ISSN: 1813-0410

Volume 4, Issue 4

Volume 4, Issue 4, Autumn 2008, Page 1-371

Reasons of the Students of Ajloun University College Abstaining from Doing Sport Activities

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 105-121

The aim of this research is to know the reasons of the students of Ajloun University College abstaining from doing sport activities, and the research objective was achieved through the answers of the following questions: what are the reasons of the students of Ajloun University College abstaining from doing sport activities? And are there any statistical significance at the statistical level (alpha(α)=0.05) for the reasons of the students of Ajloun University College abstaining from doing sport activities according to the variables (study type, place of residence, monthly income)? to answer the research questions the researcher formulated a measurement tool (questionnaire) that was made up of(56) item to know the obstacles that faces the students and keep them from doing sport activities, the questionnaire was divided into(6) domains which are: the body and health obstacles domain which included(7) items, the financial obstacles domain which included(9) items, the psychological obstacles domain which included(11) items, the social obstacles domain which included(13) items, the administrative obstacles domain which included(9) items and the abilities obstacles domain which included(7) items, was distributed on the sample study individuals randomly. The sample consisted of (200) female students of Ajloun University College students. After the data was collected and analyzed, results showed that the social reasons are considered the most important reasons that keeps the students of the Ajloun University College from doing sport activities. Then comes psychological obstacles and the weakness in the physical fitness for the female students which does not help them to bear the exercise burden. The administrative obstacles are represented in not to design or plan long term programs related to physical education for girls, and that there is no statistical significance at the significance level of(α=0.05) for the reasons of the students of Ajloun University College abstaining from doing sport activities according to the variables( study type, place of residence, monthly income).

Constructing The Criteria of Analyzing Curriculum in Books of Chemistry for High School in Iraq in The Light of Objective

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 265-274

This paper aims at constructing criteria for analyzing chemistry books for high school in Iraq. To achieve the aim of this paper, the researchers prepare a criterion which is tri classification depending upon Blom in different aspects (epistemological, skillful, and emotional). The paper is limited to books of chemistry for high school in Iraq and their aims. Depending upon the framework of the paper, the criterion has been constructed in its primary form. The reliability of this group of experts and specialist and make group of procedures reaching the criterion in its final form. In order to ensure its stability, the criterion has been used to analyze a sample of curriculum. By using (Mua’amil Al-Ittifaq) with other analysts, the stability is accepted. Each one of these aspects consists of many parts and each part consists of many items. The items of this academic epistemological is the first step in comparison to other aspects like skillful and emotional. This agrees with the objectives of scientific education. Finally, the researchers arrive at many conclusions and recommend many suggestions.

Kalila and Dimna: Its style and Rhetoric

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 324-329

The present study is an attempt to analyze the stylistic aspects of Kalila and Dimna , the oldest prose work that presented social reform in a narrative from. These aspects gave that book its characteristic comic effect, wit and universality which made it appeal to a large reading public. The study investigate the writer's excellent way of molding the books original themes, stories, and images in a peculiar Arabic from which makes readers forget the fact that it is a translated text. The study should that the writer employed a language which is direct, transparent and dramatized his moral lesson through images, metaphors, and similes instead of vulgar dogmatic preaching.



journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 1-5

This study comprises all cases of deliberate self-harm who were admitted to Al-Yarmouk teaching hospital in Baghdad between 1st January 2000 and 31st December 2001.
A total of 40 cases were identified of whom 2 were admitted to the surgical wards and the rest to the medical department.
Deliberate self-harm accounted for 0.47% of all medical admissions during the period of our study . This low frequency could be attributed to the influence of Islamic teachings. The majority of subjects were single below age of 30 years (95%). With most below the age of 20 (52.5%) female to male ratio was 4:1 . Interpersonal conflicts leading to quarrels precipitated the act in over two-thirds (72.5%) of the episode.
Drug over dosage was involved in 80% of the cases. Psychotropic , analgesics and miscellaneous drugs were used almost equally . Reactive depression was the commonest diagnosis (60%).
Limited sales of analgesics discard of unused medications and discerte prescription of psychotropics particularly to young females are among recommended preventive measures.

Spectrophotometric determination of adrenaline in pharmaceutical preparations using Prussian blue reaction

Mohammed Jassim Hamzah; Abdul Barry Mahdi Mahood; Salam Ahmed Abid

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 9-14

A simple ,sensitive and accurate spectrophotomeric method for the determination of adrenaline in pharmaceutical dosage forms has been developed. The method is based on the reaction of adrenaline with Fe+3 ion to produce Fe+2 which is upon further reaction with Potassium hexacynoferrate(III) to produce a Prussian blue color product that has a maximum absorption at λmax=700nm.A graph of absorbance versus concentration shows that beer law is obeyed over the range 0.1-2.0 p.p.m with a molar absorpitivity of ( 7.13x104 ,a sandall sensitivity of( 2.56x10-6 µ ,correlation coefficient of 0.9990 , a relative standard deviation of ( 0.12-1.36%) and detection limit of 0.017µ depending on the concentration. The optimum conditions for full color development are described and the proposed method was applied satisfactorily to pharmaceutical preparations containing adrenaline.

A study of cardio- protective properties of omega-3 fatty acids after occurrence of acute myocardial ischemia in patients admitted to Al- Hussein Hospital in Karbala

Zainab Nazar Jawad; Kamal A. R. Al- Yasiry

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 15-20

Acute myocardial ischemia is one of the most common general health problem facing human being nowadays. In this study, we aimed to determine if the omeg-3 fatty acid have a significant cardio- protective effect against myocardial ischemia or not in many patient who were admitted to Al- Hussein Hospital in Karbala. It was found that omega-3 has the ability to reduce cardiac troponin, cardiac creatin kinase, triglyceride and VLDL very significantly at p < 0.05. A sixty males with average age between 55-65 years old were divided into 2 groups equally. The first group was given n -3 fatty acid 1000 mg twice daily and the 2nd group was control group. There were significant reduction of all the parameters of the study ( troponin reduced from 100% to 15%, creatine kinase reduced from 66 UL to 41 UL, VLDL reduced from 60 mgdL to 5 mgdL and triglyceride reduced from 96 mgdL to 50 mgdL) during the 30 days of the study. These results suggested that this agent had a significant cardio-protective properties against acute cardiac attack.

Effect of Sea Algae Extract (AL-Garen) and Growth Medium on Dianthus Flower Production Dianthus caryophyllus L.

H.E. Dulaymy; J.A. Abbass; H.M. AL-Bakka

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 21-26

The experiment was conducted at Kufa Technical Institute in AL-Najaf governorate during the growing season of 2003-2004. The purpose of the experiment was to find out the effect of three growth mediums and three levels of sea algae extract (Al-Garen) which used as spray on characteristics of flowering growth such as length and diameter of pedicel and total percentage of chlorophyll content in leaves. Flowers traits such as flower diameter, petals number and flowering date of Dianthus plants were also investigated.
The three growth medium which used in the experiment were:
1- A mixture of 2 parts of loam : 1 part of peat-moss.
2- A mixture of 3 parts of loam : 1 part of peat-moss.
3- A mixture of 4 parts of loam : 1 part of peat-moss.
The three concentrations of sea algae extract (Al-Garen) which had been sprayed at leaves were 0, 1 and 2 ml/L of water. Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications was used in a factorial arrangement with two factors. Growth medium was the first factor with three levels. The second factor was the concentration of algae extract with three levels. Analysis of variance was performed and Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) was used to compare treatment means at probability level of 0.05.H.E. Dulaymy, J.A. Abbass and H.M. Al-Bakka. Dept. of Horticulture, University of Kufa, Iraq. This study is part of master thesis submitted by the senior author as partial fulfillment for MS degree.* Corresponding author.Results revealed that plants grown in a growth medium of 2 parts of loam:1 part of peatmoss or sprayed by (2 ml/L of water) of Al-Garen concentration had significant improvement in flower growth and flower characteristics compared to other treatments. For example, plants grown in growth medium of 2 parts of loam:1 part of peatmoss or sprayed by a (2 ml/L of water) of Al-Garen concentration had flower diameter of 5.21 and petal number of 31.08 and 28.41 compared with those raised in growth medium of 4 parts of loam:1 part of peatmoss or those plant which were not sprayed with Al-Garen, which produced the lowest flower diameter (4.17 cm and 3.61 cm) and the lowest number of petals (22.29 and 24.79), respectively.It was also found that the interaction of growth medium that consisted of (2 parts of loam:1 part of peatmoss) and sprayed with Al-Garen concentration of (2 ml/l of water) increased flowering yield and flower traits significantly for carnation (stem length, total chlorophyll in leaves, flower diameter and petals number).

Surgical Lymph Node Biopsy in the Diagnosis of Tuberculous Lymphadenopathy

Ali Hussain Abd Sweilim; Riyadh Mustafa Murtadha

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 27-32

Background: Lymphadenopathy is a common problem in medical practice. Tuberculous lymphadenitis is among the commonest causes of lymphadenopathy in the developing world.
Objectives: To describe the clinical presentations and the investigations for the diagnosis of lymphadenopathy. To study cases of tuberculous lymphadenitis with a view to determining the value of clinical and investigative diagnostic indices.
Materials & Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted to describe the clinical presentations and the pathological diagnoses resulting from (76) surgical lymph node biopsies in patients (44 male, 32 female) with enlarged lymph nodes admitted to Al-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital in Baghdad (during the period from 1st Jan. 2001 to 31st Dec. 2002).
Results: 30 patients out of 76 (39.4%) had Tuberculous Lymphadenitis, while 20 patients (26.3%) had Non-specific lymphadenitis, 12 patients (15.8%) had Lymphoma, 10 patients (13.1%) had Neoplastic metastases, and the rest 4 (5.4%) had other diagnoses like brucellosis & toxoplasmosis.
The epidemiological, clinical, and investigative results of 30 patients with tuberculous lymphadenopathy were analyzed. While cervical lymphadenopathy predominated (60%), the classical clinical features of tuburculous infection both local and general were frequently absent. Almost only third of the cases (33.33%) had a normal ESR (< 20mm/hr) and only (30%) had lymphocytosis. A clinical diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenopathy was accordingly made in only (18) patients (60%).
Conclusion: This study emphasizes the need of a high index of diagnostic suspicion of tuberculosis when confronted with peripheral lymphadenopathy in developing countries, and the need of surgical LN biopsy in confirming the diagnosis.

Determination of some chemical compounds and the effect of oil extract from orange peel on some pathogens

Narjis Hadi Mansoor Al-Saadi; Najwa Shihab Ahmad; eed; Shaima Ebraheem Sa

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 33-39

This research involves detection of the chemical constituents of orange peel; it contains alkaloids, saponins, terpenes, resins, flavonoids, phenols, tannins, and sugars but not contains coumarins and steroids. In addition sugar, proteins, moisture and ash were determined and their percentage were (23.8%, 4%, 11.86%, 5.34%) respectively. Oil of orange peels was extracted and its percentage was 13.12% then its anti-microbial activity was tested against micropathogen that include Aeromonas hydrophila, Klebsiella pneumonia, Psdumonas aeruginosa, Ecsherichia coli, Psudomonas fluorescenes, Proteus spp. Enterococcus feacalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Candidia albicans and Listeria spp. using agar diffusion wells. Different concentrations of oil were prepared (12.5, 25, 50 and 100,) mg/ml and the diameter of inhibition zone were measured. Oil extract was more effective against Aeromonas hydrophil and Klebsiella pneumonia than other pathogens were tested. In addition some elements were determined such as (Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cu, Cr, Pb, Cd and P). The results demonstrated that orange peels contain these elements at concentrations (125, 88, 13, 1.6, 1.3, 1.2, 0.25, and 0.11) µg/ml. and 0.2% of phosphorus.

The Effect of doping on the optical properties of CdS thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis


journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 40-50

In this search , Cadmium sulphide (CdS) thin films were prepared by the chemical spray pyrolysis technique , films of (CdS) have been prepared as pure and doped by Copper (Cu) with different ratio (2%,4%).The films were deposited on glass slide from aqueous solutions cadmium chloride – CdCl2•2H2O, thiourea - SC(NH2)2 with molar ratio (0.05) at substrate temperature (3000C). The topographic properties of the surface thin films which are prepared by reflective optical microscope. As a consequence, the optical parameters of the films were determined by using spectrometer type (SHEMATZU), The optical properties were studied for range of wave length (300-1100nm).Transmission were (89%-83%), this ratio is depended on thickness and doping ratio of the films, where as transmission proportion reversely with increasing doping .The absorption coefficient is determined and correlated with the photon energy in order to estimate the direct transition energy band gap. Direct band gap values of 2.1 -2.6 eV were obtained.The refractive index and Extinction coefficient is reported on depending on the ratio of doping and was obtained from transmission spectra.From this reason ,the films doping can be useful to prepare CdS photovoltaic (solar cells).

Celiac disease in Karbala

Hassan Ali Al-Saadi; Ali Hussein Abid

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 51-61

Background: Celiac disease is asystemic disease due to immunological reaction of intestinal mucosa and submucosa on exposure to gluten leading to villous atrophy.The clinical statistic refers to increase the magnitude of this problem in Iraq.
Objective: Diagnosis of celiac disease by serological and histological tests in patients clinically suspected and comparison accursy of these tests .
Methods: 161 blood samples out patients were collected in a labeled 5ml tubes. aged ( 2years to 40 years ) were tested by Enzyme Linkined Immuno Sorbant Assay to detect anti-gliadin Immunoglobulin G and Immunoglobulin A,and anti-Tissue transglutaminase Immunoglobulin G and Immunoglobulin A Antibodies, and 161biopsies of same patients with celiac disease were taken from small intestinal histological features were interpreted according to the revised Marsh were carried in Al-Husien Hospital in Karbala,during the period from January 2006 to December2007.
Results: The levels of anti-gliadin immunoglobulins (Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin A) were elevated . The following serum antibody levels were elevated in 32.91 % (53 out of 161) 21.11 %(34 out of 161) respectively , whereas Anti-tissue transglutaminase immunoglobulins (Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin A) were elevated in 6.83 %(11 out of 161),and 27.32 % (44 out of 161) respectively. One handred fourty four (89.44%) patients had biopsy result consistent with celiac disease.
Conclusions: Importance using of histological findings in diagnosis celiac disease and prove its superiority to the serological tests in clinically suspected patients .

Assessment of skin radiation exposure for pediatrics examined by routine X-ray

Hussien Abid Ali Baker; Muthna Hassan Hady; Raa; d Jaleel Ahmed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 62-67

Assessment of radiation exposure during X-ray examination are of great importance in radiation protection field .Pediatrics radiology should be governed with high professionals techniques to minimize radiation hazard on children while they are examined by X-ray. The parameters which involved in this project are ,X-ray tube voltage, X-ray tube current and the distance between the X-ray tube and patient's skin(child).Different radiographic examinations representing different radiographic techniques (tube voltage and current)were recorded reflecting the variety in the radiation exposure value. computer program was used to calculate the entrance skin exposure .The results show that the radiation exposure was still below the value of risk at this time of exposure(ranging between 0.04-0.14 sec.).

Isolation & Identification of aerobic bacteria Causing Infection eyes of newborn babies in in Al-Diwaniya city and its sensitivity to some antibiotics

Aamal Ghazi Mahdi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 68-76

(175)samples were collected from newborn children infected by Ophthalmia neonatorum contacting the Educational Hospital for children and & Delivery in Al Diwaniya city , (149) isolated of bacteria was isolated , the dominance to the gram positive bacteria, it was isolated (134) isolate with percentage(%89.93)included Staphylococcus aureus with percentage(%54.36)and Streptococcus pyogenes with percentage (% 35.57),while the gram negative bacteria with percentage(%10.06 ) at ( 15 )isolate included : Pseudomonas aeroginosa (% 6.71), Neisseria gonorrhoeae ( %1.34 ) , Proteus spp ( % 1.34 ) , Moraxella lacunata ( % 0.67 ) .As for the effect of antibiotics on bacteria it was found the most powerfull antibiotic on Staphylococcus aureus was Cefotaxim with percentage (%81.50) then Erythromycin with percentage (% 61.59) as has been Cefotaxim the most powerfull antibiotic on Streptococcus pyogenes with percentage ( % 83.45 ) then Cephalexin with percentage(%70.27) ,while the lowest effective antibiotic on Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes was Amikacin with percentage(% 2.57) and(%1.20) respectively.

Synthesis and Characterization new 2,5- di (1,3,4- Thiadiazole)derivatives from 2,5- Thiophene Dicarboxylicacid

Ezat H. Zmam

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 77-80

New 2,5-di-(1,3,4-thiadiazole) derivatives of thiophene are prepared .reaction of 2,5-thiophene dicarboxylic acid with excess thionyl chloride formed compound (1),then treatment with hydrazine gives thiophene-2,5-dicarbohydrazine (2).A number of prepared arylisothiocyanate was reacted with compound (2) leads to form thiosemicarbazide derivatives (3),(4) and (5) .The last compounds are addition to Conc.sulfuric acid at 0Co with continues stirring so as to form 2,5-di-(1,3,4-thiadiazole) derivatives (6),(7) and (8) .The course of the reactions as well as the purity of products were monitored by means of T.L.C. Identification of products were achieved by elemental analysis) C.H.N), IR spectroscopy and 1HN.M.R.

Radioactivity level measurement of some cement samples

Basim Abd Al-Hassen Al-Mayahi; Dhia Amin Al Joher; Muthana Hassan Hadi; Raad Jalyl Ahmed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 81-86

The radioactivity level of cement in some selected samples was determined and discussed .Five cement samples were collected from (Gasseem-Saudia Arabia, Medinaa-Saudi Arabia, Kufa-Iraq, Leon Mark-India, Mogaum Yamamh-Saudi Arabia).The activity concentrations of natural radio nuclides as well as that of the fission product were evaluated by gamma ray spectrometry using scintillation detector (NaI (Tl)).The average of rings concentrations in the surveyed cements samples were (217.44-3725.45) BqKg-1, (31.87-387.33) BqKg-1 and (157.28-3145.6) BqKg-1 for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. The activity concentration values of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in Kufa-Iraq sample would produce minimum annual gonadal dose equivalent of (1187μsy-1), and the maximum value of annual gonadal dose equivalent is (12920μsy-1) was noted in Madinaa Saudi Arabia sample.

Effect of effective dose (ED50) of olive oil on heart and liver parameters in normal New-Zealand rabbits.

W.G; Al-Bazii; Khudiar; K.K

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 87-96

This study was carried out to investigate the effect of effective dose (ED50) of olive oil on some parameters related to cardiac and hepatic functions in normal rabbits .The effective dose (ED50) of olive oil was determined in this study by studying the dose response curve . Twenty five adult male rabbits were divided randomly into five equal groups (5/group) and were intubated orally for four weeks with four successive increasing daily doses of olive oil (0.2 , 0.5 , 0.75 and 1 ml/kg B.W) . Fasting blood samples were collected of 7,14,21 and 28 days of experiment to study the following parameters : Serum total cholesterol (TC) , Triacylglycerol (TAG) , high density lipoprotein (HDL-C ) and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentrations and Aspartate Transaminase (AST) activity .
The results revealed that oral intubation of male rabbits with different doses of olive oil for four weeks caused significant (p<0.01) decrease in (TC) and TAG) concentrations and (AST) activity with significant (p<0.01) increase in GSH and HDL-C concentrations .The (ED50 ) of olive oil was found to equal to 0.51 ml/kg B.W.

Spectrophotometric Determination of Nickel (II) Ion by Novel Route of Calix-4-arenes as Analytical Reagent

Ahmed Fadhil Kadhier

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 97-109

A new route of Calix-4-arenes was prepared, a sensitive and selective spectrophotometric method was proposed for the rapid determination of Nickel (II) in analytical sample, The proposed method based on the formation green complex with anew route Calix-4-arenes as a new chromogenic reagent that has a maximum absorption at λmax 403 nm.Where the reaction was instantaneous in basic medium at pH=9.0, the absorbance of complex remains stable for over 24hr . Linearity was observed from 0.74-10.0 µ with detection limit of 0.5µ Recovery and relative error values of precision and accuracy of method were found to be R.S.D.% = 2.91, Re% =1.12% and Erel = 98.88% . The nature of complex showed that (M:L) ratio was 1:1 at pH=9 and the stability constant of ( 0.48x108 L1.mole-1) The effect of chemical and physical parameter and analytical parameter are evaluated . The proposed method was applied successfully to determine Ni(II) in analytical sample.



journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 110-116

This paper is concerned with the analysis of closed section beams under bending moments loading. Using theory of booms, five models of circular closed section beams made of eight circular bars and covered with thin plates (of the same material as bars) as a skin where studied under bending moment load to indicate the direct stress at each boom. Finite element method with using ANSYS program was adopted to indicate the direct stresses at the same booms of selected models. A comparison among those types of analysis was made to make an evaluation to booms theory and a correction factor had been suggested to modify this theory.


K. N. Flaih; F.I. Shrrad Al-Taie; R. A. Radhi; A. K. Hamoudi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 117-130

The inelastic longitudinal form factors F(q)'s, an expression for the transition charge density are studied where the deformation in nuclear collective modes is taken into consideration besides the shell model transition density. In this work, the core polarization transition density is evaluated by adopting the shape of Tassie model together with form of the ground state two-body charge density distributions and the effect of two body short range correlation function. It is noticed that the core polarization effects which represent the collective modes are essential in obtaining a good agreement between the calculated inelastic longitudinal F(q)'s and those of experimental data for 4He, 12C, 16O, 28Si, 32S and 40Ca nuclei.

Effect of some Physiochemical characteristics upon on the presence of bacterial indicators in Al-Hussainia River waters


journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 131-137

The effects of some physiochemical properties on the number of bacterial indicators in Al-Hussainia river during the first six months of 2008.The samples were collected from four sites along the river from the Indian dam toward the province of Karbala. Bacterial indicators were calculated (APC) using the method of poure plate (Tc), (Fc), (Fs) using the M.P.N. method. The study of bacteriology indicators revealed the presence of aerobic total count was(50 × 102 - 480 × 102) cell, / 100 ml , total coliform bacteria was (0-17 × 102 ) cell /100 ml , fecal coliform bacteria was (0-10 × 102 ) cell / 100 ml while the fecal streptococci bacteria count was (0- 20 × 102 ) cell / 100 ml respectively. The results was showed that the values of dissolved oxygen was ranged the (6-13) mg /l , while the temperatures value ranged the (8-21 ) c◦, and the pH values ranged between ( 7.2-8.6), the electrical conductivity ranging between the values ( 400 -1450micr / cm). While the water in the hardness, recorded the highest value in the month of February, at the fourth site 620 mg / L, calcium values were ranged (40-170) mg / L and magnesium ranged (20-150) mg / L.

Spectrophotometric Determination of Chromium (III) with Isatin in the Presence of Surfactant

Ali A. Al-Wahed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 138-142

A spectrophotometric determination of chromium (III) carried out with isatin as a complexing agent in the presence of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HTAB) as a surfactant for increasing the sensitivity of the system. The complex between chromium (III) and isatin formed at pH 3.0. Beer's Law was obeyed for chromium (III) over the range 0.45 – 8.50 g L-1 with molar absorptivity 1.69x104 L. mol-1. cm-1 and Sandell's sensitivity was 4.7x10-3 g cm-2. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of chromium (III) in igneous rock from Snam hill in Iraq , and no other method investigated chromium (III) in same rock in order to compare with proposed method.

Bacterial contamination assessment of local and Imported diary productions in Al-Diwaniya markets

Haider Habeeb AL-Galebi; Firas Sarhan Abd AL-Mayahy

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 143-149

The aim of this work was to evaluation of bacterial contamination indicators such as a total bacterial count, total coliform count and faecal coliform count for domestic and canned milk and its derivatives belonging to different origins (Iraqi, Iranian, Kuwaiti and Syrian), comparison with standards parameters, and authorized rates of expire date of this productions. then Isolation and Identification of contaminated bacteria.In the present study, the domestic productions were more contaminant samples, the result revealed that the domestic cow cheese has high number of total bacterial count (78 X 1011 cfu/gm) and domestic yogurt cow was less (37 X 107 cfu/gm), while domestic of cow cream had larger number of total coliform bacteria (90 X 107 cfu/gm) and less in domestic buffalo cream (22 X 102 cfu/gm).Also, the study shown that the high number of feacal coliform bacteria was in domestic cream of cow (47 X 106 cfu/gm)in comparison with domestic buffalo yogurt (2 X102 cfu/gm). The bacterial tests showed that the all domestic productions samples were out of hygienic standard specifications, followed by Iranian and Iraqi canned cream with total bacteria count (3 X 107, 32 X 103 cfu/gm) respectively, whereas Iraqi canned cream samples were contained ( 24 X 102 cfu/gm) of total coliform bacteria, while the number of feacal coliform bacteria was (13X102 cfu/gm).The result revealed too, that the Iranian and Iraqi canned cheeses were out of standards specification, with total bacteria count (5 X 103 - 8 X 107 cfu/gm) respectively. While the total coliform bacteria in Iraqi canned cheese was (2 X 102 cfu/gm). The result revealed increase bacterial content in Iranian canned yogurt with number of total bacterial count (62 X 108 cfu/gm).

Is lipid profile in women with polycystic ovary syndrome related to calcium or magnesium in serum?

Maha Abdul Kadhem; Safanah Muslim Shaba; Hussein Kadhem Al-Hakeim; Maitham Ghaly Yousif; J.H. Ali; Angham.J.Ali; Mahdi Hussain Meheal; Abbass Shakir Jwad; Nizar S. Al-zubaidi; Jalib A. Al-dahash; Jassim M. Jassim; Rayed N. Ali; Lena Fadhil Hamza; Duraid. K.A. AL- Taey; Mouhannd H. Naji; Samira S. Jabar; Huda H. Al-Hassnawi; Lena Fadhil Hamza; Hadi F. Al-Yasari; Majed J. Mohammed; Aayad A. Sayhood; Thaer Mahdi Madlool; Atheer H.Yas; Mohanned Hassan Ali; Mukhalad Kadom Marza; Haider Khder Lateef; Adel ateyah Al-nasrawi; Hassan mahmud mousa abu almaali; Ashour H. Dawood; Nada Jasim; Atrakchi; Sahib A. Al; Sami A. AL; Mudhaffar; Zainab Abbas H.Al-Dulaimy; Asal Ahmed Al- Jawary; Shatha Fadil Al-saidi; Sadjad A. Hemzah; Zahir Dobeas AL -Nafie; Hassanein Qassam Zeidan Al- Salami; Abdul Barry.M .Mahood; Mohammed .J.Hamezh; Hussein Sami Nagi; Ali Yasser Hafith; Shirin R. Rasul; Amer M . J . Al-Shamri

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 150-157

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a gynaecological disease that has multiple connections with many diseases. It has been estimated that myocardial infarction is more likely in patients with PCOS. The effect of serum calcium and magnesium on the risk of heart diseases is not yet established. In this work, the lipid profile (total cholesterol TC, triglycerides TG, and very low-density lipoprotein VLDL, and high density lipoprotein HDL-C), serum magnesium, and calcium have been estimated in PCOS patients in comparing with control group. Different atherogenic ratios ((TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, TG/HDL-C, and Log (TG/HDL-C)) were calculated to obtain the best indicative ratios for the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The results showed that there is a significant increase (p<0.05) in TC, TG, and VLDL in PCOS patients as compared with control group. While HDL and serum calcium is decreased significantly (p<0.05) in patients group in comparing with control group. No significant change in serum magnesium and Ca/Mg ratio between both groups. There is no correlation (-0.50


Polycystic ovary syndrome
lipid profile
cardiovascular diseases
متلازمة تكيس المبيض، انماط الدهون، الكالسيوم، المغنسيوم، امراض القلب والشرايين

Direct Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori Infection by Detection of specific IgG antibodies in saliva of Iraqi patients

Maitham Ghaly Yousif

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 158-165

Detection of helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) by invasive methods is costy and unpleasant for patients and is not free form complication ,thus in our study we evaluated an enzyme - linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measurement of H. pylori specific IgG in saliva in comparison with biopsy urease test and serum IgG.from 100 patients consult gastrointestinal in Najaf Hospitals during the period from February 2006 to March 2007 detailed history was taken and blood group was detected for each one .then the patients underwent endoscopy and serum and saliva was collected from each one. urease was done for samples collected by endoscopy . serum and saliva was evaluated for presence of specific IgG by ELISA kit. Our results showed that 42(82%) of urease positive patients had IgG in saliva, whereas 47(94%) urease positive patients had IgG in serum and no statistical differences (p-value >0.1).the result show highest concentration of saliva IgG in urease positive patients. There is significant difference between saliva specific IgG for H.pylori with age groups 31-40 years, drink Pepsi more than 4 cup/day, patients who are smoker and those with blood group O. we conclude that salivary IgG detected by ELISA is a rapid ,easy and accurate method for detection and screening for H.pylori among different age groups

MINDO/3-FORCES Study On Some Monosubstituted Triafulvalenes

J.H. Ali

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 166-171

MINDO/3-FORCES calculations have been done after complete optimization of geometry on X-monosubstituted triafulvalene molecules , where X is CN, OH , NO2, NH2, CH3, and cyclopropyl. It was found all these substituents are stabilizing . Also, all the substituents increase the dipole moment .Geometric parameters, heats of formation, orbital energies and the electron densities are reported

Investigation the role of Medical devices and hospital objects in transmission of nosocomial infections.

Angham.J.Ali; Mahdi Hussain Meheal; Abbass Shakir Jwad

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 172-177

Atotal of 515 swabs were collected from different medical devices and hospital objects in Al-Sader teaching hospital and Al-Hakeem hospital , and tested to investigat the role of those in transmission of nosocomial infections ,The samples were cultured on suitable media and identified. The resulte indicated that 384 samples( 74.5%) gave positive results for pathogenic bactereial growth, versus 131 samples (25.5% ) gave negative results.The results reveled that 48 isolates were isolated from ventilator , and 38 isolates from sucker ,while 26 and 42 isolates were recovered from ansthesia and aeroscopy respectivelly, versus 34 isolates were obtained from neonat incubater,In addition 69 isolates obtaind from patients bed, and 35 isolates from patient transimission beds,with 36 and 26 isolates isolated from patient tables and surgical set respectivelly ,versus 30 isolates from hand of hospital staff. From the results appear that prodomenant of E.coli in 114 isolates (29.7%) mainly associated with neonat incubater and patients bed respectivelly.followed by Staphylococcus aureus in 95 isolated (24.7%) .while Pseudomonas aeruginosa appear in 80 isolates ( 20;8%). Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter spp. appear in 52 isolated (13.5%) and 20 isolated (5.2%) respectiveny. The gram positive Bacillus sp. appear in 23 isolates (5.7%).

Optical Repeater for free- space laser communication System

Nizar S. Al-zubaidi; Jalib A. Al-dahash; Jassim M. Jassim; Rayed N. Ali

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 178-184

The aim of this project is to design and construct an optoelectronic repeater to be utilized to extend the range of a laser free – space communication system. It consists of an optical receiver, an electronic processing unit, and an optical transmitter. This repeater is expected to extend the range of the laser communication system several folds depending on the number of the utilized repeaters.

Bacteriological Study on Household Drinking Water Filters

Lena Fadhil Hamza

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 185-191

This study was carried out through a period at four months from October/2008 to Jaunary/2009.The goal of this work was to determine the efficacy of filters water that have low level of pathogenic bacteria. 4o samples of water were collected (randomly) from 40 different filters devices.The results showed that some types of filters are not safe in elimination of bacteria from water.That represented by: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Vibrio cholerae with percentages 5(26.3%), 5(26.3%), 5(26.3%), 2(10.5%),1(5.3%),1(5.3%) respectively. Also the results showed that the efficacy of filters depends on the types of filters, times of use and the clean of devices.

Effect of spraying acetyl salicylic acid to reduce the damaging effects of salt water stress on orange plants (Citrus sinensis L.)

Duraid. K.A. AL- Taey

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 192-202

This experiment was conducted on a private fruit nursery at Babylon Governorate the period from the first of March 2008 until 15- July- 2008 to study effect of spraying with Acetyl salicylic acid with two concentrations (1000,2000 mg/liter) and the quality of irrigation water also the interactions.Orange nurslings with 1 year age were chosen at same size and the height, factorial experiment in (R.C.B.D) design included about 9 treatments with three replicates.Results showed that the Acetyl salicylic acid with (1000, 2000 mg/L) increased the plant tolerance of salt water stress significantly in the average of leaf area , the length of vegetative shoots, the fresh and dry weight to the shoots and the amount of total chlorophyll in the leaves.Also the results showed that decreasing in the all of study parameters whenever increased the salinity of irrigation water.

Adsorption of Mercury Ion From Aqueous Solutions Onto Bentonite Clay

Mouhannd H. Naji

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 203-211

In this research, the bentonite clay was utilized for the removal of mercury ion from aqueous solutions. Adsorption experiments were conducted under various conditions where the batch method was used to determine the best adsorption ratio and the adsorption capacity for the concentration used of Hg(II) ion between (100-10 mg/L), the results show that the best concentration was (10 mg/L) where the adsorption ratio was 88.7 and the adsorption capacity was 0.444 mg/g. The adsorbent dose was 20 g/L, and the shaking time found that it equal to 140 min and the best pH value between (5-8). The effect of temperature and thermodynamic functions wear also studied, the adsorption capacity was increased with increased the temperature and the reaction was endothermic. The equilibrium isotherm data was analyzed using the Langmuir equation, where found qm and b are equal to 3.367 mg/g and 0.134 respectively. The rate constant k2 for the adsorption of Hg(II) ion is equal to 0.1067 g/mg.min

Isolation of Some Intestinal Parasites from Individuals Suffering from Intestinal Disorders in Al-Mahaweel District

Samira S. Jabar; Huda H. Al-Hassnawi; Lena Fadhil Hamza; Hadi F. Al-Yasari

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 212-218

This study was carried out on 115 stool samples of patients suffering from intestinal disorders in Al-Mahaweel district/ Babylon city, to investigate pathogenic parasites that associated with these patients.Results revealed that out of 115 cases, 25(21.7%) were associated with presence of the following pathogenic parasites: protozoa 15 cases (60%): Entamoeba histolytica 6(24%); Giardia Lamblia 4(16%), Endolimax nana 3(12%), and Balantidium coli 2(8%). Worms 10 cases (40%): Enterobius vermicularis 3(12%), Ascaris lumbricoides 3(12%), Hymenolepis nana 3(12%) and Hook worm 1(4%).Results also showed that significant differences were detected among patients in relation to presence of high parasitic infestations in urban areas compared to rural areas, in uneducated and educated ones. But there was no significant difference related to presence of parasites and symptoms of the intestinal disorders according to sex. Finally, results showed that high percentage of patients were smoker and married, more than those whose weren't(80%, 60%) & (20%, 32%) respectively.

Syntheses, spectral and antibacterial activity of Schiff bases derivatives from Benzidine and aromatic aldehydes

Majed J. Mohammed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 219-225

A new series of Schiff bases derived from benzidine and various aromatic aldehydes .Molecular Structures were obtain from their elemental analyses , I.R , H1-NMR , and evaluated for their potential as antibacterial active against some Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains . The biological activity was studied against P. pseudoalcaligenes , P. vulgaris , C. freundii , E. areogenes , S. subfava and B. megaterium. The determination of the biological activity was done by using Agar dish method .The Schiff bases derived from benzidine as the central molecule with various aromatic aldehydes as the side chains in DMSO effectively inhibited the investigated bacteria and appear to be promising antibacterial agents.

Spectrophotometric Determination of Capoten In Pure Form and Commercial Tablets

Aayad A. Sayhood

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 226-234

A simple and accurate spectrophotometric method for the determination of capoten is applied. The procedure is based on the chelate formation with nickel(II) in acidic buffer medium. The complex has a maximum absorption at 617 nm. The optimum conditions for the complex formation were ascertained and the method was developed for the determination of capoten in the concentration range of (20–60) mg/L. The empirical formula of the formed complex was determined, by applying different spectrophotometric methods, at optimum pH of (3-5) and an ionic strength of µ equal to 0.5 M. The stoichiometric ratio was found to be 2:1 of Capoten-Nickel (II) complex as calculated by continuous variations and the mole ratio methods. The continuous variations method was applied for the determination of the conditional stability constant of the formed red complex and was found to be 3.27x107. The proposed method was found to be suitable for the determination of capoten in pure form and in its commercial tablets.

Sodium – N – (3-mercapto-1,2,4-thiadiazole ) Dithiocarbamate as a Chelating ligand: complexes with Nickel(II), Paladium(II) and Platinium(IV).

Thaer Mahdi Madlool; Atheer H.Yas

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 235-244

Chelates of Ni (II), Pd (II) and Pt (IV) with potassium 3-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-thiodiazole -diethiocarbamate (TC –K+ (have been prepared. All these chelates have been characterized by thermal analysis (TG-DTA) ,Infra-red (IR) ,(UV/Vis) spectrum Magnetic sensitive and Conductivity measurement .Ni (II) and Pt (IV) chelates are found to have octahedral structures ,while Pd (II) complex may have square planar symmetry.

Noise Measurement for Obtaining Optimum Point of Detection System by Using Field Effect Transistor (FET)

Mohanned Hassan Ali; Mukhalad Kadom Marza; Haider Khder Lateef

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 245-257

The designed circuit in this research is measured several types of noise and it’s analysis, reduction and amplification of received signal value by using the detection system type Field Effect Transistor (FET Tr) the aim of using this type of amplifier in designed system because of it’s efficient matching between input and output impedance, this will increase performance in detection of signal and noise. Also, all equations that help in calculation of noise voltage and noise current are derived and effect of bias resistance and capacitance of detector also was studied. Research study shows that the preamplifier noise is primarily influence by the first stage noise provided that the gain of that stage is large (Kt=8.87), total noise voltage to detection system (En T=3.314 nV), total noise current (InT=5.41 fA), noise figure (NF=0.0093 dB) at optimum source resistance and the detector resistance (2.5 MΩ) photoconductive type.

Antibiotic sensitivity patterns of uropathogens isolated from females with urinary symptoms in Karbala

Adel ateyah Al-nasrawi; Hassan mahmud mousa abu almaali

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 258-265

Urinary tract infection is a common community-acquired bacterial disease which frequently affects female outpatients. Escherichia coli is the most common member of the family Enterobacteriaceae accounts for majority of all urinary tract infections in both inpatients and outpatients. Increasing rates of resistance among bacterial uropathogens has caused growing concern in both developed and developing countries, so that the objectives of this study are identifying the most frequent etiological agents of (U.T.I) in females and to determine their antibiotics sensitivity patterns.A total of (470) adult females were enrolled in this study. Middle stream urine samples were collected and cultured according to standard methods. The positive cultures(140)were tested for antibiotics sensitivity by using Kirby-Bauer's disk diffusion method.The predominant uropathogen was Escherichia coli 62 (44.4%), followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa 28 (20%), Salmonella species 18 (12.8%), Klebsiella pneumonia 16(11.4 %), Shigella species 12 (8.6%), and Serratia species 4 (2.8%). We found that 76% of Escherichia coli isolates were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, (41%)for Trimethoprim, 41% for Nalidixic acid, 8% for Carbencillin, 57% for Nitrofurantoin, 27% for Cefotaxime, 0% for Ampicillin, 3% for Oxacillin, 42% for Trimethoprim- sulfamethoxazole, 54% for Gentamicin . wile 59% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, 30% for Trimethoprim, 46% for Nalidixic acid, 16% for Carbencillin, 47% for Nitrofurantoin, 15% for Cefotaxime, 8% for Ampicillin, 33% for Trimethoprim- sulfamethoxazole , 57% for Gentamicin all pseudomonas isolates were resistance for Oxacillin. In addition , 88% of Salmonella species were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, 22% for Trimethoprim, 66%for Nalidixic acid, 11% for Nitrofurantoin , ,22% for Oxacillin , 44% for Trimethoprim- sulfamethoxazole , 88% for Gentamicin all salmonella isolates were resistant to Carbencillin , Cefotaxime and Ampicillin. Also, 100% of Klebsiella pneumonia were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin , 42% for Trimethoprim , 71% for Nalidixic acid , 20% for Carbencillin , 37% for Nitrofurantoin , 30% for Cefotaxime , 25% for Ampicillin , 13% for Oxacillin , 75% for Trimethoprim- sulfamethoxazole , 100% for Gentamicin .as well as 20 % of Shigella species were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin , as well as (20 %, 16 % , 23 % , 50% ) were sensitive for Trimethoprim- sulfamethoxazole , Nalidixic acid , Carbenicillin , Nitrofurantoin ,but thy were completely resistance for Cefotaxime , Ampicillin , Oxacillin, Gentamicin and Trimethoprim.and 100 % were sensitive for Nitrofurantoin .In addition 50 % of Serratia species isolates were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin ,Trimethoprim , Trimethoprim- sulfamethoxazole ,Gentamicin, Cefotaxime and Nalidixic acid , wile 100 % were resistant to Carbenicillin , Ampicillin , and Oxacillin .

The synthesis and characterization of Schiff base ligand type N2O2 donor atom derived from 5-amino-3-hydroxynaphthalen-1-sulfonic acid and their some metal complexes

Ashour H. Dawood; Nada Jasim

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 266-272

The synthesis and characterization of the ligand type N2O2 have been carried out by condensation reaction of 2,5-hexane dione with 5 -amino-3-hydroxynaphthalen-1-sulfonic acid [H2L], while the complexes of this ligand were obtained by adding the prepared ligand to metal nitrate of CoII, NiII, CuII, ZnII, ions in methanol. The ligand and their complexes were characterized by FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopies, molar conductivity, and magnetic measurements. from these studies suggested the geometry around the ion metals are distorted octahedral.

Spectroscopic Studies of Carcinoembryonic Antigen in Malignant Mammary Tissues

Atrakchi; Sahib A. Al; Sami A. AL; Mudhaffar

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 273-288

Characterization of CEA was carried out through spectroscopic studies using ultraviolet absorption molecules. Factor affecting the absorption properties of purified CEA such as, pH, polarity, effect of solvent perturbation and pH titration have been studied, the results indicates that there are different effects of these factors on the CEA spectrum. The pH titration of purified CEA shows that the amino acid tyrosine is located on the surface of the CEA. This study was aimed to elucidate the spectroscopic properties of purified CEA using spectroscopic techniques, Uvana FTIR.

Viscosity and Volumetric studies of some amino acids in solutions at different temperatures.

Zainab Abbas H.Al-Dulaimy; Asal Ahmed Al- Jawary; Shatha Fadil Al-saidi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 289-295

Densities ρ and viscosities η for several concentrations of amino acids (Serine, Cysteine and Threonine) at different temperatures (298.15, 303.15 and 308.15K) have been measured. On the basis of these data, the apparent molal volumes , partial molal volumes at infinite dilution , slope Sv , Gibbs free energy of activation for viscous flow of solution ∆G1,2 and Jones – Dole B-coefficients were calculated the nature of solute-solvent and solute-solute interactions have been discussed in terms of the values of , , Sv and B-coefficents.

A New Stiffness Matrix Derivation of Arch Beams Using Finite Elements

Sadjad A. Hemzah

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 296-306

In the present study, a new stiffness matrix for arch beams had been derived using finite element method. Transverse shear deformation was included in the derivation.The present stiffness matrix could be used in both linear and nonlinear analysis of concrete and steel arch beams. The new stiffness matrix had been used in some applications of both curved thick and thin arch beams. The conclusion shows a very good agreement between the present study and the results of exact solution of other researchers. The maximum difference in deflection was found to be (9%). Also the influence of shear deformations was found to be significant in the thick arch example with a ratio of (10%).

Spectrophotometric Determination of Diclofenac sodium in Pharmaceutical preparations

Abdul Barry.M .Mahood; Mohammed .J.Hamezh

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 310-316

A simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method is described for the determination of Diclofenac sodium, in pure form and pharmaceutical formulations. The method is based on the reaction of drug with iron(III)chloride to form iron(II) which reacts with potassium hexacyanoferrate(III)forming a blue color product measurable spectrophotometrically at 710nm.Linearity was in the rang(1.00-6.00 μg. ml-1 ).A linear response was observed over the tested range of drug with correlation coefficient of 0.9980 ,a relative standard deviation of (0.396-0.934%) and recovery of(97.83 -104.9%) . The method was successfully applied to the determination of this drug in their dosage forms.

Effected of various osmotic stress in Rice callus and prolin accumulation.

Hussein Sami Nagi; Ali Yasser Hafith

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 317-328

Calls obtained from two rice cultivars (Anber 33 and IPA1) were Exposed to different osmotic stress intensities followed by a period of stress relief. Relative growth rate , callus water content and changes in organic and inorganic solutes were determined at the end of stress. After the stress period callus derived from both cultivars showed a decrease in relative growth rate, but at lesser exent in Anber 33 than IPA1 cultivar. Same tendency was recorded in the callus water content under mannitol induced osmotic stress.The in Organic solute seemed to have no contribution in the osmotic adjustment in mannitol-stressed calli since k+ and Ca2+ concentrations decreased drastically while Na+ and Mg2+ concentrations were not affected. The accumulation of proline occurred in both cultivars and was more marked in IPA1 than Anber 33 cultivar. At the end of the relief period, we observed that all the considered Parameters have recovered completely to reach the control levels. According to these results, we conclude that the drought stress-induced changes are reversible, at the least at the cellular level, in Oryza Sativa L. cultivars.

Synthesis Of New Oxazole -4-One Derivatives From Phenyl Alanine

Shirin R. Rasul

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 329-341

The present research includes the synthesis of fifteen new derivatives for the compound (1,3-oxazol-5-(4H)-one (1) ) which perfect the synthesis for reaction Phenyl alanine with acetic anhydride to afford 1,3-oxazol-5-(4H)-one, which complete conversion to 3-Amino-5-benzyl-2-methyl-3,5-dihydro-4H-imidazol-4-one (2) to react with the hydrazine hydrate %99 ethanol boiling ,take on the component (2) for primary material was used because it contains the material of NH2 active in the synthesis of several Schiffs bases (3 - 6),in order to heat them with different aromatic aldehydes or keton in the solvent ethanol. Later on several of Schiffs Bases to were used prepare a new derivatives(7 - 10) by added ( benzoyl chloride) to (isomethine) (-CH=N-) group at the last compounds (11 - 14) by substituting (Cl) group in the (7 - 10) compound to group (S-C=NH NH2) from its reaction with thiourea in the presence of (Na2CO3),on the other hand when the essential compound (2) is heated with bromo acetic acid in the basic midem for period of (7hours) that lead to forming the new derivatives (15) The synthesized compounds were confirmed by using some spectroscopy methods (FT-IR, UV.-Visible,C.H.N)

The effect of die shape on Hardness of copper in wire drawing process.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 342-352

One of the most important factors that affect the hardness of formed products is forming tool design( drawing die profile). Die profile shape with other factors like reduction of area, forming temperature , friction... etc. Will produce a specific deformation mode that characterizes deformed metal by drawing process. This will have a direct effect on hardness of the drawn product .This was carried out by studying the final mechanical properties of the drawn products through dies with theoretical concepts(UCRHS, ACRHS , DCRHS , CMSR) and other with industrial concepts taper die ( = )
All at fixed reduction in area of 64% .
The material used in this research is commercial pure copper . the drawing process was carried out at room temperature.
Obtained results show that drawing die( CMSR) is the most efficient die design, at the same time, design of taper die ( = ) shows the lowest efficiency as compared with others.
See definition of symbols at the end of research .

Preparation of third components on the conductivity behavior of polymer Epoxy / Ag conductive composites

Amer M . J . Al-Shamri

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 353-359

Conductive polymer , based on highly filled silver partials in a liquid epoxy resin with a diethyltriamine(DETA) as a curing agent . A third component was added to the epoxy Ag system to obtain composite of better conductivity, or similar conductivity but at lower silver content to modify the conductive properties, epoxy Ag carbon black (CB) , epoxy Aggraphite(G), epoxy AgSiO2 when the (CB) , (G) ,and SiO2 as a fillers when this system electrical conductivity properties was studied . The gel time of the epoxy resin with hardener by temperature was studied . Infrared spectra were recorded for preparation polymers.

Isolation of Cryptococcus neofrmans from pigeon dropping and study of some pathogenesis aspects

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 316-321

This study was conducted to isolate and identification of C. neofrmans from fecal samples of pigeon. C. neofrmans identified by biochemical tests .Fifty white Swiss mice were used to study the gross lesion and histopathological changes of tissue. Thirty mice were inoculated S.C. with 0.5 ml of yeast suspension contain 3X 106 ;  yeast cells. Twenty mice were used as control. Three mice were killed from treatment group and one mouse from the control group in different days. The respiratory signs were recorded in day while the nervous signs recorded in last days of the experiment. The yeast was isolate from liver, lung and brain during the experiment period and these organs were used to study grossly and microscopically. The gross lesions include congestion of internal organs and presences of necrotic aeries in lungs and liver and sever swelling in inoculated site. the histopathological changes includes congestion of blood vessels in livers and lungs with infiltration of inflammatory cells and formation of granulomatous lesions, while in brain we notes cavitations and miled infiltration of inflammatory cells.


journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 98-104

Geneitalia of 270 Ewes were collected from The Red meat abattoir in Karbala, during the period from Sep.2008 to Feb. 2009 , the aim of the study was determined to know the Anatomical and Pathological abnormalities effected the female genitalia in Awassi ewes. The Percentage of pregnancy was 46,6%. the incidence of genital abnormalities was observed in 11.1% of the specimen. The abnormalities were formed 2.96% from pregnant genitalia, includes; ovarian - bursal adhesions 0.74%,cystic corpus luteum 0.74%,fetus transport 0.74% and Follicular cystic ovaries 0.74%. The abnormalities were formed 8.14% from non – pregnant genitalia includes; Para ovarian cyst 1.48%,ovario – bursal adhesions 2.2%, Para – salpinx cyst1.1%,infantile genitalia 0.74%,obstruction of the oviduct 1.1% and pyometra1.48%. It is concluded that female genitalia showed high incidence of abnormalities which may effected ewes fertility.