.57±16.33mg/dl. Also C4 levels were also non significantly elevated 32.53 ±2.61mg/dl in comparison to control group which was 23. 29± 2.42 mg/dl. The infection with this parasite induce the antibody formation as an immune response which affect the parasite during the short period in which the parasite become out side the cells, then die by the specific antibodies when bide to the complement that archive the level of the immune response in patients determine the parasite pathogenesis.