ISSN: 1813-0410

Volume 3, Issue 2

Volume 3, Issue 2, Spring 2007, Page 1-592


An Analytic Survey of the Learning Styles of Students in the Department of English / College of Education / Kerbala

Hussein Abdul; Rasul; Ibtisam Abdul

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 1-9

This paper aims at analysing the different learning styles of the first year students in the Department of English / College of Education / Kerbala . It shows how the concept of learning is defined , discusses briefly the factors affecting learning process with or without the teacher's control ; pointing out the characteristics of a good language learning . Types of learning styles are tackled as well . To asses students' learning styles , they were offered a designed questionnaire of the "Learning Style Survey" , adapted by Julie Chi and Andrew Cohen from Rebecca L . Oxford's (1993) and 'Style Analysis Survey' in Reid (1995) , cited in Schmitt (2002:188) . After analysing the results , some issues are presented concerning the teachers' attitudes towards having such various learners with such different learning styles , all in one group .

Bacillus thuringiensis var . kuristaki Berliner as a biological control agent agaist lemon butterfly , Papilio demoleus L.(Lepidoptera :Papilionidae )

Zubaidi; Fawzi AL; Nasir A .Hilafy; Layla N .Al-Okaily

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 1-5

The effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var . kuristaki were tested against lemon butterfly , Papilio demoleus , in laboratory . Four different concentrations of lyophilized form of the bacteria (0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/ml) were used. The results indicated that there was a direct correlation between the mortality rate and bacterial concentration. Mortality rates were: 75%, 100%, 100%, and 100% at concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/ml respectively. The data also revealed that the developmental period was extended due to bacterial application. Egg production was significantly reduced. Some developmental deformalities were observed in individuals that have been treated with 0.25 mg/m completed their development.

SYNTHESIS 2-ALKYLCYCLOPENTANONES BY ADDITION CYCLOPENTANONE TO OLEFINE

Saadon Abdulla Aowda

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 6-11

The radical addition of cyclopentanone to ethylene in the presence of different initiators was studied. The most effective of these is ammonium persulfat(AMP), and with the use of ammonium persulfate were find the optimal conditions to get 2-ethylcyclopentanone. Studied the reaction of cyclopentanone with other olefins (C3-C5) and the synthesized 2-alkylcyclopentanone that can be used as a source component for the preparation of fragrance substances.

Zinc Selective Liquid Electrode on the Basis of Phenyl Disulfide

Aayad Amaar Sayhood

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 12-19

A Zinc(II) selective electrode based on phenyl disulfide as ionic membrane carrier was prepared. The electrode exhibits a near-Nernstian response for Zn2+ ions over a wide concentration range from (1.0x10-5-1.0x10-1 M) with a slope of 30.1 mV/decade and a limit of detection of 6.2x10-6 M. The response time measured was 15 second .It was found to be selective and useable within the pH range of (3.0-8.0). The life time of membrane sensor prepared could be used for at least 2 months. The electrode was successfully used as an indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of Zinc ions.

Adsorption of Cobalt (II) ion from Aqueous Solution on Selected Iraqi clay surfaces

Alaa.Frag Hussain; Moen .I.Al-Jeboori; Hamsa Munan Yaseen

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 20-38

This work is concerned with one of application of adsorption from solution. It deals with the study of adsorption of Cobalt (II) ion on the surfaces of Attapulgite, bentonite, and kaolin, which are provided locally in Iraq. The purpose of this study is searching for surfaces that are highly applicable for Cobalt (II) ion adsorption to treat the pollution of aqueous solution in nature by this heavy metal ion .This study also involves the feasibility of using (NH4SCN ) (Ammonium thiocyanate ) for Visb-spectrophotometric determination of Cobalt (II) ion and to determine the relation between the adsorption quantity of Cobalt (II) ion and equilibrium concentrations ( adsorption isotherm ) in different conditions of temperature ,ionic strength ,pH , practical size , and adsorbent weight .

"Effect of Water to Powder Ratio on Some Mechanical Properties of SCC"

Ghalib M. Habeeb; Mahdi S. Essa; Esam M. Ali

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 39-48

The aim of this study is to find the effect of water to powder ratio on some of the mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC) made from locally available materials. To determine the workability, different test methods are adopted in this research such as slump-flow, T50 slump-flow, L-box, U-box and V-funnel. The mechanical properties studied are compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength and static modulus of elasticity. Two non-destructive test methods, ultra-sonic pulse velocity and Schmidt rebound hammer test are tested also.
Based on the results of this work, it is possible to produce SCC from locally available materials that satisfy the requirements of this type of concrete. It can be stated that SCC produced is sensitive to water to powder ratio. The results obtained from this study indicate that increasing W/P ratio from (40-62) % decreases the compressive strength by 23 %, splitting tensile strength by 20 %, flexural strength by 46 %, static modulus of elasticity by 9 %, ultra-sonic pulse velocity by 13 % and rebound number by 15%.

On α-Open Sets In Topological Spaces

Mohammed Yahya Abid; Maha Mohsen Mohammed Ali

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 49-50

In this paper we present a new notion by using α-open sets, which is The α-dense-in-itself set in topological spaces, and We prove some theorems that are related by the new definition

Syntheses,Spectrophotometric determination of mercury(II) using new azo dye 5-[(2-hydroxy phenyl azo]-4,6-dihydroxy-2-mercapto pyrimidine

Maysaa Abed ALRudha; Hussein Jassem Mohammed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 51-60

New reagent and complex of general formula ML2,where M=Hg(II),L=5-[(hydroxyl phenyl)azo]-4,6-di hydroxyl-2-mercapto primidine) have been prepared in ethanolic solution. Solid compounds were isolated and characterized by electrons and vibrational spectra. A sensitive method has been developed for the determination of micro amounts of Hg(II).
The method is based on the chelation of metal ion with the azo dye to form an intens color soluble product, that are stable and has a amaximum absorption at (524 nm),and ε max of(4.01x104 ).The stability constant and relative errors and a relative standard deviations for Hg(II) were(0.14x108),( %-1.1),( %1.42 ) respectively. The above newly synthesized compounds were investigated for their antibacterial.

Modified Method for Preparation of Aurintricarboxylic Acid and Prepare of it’s Chromium (III) Complex: Study its Interaction with Some Human Serum Proteins.

M.Sc; Haitham Delol

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 65-76

This study involves the use of a modified method for preparation of aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA) and use this acid as a ligand for preparation of complex with chromium (III) ion. The prepared complex was studied using different spectrophotometric methods including, UV-Visible spectrophotometry and IR, in addition to molar conductivity. The molar ratio of ligand-cation was found to be (1:2). The complex showed an octahedral geometric structure. The interaction between the formed complex with six blood components including serum total protein (STP), albumin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), acid phosphatase (ACP), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were studied. The measurement occurred before adsorption and after one hour of incubation with the complex. The quantity of the substance adsorbed on complex obtained from the difference in the concentration before and after adsorption per weight of complex. The results showed that the Cr(III)-ATA complex has surface activity and able to adsorb the serum proteins in different capacities according to the following order of quantity adsorpe:
S.AST> S.Albumin> S.T.ACP > S.T.Protein > S.ALP>S.ALT

Solid Acid Catalyst From Biedillite Intercalated by mixed cohydrolysis (Ti-Zr)Improve their acidity and stability thermic.

Abbas Matrood Bashi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 77-84

Clays of smectite type have long been used as adsorbent material (1) , intercalated clays are anew class of calalyst . in which an homogeneous distribution of microspores can be obtained with porosity varying from 6 Aº to 18 Aº according to the type of intercalating agents.
The activity catalytic and adsorbents were attracted the tension to this type of clay .
R.M Barrer (2) prepared expanded clay which act as molecular sieves for the adsorption of organic molecules from the uses of Tetraalkyl ammonium as intercalating agent with clay.

Anti-tumor Activity Of Virulent Newcastle Virus With Urtica pilulifera On Mammary Adenocarcinoma In mice

Abdul Ameer Oda Ismail

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 85-94

The anti-tumor activity of the Virulent Newcastle Virus (VNV) (LD50109) and water extract of Uritica pilulifera leaves (U.P) were evaluated against the murine mammary adenocarcinoma transplanted subcutaneusly in mice . The activity was assessed using growth inhibition of tumor volume, relative tumor volume and histopathological examination. Intratumoral injection of (VNV) and Uritica pilulifera crude extract was given different doses resulted in a prominent suppression of tumor statistically orally withsignificant with 82%,the relative tumor volume was also reduce and the suppression of tumor size in this group more than others. Histopathological examination show massive necrosis associated with fibrosis and lymphocytic with macrophagic infiltration

"EVALUATION OF METAKAOLIN FOR USE AS SUPPLEMENTARY CEMENTITIOUS MATERIAL"

Ghalib M. Habeeb; Mahdi S. Essa; Esam M. Ali

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 95-105

Three types of metakaolin were evaluated for use as supplementary cementitious materials in cement-based systems. The metakaolins were calcined at 745± 2 °C for three duration periods, (1/2, 1.0 and 1.5) hrs respectively. The water-to-cementitous ratio used was 0.40.
In this study, the early age properties of fresh self-compacting concrete and the mechanical properties of hardened concrete were examined. Early age evaluations aimed to determine the reactivity of metakaolin and its effect on mixture workability (slump-flow, T50, L-box, U-box and V-funnel). Compressive, tensile and flexural strengths and elastic modulus were measured at various concrete ages. Further more, two non-destructive test methods, ultra-sonic pulse velocity and Schmidt rebound hammer test were used at 7, 28 and 90 days. The results obtained from this study indicated that when the time of calcining metakaolin increased from (0.5 to 1.0) hrs and (0.5 to 1.5) hrs the compressive strength increased by (5-12) %, (12-18) %, (3-9) %, (16-21) %, (4-7) % and (12-16) % at 7,28 and 90 days respectively. Specimens in flexure, splitting, static modulus of elasticity, U.P.V and rebound number show similar behavior to those in compression.

EFFECT OF CALCIUM ON JUJUBE Ziziphus sp. FRUIT GROWTH AND THEIR RESISTANCE TO JUJUBE FRUIT FLY Carpomyia incompleta

Aquil A. Al-yousif; Menal Z. Al-Miahy

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 106-113

Calcium chloride was sprayed during winter growing season 2005-2006 to jujube trees cultivars Bambawi Ziziphus spina-christi and Zaitooni Z. mauritiana to test its effect on jujube fruit fly Carpomyia incompleta (Tephritidae:Diptera). The percentage of jujube fruit fly infestation on both cultivars of jujube were reduced and continued decreasing down during the growing season, that resulted from increasing of some jujube fruit quality characteristics, at a high concentration of calcium salt. A negative correlation was found among the percentage of fruit fly infestation and weight, size, water content, vitamin C, protein content and calcium content percentage of Bambawi and Zaitooni fruits, while positive correlation was found between the percentage infestation of fruit fly and dry matter percentage rate of both cultivars fruits .The present result concluded that there are a synergistic effect of jujube fruit quality characteristics on jujube fruit fly infestation, when spraying with calcium salt.

DENSITIES, REFRACTIVE INDICES AND EXCESS PROPERTIES OF N-METHYLMORPHOLINE AND BUTANOL MIXTURES AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES

H. E. Salman; A. G. Rade

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 114-121

Densities and refractive indices have been measured at 303.15, 313.15 and 323.15 K for the binary mixtures of N-methylmorpholine and 1-butanol over the entire composition range. Those data have been used to compute the excess molar volumes, VE and excess refractive indices, nE . The results obtained are used to study the nature of molecular interactions in these mixtures.As far as we know, in the open literature, no study on mixtures containing N-methylmorpholine [I] has been reported.

The Impact of Data Mining on System Analysis Process

mayali; Yahya M. Hadi Al

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 122-133

With the advent of the computer age, people have begun using computers to automate the data gathering process and store the information in databases. Computers are so well suited to this task that huge databases with terabytes of information have been generated. It is well beyond the scope of the human mind to sort through all of this data and find any useful patterns for predicting future events. The mining has been invented as one technique of the machine learning field to deal with this new problem by using computers to automate the process of searching data in huge databases for useful patterns, which is can used to build a new system.
In this paper we need to show how data mining techniques can help the systems analysts people for studying and extract facts for building new systems.

Longitudinal C2 form factors in sd-shell nuclei including core-polarization effect up to second order

A.D.Salman

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 134-140

Coulomb form factors of C2 transitions in several selected sd-shell nuclei have been studied. Core-polarization effects are included through a microscopic theory that includes excitations from the core 1s and 1p orbits and also from 2s-1d shell to higher orbits with excitations. The second order core-polarization leads to a minor enhancement of the calculated form factor, improving the agreement with experiment.

Synthesis And Photolysis Study of the New Reagent 2-[(6-nitro-2--benzothiazolyl)azo] – pyrogallol (6-NO2BTAPg)

Ahmed K. A; Khalid J. AL Adely; Shaima M. E

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 141-151

New heterocyclic azo dye 2- [(6-nitro-2־-benzothiazolyl)azo] – Pyrogallol (6- NO2BTAPg) was prepared by coupling reaction a diazonium salt solution of 2-amino-6-nitro benzothiazole with pyrogallol in alkaline ethanolic solution. The organic reagent was characterized by elemental analysis and spectrophotometric method such as infra- red and electronic spectra. The photoreaction of the reagent was occurred under visible light at λmax = 409 nm. Many parameters such as temperature, irradiation time and effect of pH were studied. The experiments showed that the reagent degraded with increasing of irradiation time and the temperature. The optimal pH condition was at pH = 6 in which the reagent possesd highest molar absorpitivity (Є). The order of the photoreaction was of first order and also the kinetic parameters such as the rate reaction constant, half time, activation energy and thermodynamic functions ∆S, ∆ H and ∆G were determind.

Effect of Sodium Chloride and Sodium Sulfate on Growth, and Ions Content in Faba-Bean (Vicia Faba)

Majeed K Abass Al-Hamzawi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 152-163

The present experiment was conducted to assess the response of faba-bean (Vicia faba cv. Local) to sodium chloride and sodium sulfate at two levels of each ( 3&6dsm-1) and their combinations; 3dsm-1 of NaCl +3dsm-1 of Na2SO4 and 6dsm-1 of NaCl +6dsm-1 of Na2SO4. Five weeks old plants were subjected to salt treatments for periods of 2, 4, and 6 weeks. Plant dry matter of shoot and roots, soluble protein, chlorophyll content, ions content and proline accumulation were determined.
All salt treatments caused significant reduction in all parameters studied. Na2SO4 treatments were more detrimental than NaCl treatments. Also, combination of NaCl + Na2SO4 at both concentrations were more effective than single salt treatments. Lengthen the duration of exposing plants to salinity resulted in more growth reduction. Total nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and calcium content were reduced significantly by all salt treatments. However, sodium content was increased at all salinity levels used. As proline accumulation increased due to different salt treatments, relative water content of plant tissue was decreased in parallel way. From these results, it is suggested that all salinity levels used have adversely effect on faba-bean growth and ions accumulation.

Preparing Aluminum Alloys to Spot Welding by using immersion coating (Electrical Resistance Welding).

Jaleel Kareem Ahmed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 164-172

It is the first time that immersion coating phenomenon used for preparing aluminum alloys surface for spot welding. Concentrated aqueous alkaline sodium zincate solution was used to deposit zinc at room temperature and replace an equivalent weight of aluminum from the alloy (G3/5052 or A5/3003) surface which is underneath the electrical insulator aluminum oxide layer which acts as inhibitor for spot welding results in destroying its link to the surface and fall down in the solution as visual white powder, it is similar to shaving process.Zinc coat is then removed by 50% nitric acid. The electrical resistance of the new conducting surface results from this treatment shows a linear relation ship against time up to 30 hours from the time of removal zinc coat according to the equation.
Y= 0.6 X + 3.5
and this indicates that the growth of aluminum oxide is regular during the first 30 hours from the time of exposure aluminum alloy surface to atmosphere. After this period (30 hours) the oxide film start to completion and its electrical resistance tends to be constant. The tensile strength of the welding spot shows a maximum value after 3 hours (19.3 kg/mm2) from the time of zinc coat removal (from the time of exposure of aluminum alloy to the atmosphere), but a linear relationship is found between tensile strength vs. time obeys the following equation:-Y= - 0.053X + 16.23 Where X between 6-48 hours after zinc coat removal.

Intercalations on α and gamma-Or-phosphate

Abbas Matrood Bashi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 173-178

The intercalation of layered crystalline structures of some thoroughly investigated synthetic inorganic ion exchangers of some insoluble acid salts of tetravalent metals of general formula
M(IV)(HXO4).nH2O where(M(IV)=Ti,Zr,Ce,Sn and X=P,As) have a layered structure, such layer consisting of a plane of tetravalent atoms sandwiched between tetrahedral phosphate or arsenate groups.

The role of Corticosteroids in infants less than6 months with sever Bronchiolitis

Faris M. Al-Haris

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 179-184

A comparative study was done on 160 children aging ≤6 months with sever bronchiolitis admitted to Al- Zahraa maternity and children and Al-Hakeem hospital in AL - Najaf from the period between 1st January - 1st April 2006 , 80 of them received steroid and the other received placebo .The average days of improvement in those who received steroid was (4.122)while in placebo was (4.386) so the difference was( -0.264). In other wards the use of steroid in sebronchiolitis is not associated with statistically significant shortening of the clinical course of the disease .

Euclidean Space , Vector permutation And Vec Operator

Hussein Ali Mohammed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 185-192

In this project , we defined and proofed some properties of the vec and vech operators for matrices by using the standard bases of n-Eclidean space . we connected this standard bases with each of the Kronecker product operation of matrices and the permutation matrix.

TRANSFERENCE – NUMBER MEASUREMENT OF SILVER NITRATE IN TETRAMETHYL UREA + WATER MIXTURE USING ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE METHOD

H. E. Salman; A. G. Rade

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 193-202

An e.m.f. cell with transference similar in design to that developed by Rupert and recently by Braun Weingaertner has been fabricated. Using this cell, transference numbers of NO3‾ (tNO3‾ ) in AgNO3 have been measured in the concentration range 3.922× 10-4 to 11.2×10-3 mole dm-3 in 0.0606 mole fraction of tetra methyl urea (TMU) + water mixture at 298.15 K. The method is fast and reliable for transference number measurements of AgNO3 in mixed solvents. The transference number of NO3‾in the solvent mixture showed practically no change with a change in AgNO3 concentrations. The limiting transference number of NO3‾ (tْNO3‾) has been estimated by calculating the average of the transference number values of NO3‾ at different AgNO3 concentrations.
Densities and specific conductivies of all solutions have been measured at 298.15 K. Values of Λ, the molar conductivity; have been used to derive the values of the molar conductivity at the infinite dilution (Λە).The value of Λە was then utilized to calculate the Walden product for the electrolyte in the solvent system at 298.15 K.

Steganography Using Error Correction Methods

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 203-208

In this research, we benefit from error correction methods to hide some information. By hiding some bits in sent data, i.e. making benefit error, and then using error detection methods to get hidden bits and return original data. Here, we use Hamming code error detection method to apply this idea.

Underlying Rates of Binomial Distributed Traffic Accident Data

Hussein A. Ewadh; Abdul Hussein H. Habieb

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 209-216

Traffic accident data is considered as an efficient tool to identify the degree of hazard at different locations of highway system. An accurate estimation of underlying true traffic accident rate may lead to efficient and economic safety improvement program. Accident data can be considered as random variables that have Poisson or non-Poisson distributions. A regular variation of accident data may reveal to the appropriateness of the Binomial distribution. A procedure to estimate underlying true accident rate as well as optimum time-period of accident counts for Poisson process is available while it is not for non-Poisson process.This paper proposes a new procedure to estimate the upper & lower limits of underlying accident rates depending on the observed accident rate of accident data having Binomial distribution according to different confidence degrees. The procedure includes testing data for randomness and the appropriate probability distribution that fits the data.The optimum time-period of traffic accident data provides a relatively precise estimation of underlying rate of accidents and minimizes cost of data collection as well as the social-economic losses associated in traffic accidents. A time-period beyond five years shows a relatively small decrease in the proportional uncertainty of the estimated underlying rates. Hence, a time-period of five years is sufficient for the purpose of estimation in case of binomial distributed traffic accident data. The developed procedure is a statistically reliable for purposes of programs identification of hazardous locations that may depend on the true underlying rates rather than the observed rates.

Solution of Delay Fractional Differential Equations by Using Linear Multistep Method

Basim K. AL-Saltani

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 217-222

The objective of this paper to find the solution of delay fractional differential equations as well as, their numerical solution. The modification was mode by introducing the new method which is linear multistep methods, which is solving numerically ordinary differential equations, delay differential equations and delay fractional differential equations. Furthermore this paper presents the statement and proof of the fundamental theorem of convergent and stability of delay fractional differential equations, this had been done with some modification.

Distribution of multi – drug resistant bacteria among hospital effluent

Ahlam K.Naeem; Alyaa E. Bashboosh; Abdullah O. Al-Hatami

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 223-226

The present study was curried out to estimate the spread of multi – drug resistant (MDR) bacterial from hospital effluent to the municipal sewage system. The total viable count of bacterial populations in hospital effluents was ranging from 10 colony forming unit(CFU)/ml for Serratia marcescens to 500 CFU/ml for Echrishia. coli in three hospitals; The percent of MDR bacteria population in all these hospitals ranged from (5%) Serratia marcescens to (97%) Echirishia. coli..Furthermore, the MDR bacteria carried simultaneous resistance for most commonly used antibiotics and obviously the spread of such MDR bacteria to the community is a matter of grave concern.

Partial purification of tannins from Quercus infectoria galls and the study of its effect on some isolated skin pathogenic microorganisms.

Ali Abdulkadhm AL-Ghanimi; Aziz Yasir AL-Ethari; Husain Kadhm Abdulhusain

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 227-234

Five methods were used for the extraction of tannins from Quercus infectoria galls. Results revealed that extraction with acetone (70%) was the best.Biochemical detection showed the existence of tannins and glycosides in the gall extract, with no alkaloids and essential oils.As regards biological test, the gall extract was very efficient in inhibiting the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogens, Pseudomonas auroginosa and the dermatophytic fungi: Trichophyton mentagrophytes.Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were 5 and 10 mg/ml for S. aureus and P. auroginosa, respectively.A partial purification for the above- mentioned extract was conducted. The purification steps included extraction with acetone (70%), extraction with ethanol (95%) and adsorption chromatography with Sephadex LH-20.

Effect of Crossover and Mutation Probabilities on Solving Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) in Genetic Algorithm

Dhmyaa A. Al-Nasrawy; Kathem A.A. Al-Rushdy

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 235-238

The aim of this paper is to explaining the effect of the probability of Crossover and mutation for solutions the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) in a Genetic Algorithm (GA). Order Crossover (OX) and exchange mutation operators have been used with experiment Law Crossover Probability ( Pc < 0.5) ,and high Mutation Probability ( Pm > 0.5 ).

The Activity of Aqueous Extract of Cuminum cyminum L. and Hibiscus sabdariffa L. against Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubum and Detection of Some their Active Chemical Groups.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 239-248

The development of more effective and less toxic antifungal agents is required for the treatment of dermatophytosis. The studies about the effect of plant extract against different types of fungi are still one of the most important fields of researches because they are available, cheep, and safe. Dermatophytes are fungi that can cause infections (known as tinea) of the skin, hair and nails because of their ability to use keratin. In this work, two plant extracts Hibiscus sabdariffa (H. sabdariffa) and Cuminum cyminum (C. cyminum) were tested for there possible biological activity against two dermatophytosis Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (T. mentagrophytes). Boiled aqueous extracts of both plants at the following concentrations (5, 7.5, and 10%) were used after cooling. Agar dilution method was used to examine the biological activity of each extract and the results expressed as diameter of colonies in (mm). The tests for functional groups that can be extracted by water were carried out. Hence, alkaloids, saponines, tannins, glycosides were screened using a suitable method while oils noticed as upper layer (if present).The results of both plants showed that the inhibition of fungal growth is dependent on the concentration of plant extract. The T. mentagrophytes is more sensitive in growth than T. rubum in response to both plant extracts. In general, there is no statistical difference (p>0.05) in the activity of both aqueous extracts against the two fungi. The pHs of 10% solution of C. cyminum and H. sabdariffa extract were 5.95 and 2.40, respectively. In C. cyminum there are detectable amounts of essential oils, glycosides and high amounts of tannins while alkaloids and saponines are not detectable using the described methods. In Hibiscus sabdariffa, there is a detectable amount of saponines, glycosides, and high amounts of tannins while there are no positive results for essential oils and alkaloids.In conclusion, the aqueous extracts of H. sabdariffa and C. cyminum have antifungal activity at concentrations ≥5%. There is no significant difference in the antifungal activity between the aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa and C. cyminum against both fungi. In general, both fungi showed same growth inhibition in response to both plant extracts. The results indicated that both of the plant extracts used in the present work are acidic (pH<7) and H. sabdariffa had higher acidity than cumin indicated the presence of different acidic compound in the extract. The acidity affects the growth of fungi and may decrease the rate of growth. This antifungal activity of the plant extract may be due, in part, to the presence of different active substances in the extracts. The results can be explained through the presence of different active substances, especially tannins and glycosides, of in the aqueous extract of both plants. More studies are required to isolate the specific antifungal compounds and to use the extract clinically.

EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL STUDY TO EVALUATE THE PERFORMANCE OF FOUR STROKE PETROL ENGINE

Haitham Remdhan Abed Ali

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 249-259

Experimental and theoretical study to know the performance of four strokes petrol engine (bore = 66.69 mm, stroke = 49.23 mm) is produced at different engine speed (2000, 2500, 3000 and 3600 rpm) and compression ratio (=7.38) which is choiced equal to the compression ratio of the test engine to ease the comparison. The study consists of torque, brake power, specific fuel consumption, and volumetric efficiency and Air/Fuel ratio. The comparison between experimental and theoretical studies gave good agreement.

Non-Linear Analysis Spur Gear Mesh by Finite Element Method

Ali Hammoudi. AL-Wazir; Amal A. Abdullah

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 260-273

Gearing is one of the most critical components in mechanical power transmission systems ,the characteristics of an involute gear system including contact stresses, bending stresses, and the transmission errors (T.E.) for a given was performed on spur gear set.. Transmission error is considered to be one of the main contributors to noise and vibration in a gear set. Transmission error measurement has become popular as an area of research on gears and is possible method for quality control. To estimate transmission error in a gear system, the characteristics of involute spur gears were analyzed by using the finite element method. The contact stresses were examined using 2-D FEM models in ver (8). The results indicate that combined torsional mesh stiffness increases at double pair of teeth and decreased in single pair teeth due to mesh cycle and the change in torsional mesh stiffness leads to change in transmission error that causes noise and vibration.

Effect of plant extracts and growth regulators on endogenous hormones and carbohydrate of snak cucumber (Cucumis melo var.Flexueses Naud) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

Abbas M.Jasim; Awatif N.Jerry; Murtadhah H. Fayadh

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 274-283

Two experiments were conducted during the growing seasons of 2002 and 2003 to find out the effect of garlic extract at (1: 0.5) and (1:1) (wt:volume) concentration and Liqurous extract at 1.25 and 2.50 mg/ L and growth regulator IAA at 25 ,50 and 75 mg/ L and ethephon at 100,200,300 mg/ L on endogenous hormones (auxins and gibberellins) and carbohydrates at three growth stage of snak cucumber and cucumber which were ; third to fourth true leaf stage, male flower appearance stage and female appearance stage . Random1zed complete block design was used with three replications for both experiments. Results showed a decrease in gibberellins and increase in auxins contents in both plants by the treatments of IAA (75 mg/L) and ethephon at (200,300 mg/L). Gibberellins contents decreased significantly by Liqurous at 2.50 gm/L for both plants in the second season only whereas, auxins contents increased by treatment of garlic (1:1) and Liqurous (2.5 gm/L) in cucumber for both seasons. Carbohydrates contents decreased at IAA (25 and 50 mg/L) for both season and increased in second season by ethephon in snake cucumber and by IAA (75mg/L) in the first season in cucumber. Male flowers appearance stage gave highest gibberellins contents compare to other stages. Female flowers appearance stage gave highest auxins and carbohydrates contents compare to other stages. Ethephon at 300mg/L treatment at female flower appearance stage gave the lowest gibberellins and highest auxins and carbohydrates for both plant and seasons.

Preparation and Determination Studies of Cobalt(III) and Nickel(II) Ions With New Reagent 2-[(6-Nitro-2-benzothiazolyl)azo ]-1-naphthol (α-NBTAN)by Spectrophotometric Methods

Khalid. J. Al-adely; Yussra. O. Mussa; Abid Allah. M. Ali

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 284-294

New heterocyclic azo dye reagent 2-[(6-Nitro-2-benzothiazolyl)azo]-1-naphtha(α-NBTAN=LH) and two complexes with Co(III) and Ni(II) have been prepared and characterized by using elemental analysis and vibrational spectra. A direct method has been developed for the spectrophotometric determination of microgram amounts of cobalt and nickel. This method sensitive, selective and rapid between Co(III) and Ni(II) with reagent (α-NBTAN) to form a color complexes. The molar absorptivity (Є) of the complexes are 2.51× 103 L. mol-1.cm-1 and 1.03 x103 L. mol-1.cm-1 at maximum absorptions ( λmax ) 629 nm and 625 nm for Co(III) and Ni(II) complexes respectively . The relative standard deviations, relative errors and recovery for Co(III) and Ni(II) complexes were : R.S.D%=1.16, 0.516, Re = 98.57, 97.14, D.L= 0.237, 0.537 and Erel % = 1.42, 1.12 respectively. The metal to ligand ratio (M : L) of complexes are (1 : 2) by using the mole ratio and slop ratio methods .

The Effect of Tellurium Content(x) on the Optical and Electrical Properties of (Se 1-x Tex) Thin Films

Bushra A.Hasan

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 295-308

Thin films of Se 1-x Te x were fabricated by co evaporating the separate elements under vacuum on glass substrate. Careful was used in order to obtain a wide range of composition i.e. ( Se, Se 0.9Te 0.1, Se 0.8Te 0.2, Se 0.7 Te 0.3,Se 0.6Te 0.4,Se 0.5Te 0.5,…..,Te).The transmittance and the absorbance were carried out in the spectral range (400-2500nm)and the values of optical energy gap (Eg),the optical constants (refractive index(n),the extinction coefficient(k),the real (ε1)and imaginary (ε 2) part of dielectric constant were calculated. The effect of increasing tellurium content (x) in selenium films on the optical parameters was discussed. The results for electrical properties like d.c conductivity ( σDC ),concentration of charge carriers (nH ) and the activation energy (Ea )were also found which support those of the optical results.

SURVEY OF INTESTINAL PARASITES WHICH CAUSING THE DIARRHAE IN AL- HEINDIA / KERBALA

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 6-10

In the present study, Asurvey was carried out to investigate the species and percentage incidence of infection with the intestinal parasites which causing diarrhea in Al- Handia reigen / Kirbala as well as parasites among different age and total of 2052 faecal samples attending to hospital in Al- Handia city a during the period from January 2005 till December 2006 In the present study investigation revealed the occurrence of species of intestinal parasites were:-
Entamoeba histolytica( Amoebiasis) 17.4% male and 9.5% femal (Giardiasis) 6.77% male and 5.26% femal But Giardia lamblia No significant(c²test) difference were noted in the overall percentage incidence of infection of male and femal. GenerallySignificant(c²test) difference were noted in the overall percentage incidence of infection of The month of years and overall percentage of infection during summer and autumn month, and lowerst during winter and spring (test under level 0.01 ,0.05

Study of Pollution of Selected Soils from Western Part of Al-Nahrawan Area (East Baghdad) by Heavy Metals

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 26-31

The study depend on (20) samples that represented of soil selected from Al-Nahrwan area (east Baghdad) , that include (60) brick factories that lies on western part of study area to determined concentration of (8) heavy metals that consider as environmental pollutants its (Pb , Cr , Ni , Cd , Fe , Mn , Co , Cu) where they found to be high compared with international limits . The study Indicated that this high concentration is relative with the emissions of factories .

Studies on nature of wheat grains infested with some stored grain insects

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 32-40

The stored grains in Iraq infested with many insects most of which are Sitophilus oryzac (L. ) , Rhizopertha dominica (F. ) and Trogoderma granarium ( Everts ) . The results showed that the studied insects fed on the wheat grains , Ultimately , they made holes or tunnels inside the wheat grains. These holes varies in shapes , numbers . depths , regularity and in the place of which they infested. Therefore the nature of the infestation seems clearly to be species specific. Concerning the study of the loss percentage of wheat grains to the insects, the result showed that it was between 21% - 30% .

The Vertical Distribution Study of Trace Elements In Sediments of Selected Location Within Hilla City

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 41-48

The study relied on the selection of (34)samples representing sediments of clay fractions which are less than (2)micrometer , sand fractions (125-88) micrometer with in the sediments of the study area for the depths of (0-540)cm to determine the concentrations of (6)heavy trace elements and environment Polluting which are ( Ni,Cu ,Zn , Pb , Cd and Fe ) and the study of the influential factors .It is found that upon the comparison of results obtained that the concentrations of sediment fractions of the trace elements of the sand fractions are lesser than their concentrations in that clay part of the sediment where these elements lie basically in the fine grains because they often adsorb on the clay mineral surfaces and the organic materials of the sediment .

The Effect of Corps Types and Soil Depths on Sodium , Potassium Concentrations and Cation Exchange Capacity Value

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 49-58

Filed experiment is conducted on recently reclaimed silt clay to examine the effect of wheat , barley corps and soil depths on the concentration of dissolved and exchangeable sodium , available potassium and exchanging capacity value . In Hartha Research and Experimental Station /College Agricultural/ Basrah University (35) km northern-east of Basrah City The method used is the factorial experiment Design of complete blocks . The blocks represents three states : pre-cultivation , post-wheat cultivation and finally post-barley cultivation .
There are two factors in the experiment .The first factor (A)represents the six depths of soil :a1(0-15)cm ,a2(15-30) cm,a3(30-45) cm,a4(45-60) cm,a5(60-90) cm and a6(90-120) cm .
The second factor (b) represents the concentration of Cation and CEC values of : b1(available sodium),b2(adsorbed sodium), b3(available potassium) and b4(cation exchanging capacity).
After applying the statistical analysis and correlation coefficient ,the following points were pin pointed .
1-There is a significant effect at 0.05 of barley on cation concentration , and CEC value when comparing it with pre-cultivation state , However there was no significant value when compared in wheat cultivation .
2-Soil depths do not show a significant differences.
3- Dissolved and exchangeable sodium , adsorbed sodium , and cation exchanging capacity value have shown significant difference among them with no exception . They also gave positive and negative correlation coefficient according the which it is recommended that barely cultivation in these lands its effective role on wheat cultivation .

Isolation of Giardia in Cattle in Babylon Province

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 59-62

During the period from January 2006 till August 2006, a total of 110 cows and 45 calves from Babylon Province were inspected for Giardia. The following parasite and their percentage incidences of infection were recorded 24.5%, 35.5%. Faecal samples from these cattle were examined by direct and Zink sulphate concentration methods. The prevalent was higher in cows 33.3% during August, and not record any infected in November. The prevalent was higher in calves 57.1% during July and not record any infected in March. Giardia in cattle is record for the first time in Babylon Province.

EFFECT OF SOWING AND CUTTING DATES ON SOME VEGETATIVE CHARACTERS AND YIELD OF JUTE PLANT "Corchorus olitorius L." GROWN IN SOUTHERN IRAQ.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 69-73

An experiment was conducted in a farm located at Abu El-Kassib region, Basrah Governorate, during the growing season of 2004 to investigate effect of three different sowing dates and cutting on some vegetative characters and yield of Jute plant. The trial included nine treatments, i.e. the interaction between three sowing dates (10/3, 20/3 and 30/3) and three cutting dates (1/6, 15/6 and 30/6). Factorial and completely randomized block design experiment was used with three replicates.Results showed that sowing Jute seeds at the date of 30/3 gave significant increases in plant height, number of leaves, leaf width and fresh weight, percentage of leaf dry matter and yield of squared meter as compared to the sowing dates of 10/3 and 20/3. In regard to total yield, the sowing date of 30/3 gave 2.572 Kg/m2, whereas the sowing dates of 10/3 and 20/3 produced (1.557 and 1.712 Kg/m2), respectively.The cutting date of 30/6 gave significant increases in all parameters studied, except that for leaf length, over the cutting dates of 1/6 and 15/6.Significant differences were found between the interaction treatments in regard to the number of leaves, stem diameter, percentage of leaf dry matter and total yield .Total yield was found to be 2.086 Kg/m2 for cutting date of 30/6 whereas those of 1/6 and 15/6 harvest dates were (1.823 and 1.865 Kg/m2¬) respectively.

NETWORK PROBLEM: A NEW APPOCH

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 74-79

In this paper; A new approach was developed to treat the network problem , in the sense of calculating the shortest time to perform the objective action T1, the allowed largest time to perform the objective time T2, the allowed idle time to perform the objective action S, and to determined the critical path of the performance of the net work whereas there does not exist any chance to delay the performance of any critical action

A Survey of intestinal parasites in some health centers of Karbala city

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 80-86

During the period from November 2006 to March 2007, an epidemiological study was undertaken the type and percentage incidence of investigation with the intestinal parasites among patients attending three health centers in Karbala city . A total of 557 fecal samples ( 306 for males and 251 for females ) were examined for people ranging from less than one years old to 70 years old . The direct smear method by using normal saline solution and Eosin stain were used to examined fecal samples. The results of the present investigation revealdThe occurrence of four intestinal protozoa's:67.61% for Entamoeba histolytica,%16.55 for Giardia lamblia , %12.06 for Entamoeba coli and %3.78 for Trichomonas hominis . The overall percentage of infection with all intestinal parasites was 75.94% .Height significant differences in most intestinal parasite investigation and the percentage incidence of infection between males and females and height significant differences were noted in the overall percentage infection relation to educational level . No significant differences were noted in the overall percentage of infection in relation to age of patient.

EFFECT OF IRRIGATION INTERVALS, PLOWING DEPTH AND PLANTING DATE ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF CORN

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 87-98

This study was conducted in the experimental farm (Akad) in Theqar governorate through the season of 2002-2003 to investigate the effect irrigate intervals, depth of plowing and planting date also their interaction on the growth, yield and its component for corn. Split- Split- Plots design was used in this study, main plots include irrigation systems (7 days, 14 days and 21 days) plowing depth as sub-plots include two treatment (0-20) cm and (0-40) cm. concerning sub-sub-plots they include the planting date as follows (3/ July, 18/ July, 2/ Aug). The results of the statistical analysis of the data showed that the plant height, Leave area index, Length of panicls, numbers of grains in panicls, weight of 100 grains and grain yield , had significantly affected by the study factors. Also the results have shown that shortest irrigation interval gave a highest values , and the shortest irrigation interval (7 days) had significantly increased the yield of grain corn which was 8.66 and 10.40 (ton/ha) as compared to irrigation intervals 14 days and 21 days for the growing season of 2002 and 2003 respectively. Also increasing of plowing depth (0-40) cm increased the yield of grain by 15.5% and 12.4 % for the growing season of 2002 and 2003 respectively. There was significant effect for interaction between each two factors. The best combination was obtained from the interaction between 7 days irrigation intervals, planting date (18 July) and plowing depth (0-40) cm.

A Study on the Liquid-Liquid Extraction of Neodymium ion (Ш) With sudan black B

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 99-114

A study on the liquid-liquid extraction of Neodymium (Ш) with Sodan Black B in chloroform that refer by (SBB) has been made. The effect of different parameters on the percent of extraction & extraction coefficient such as type of medium & time of equilibration ,concentration of metal ion , type of organic solvent , effect of batch extraction , salting out , effect of some cations & anions as common interfering on distribution ration & effect of temperature .The function of thermodynamic parameters of (ΔH,ΔGand ΔS) were calculated .The stoichiometry of the extract species is determined using two methods such as mole ration & Job's method it was found to be (Μ : L) (1 : 3) .The stability constant of complex in the mole ratio method was calculated .Studying the UV-Visible spectra were studied both of reagent (SBB) & extracted complex in organic phase .Other physical constant namely , melting-point , & molar conductivity were measured .At last the new study for determination of Nd (Ш) ion in organic phase was began .

An Analytical Comparative Study of Refined and Raw Water of Kerbala Government

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 115-123

An analytical study on refined water projects and their recourses (i.e. Husaniuah river) at kerbala government during 2004-2005 to evaluate the efficiency of those projects and to investigate if the output data were matched with the world health organization measures and the out coming information from Iraqi ecological offices. The following projects 7 Nissan , Hi alhussain , Hi oroba , old staff , mew hurr , Shabanat , Western valley have been chosen.
A weekly samples from refined water and raw water were taken throughout a year commenced on January up to December to determine some of the physiochemical and biological characteristic. Results showed that pH , cl- , Alk. , TDS measurements were at lower limits, where as, E.C. , Turb. , TH were at higher limits, with WHO standards. Ca+2 was the only element which increased at the whole stations which resulted in increased TH and EC values while Mg+2 was within reasonable limits. Statistical analysis for refined water showed the standard error for pH was at lower values, while for EC and the most others traits were at higher values. Uniformity values were lower than 85% for Turb. , Mg+2 and Alk. Which indicated that those measurements were irregular. Results showed that the measurement of raw water were slightly higher than those of refined water according to ASCE standard and they classified from excellent to good grade. The statistical analysis showed S.E values appeared wide differences between higher and lower values for the characteristics being examined, but they were acceptable in general with the most U.C. values despite the fact that they were matched with Michael, 1978 standard. The bacteriology investigations were done and the results were negative which proved the usability of water.

Bacterial urinary tract infections among diabetic mellitus patients and their resistance to antibiotics

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 135-142

During study (140) urine samples were examined from diabetic mellitus patient (70 diabeteic patient from type I and 70 diabeteic patient from type II ).They are 78 males and 62 females. All patients attending urine unit and from those setting at Marjan teaching hospital in Babylon province during period from October 2005 to the end of March 2006.Results have been compared with 40 urine samples belongs to healthy subjects (control). The results revealed that the percentage of bacterial infection associated with urinary tract for diabeteic patients (80.7%) ،while control (12.5%).Gram – negative bacteria, the main cause of infection, were constituted (77.9%) and included Escherichia coli (41.4%) , Klebsiella pneumoniae (28%) , Proteus mirabilis (5%) , Proteus vulgaris (2.1%),Enterobacter (1.4 %) Gram positive bacteria were constituted (2.8%) including Staphylococcus aureus(1.4 %) , Streptococcus pyogenes (1.4 %). The study revealed that the highest rate of infection (97.5 %) among(50 or more) year. According type of diabetic mellitus it was found that the highest rate of infection (93 %) was found among type I diabetic mellitus patient . Regarding sex factor , females revealed higher percentage (94 %) compared with males (71 %).The effect of some antibiotics on bacterial strain were performed, Gram negative bacteria were highly resistance to Ampicillin (99 %), Amoxycillin-clavulanic acid (96.2%),Cephalexin(94.3%), Cephalothin (68.2%),while lower percentage ( 52.3 %, 14.9%) recoreded with Gentamicin and Amikacin respectively

EFFECT OF SOME ORGANIC ACIDS ON STORABILITY OF TOMATO FRUITS CV. SUPER MAMANDE

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 143-148

An experiment was carried out to study the role of some organic acids (acetic acids, citric acids and boric acids) with concentrations of 2%, 4% and 6% for every acids on storability of tomato fruits cv. Super Marmande grown in Basrah. Results showed that tomato fruits could be stored for 21 days at 5±2ºc, after packing in polyethylene bags. Results also showed the activities of the concentrations 4% and 6% of boric acid in decrease the decay of fruits. In addition, some of microorganisms which were the reason of decay of fruits were identified: Penicillium italicum, Aspergillus niger , Rhizopus stolonifer, Erwinia carotovora .Coliform also identified in this study. According to the statistical analysis, there were no significant differences among treatments in their effects on total soluble solids, total titratable acidity, and amount of vit.C of tomato fruits cv. Super Marmande.

The Efffect of Crops Types and Soil Depths on Some Values of Compoundes ,and Indicators

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 149-162

In Hartha Research and Experimental station, College of Agriculture – Basrah University (35)Km northen –east of Basrah city . An experimental field was conducted in soil (clayey silt –silty ) cultivated with two crops , wheat .Triticum aestivume ,and Barley Hardem Vulgare L. To Know the roles of these Crops to get recently reclaimed soil better properties .The method used is the Factorial Experimental Design with completely Blocks Randomized, with two factors ,the first (A) has six levels as follows :
A1(0-15)cm , a2(15-30)cm , a3(30-45)cm , a4(45-60)cm, a5(60- 90)cm , and a6(90-120)cm
The second factor (B) have seven levels that as follows :
B1(Gypsum) , b2(Lime) , b3(Total nitrogen) , b4(Organic mater) , b5(SAR) , b6(ESP) and b7(PRI).The Blocks represent three states: R1(pre-cultivation) , R2(Past-wheat cultivation ) , R3(Past-Barley cultivation).
After complying collected data , and applying the statistical analysis with Correlation Coefficient to know the significant effect between wheat and barley and among chemical indications and compounds show :
1-Soil depths which represent first factor have not significant differences on all the chemical indicators and compounds.
2-Crops type shows highly significant effects for barley when compared with part-wheat cultivation and pre-cultivation.
3- Planting barley shows good Correlation Coefficient which are in agreement with natural Correlation that fit to the gighly standards which emphasizes the role of the grops in promoting Characteristics of the soil compared with the condition of planting wheat particularly with Gypsum ,Lime , Nitrogen total , Organic mater .

The effect of crops types and soil Depths on, Calcium, Magnesium Sodium Saliniazation

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 163-175

An experimental Field was conducted in heavy soil texture ( clayey silt – silty ) was empirical in Hartha Research and Experimental station college Agriculture – Basrah University (35) km northern – east of Basrah city, to examine the effect of types crops ( wheat , Barley ) , and soil depths on calcium , Magnesium , Sodium Saliniazation . The method used was Factorial experimental Design with completely Blocks Randomized. The blocks represent three states:- Pre- cultivation, past – wheat cultivation and finally post – barley cultivation. There are two Factors in the experiment. The first factor ( A) represent six depths of soil : a1 ( 0-15) , a2(15-30) , a3( 30-45 ) , a4(45-60) a5(60-90 ) , and a6 ( 90-120) . The second factor ( B) represents six from ( cat ion and anion ) as Fellow b1( Calcium ) , b2(Magnesium ), b3 ( Sodium ) , b4( chloride ),b5(Sulphate) and b6( Bicarbonate).After complying collected data, and applying the statistical analysis with Correlation coefficient showed that:- Crops types (wheat and barley) were given highly significant at 0.01 level, especially barley when it was compared with pre- cultivation and post – wheat cultivation ,the level of factor (B) (cat ion and anion) showed highly Significant effects among them, except the relation from Calcium, Magnesium, and did not have any Significant. Soil depths have not significant differences . From all results which were collected they indicated that barley-cultivation gave better properties of soil rather than wheat- cultivation.

Introduction a new cultivar of jute and development its planting under Iraqi conditions

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 190-198

Three cultivars of jute were obtained from International genetic resource called : Green Indian jute , Manchurian jute and P-22 in order to tested and develop its planting under Iraqi conditions , on other hand , their used in textile and papers manufactured . This study was carried out for four respectively seasons from 1999 2002 at three experimental stations e.g. (AL-Taji , Zafurania and Madain ) . Results show that the cultivar of green Indian exceeded significantly the other cultivars in all character’s that had been studied such as plant height , diameter of stem , number of tillering / plant , number of pods / plant and grain yield . However, the over all means of the characters that have been mentioned above , were plant height (25%) , diameter of stem ( 17% ) , number of tillering / plant (58% ) , number of pods / plant (14% ) and grain yield (98% ). Whereas, the average yield of the biomass was 22.11 tons / ha, which caused increased in the yield (38%) comparing with the cultivars that gaves the highest yield.

The Effect of Some Plant Extracts on the Growth of Date Palm Leaves Spot Fungi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 199-203

The present study has been conducted at the laboratories of Date Palm Research Center to evaluate the inhibition efficiency of plant extract which were Clerodendron inerme, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Rhus coriaria at three concentrations (0.25, 0.5 and1%) on the radial and dry growth of some pathogenic fungi for date palm.Results of survey successed in isolation different groups of fungi ,and the fungi Alternaria alternata , A. chlamydospora and Ulocladium atrum, were the most abundant amongst isolated fungi, results of plant extracts test proved that Rhus coriaria Ethanolic extracts had the highest average of fungal growth inhibition percentage which were 43.23, 44.59, and 42.84% respectively, as a percentage of radial growth inhibition, and 65.38, 53.13 and 52.23% respectively, as percentage of dry growth inhibition.From obtained results it was clear the increasing of extract concentration (%) correlated positively with the inhibition percentage, against the growth of date palm leaf spot fungal pathogen

EFFECT OF SPRAYING PLANT EXTRACTS AND GROWTH REGULATORS ON FLOWERING OF SNAKE CUCUMBER (Cucumis melo var.flexuoses Naud) AND CUCUMBER (Cucumis sativus L.)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 204-211

This experiment has been conducted on snak cucumber and cucumber in Abu-Al-Khassib region-Basrah, during the autumn growing seasons of 2002 and 2003, to study the effect of garlic extract at (0.5:1) and (1:1) (w:v), and the common liquorice extract at 1.25 and 2.5 g.l-1, IAA 25,50 and 75 mg.l-1 , and ethephon at 100,200,300 mg.l-1on the flowering of snake cucumber (cv.Khunaisry) and cucumber (cv.Beit alpha) plants.The design of each experiment were a randomized complete block design in three replications.The result showed that the formation of the male flower delayed at 2.5 g.l-1 liquorice extract and 200 mg.l-1 ethephon, 2.5 g.l-1 liquorice extract at the second season for snake cucumber, but it delayed at 0.5:1 garlic extract at the first season, 200 mg.l-1 ethepon at both seasons, (25 and 50) mg.l-1 (IAA) at the first and second season respectively for cucumber.
The formation of the female flower earliness at 300 mg.l-1 ethphon for both plants at both seasons and also earliness at 75 mg.l-1 (IAA) and 100 mg.l-1 ethephon at second season for cucumber. The number of female flowers increased at 2.5 g.l-1 liquorice extract for both plants and 1:1 garlic extract at second seasons for cucumber. Also IAA and ethphon increased female flowers at both seasons for both plants.The increase of plant extracts and growth regulators conc. decreased sex ratio and increased fruit set. Ehephon at conc. (300 mg.l-1) gave the highest number of female flowers and fruits set and the lowest number of male flowers and sex ratio.

THE EFFECT OF SERVICE TYPE , LEVEL OF MILK PRODUCTION AND CALVING SEASON IN SOME REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS IN FRISIAN CATTLE

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 212-218

This study was conducted at Al-Ishaki Dairy Cattle Station , Al-Ishaki (50 km north of Baghdad) and over the period from 2000 to 2004 , 1215 and 952 records of production traits.This investigated was conducted at Al- Ishaki Dairy Cattle Station, Al-Ishaki (50 km north of Baghdad), and over the period from 2000 to 2004, 810 records (278 Friesian cows) of reproductive traits (days open, service per conception, calving interval and gestation period) produced by Friesian were analyzed statistically. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of fixed factors (type of service , level of milk production and calving season) in above reproductive traits. The General Linear Model (GLM) within the SAS program was used to the effects of fixed factors in reproductive traits. The overall mean of days open , service per conception , calving interval and gestation period were 119.83 days , 2.48 services, 399.54 days and 279.71 days respectively. Type of service significantly (P<0.05) affected in days open and calving interval and highly significantly (P<0.01) in service per conception, except in gestation period lacked significance. Effected level of milk production in reproductive traits in this study were significant, except in gestation period lacked significance. Calving season highly significant affected in service per conception, whereas, effect then calving season in days open, calving interval and gestation period non significance. The used of naturally service of Friesian cows increased performance of cows in herd according to reproductive traits in this study comparative with artificial insemination, they are of utmost importance for increased number of cows the naturally service in this station.

Measurement of threshold temperature required for nymphal stage development of Aphis fabae Scop.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 219-222

The aim of this investigation was to measure the threshold temperature required for nymphal stage developments of Aphis fabae Scop., Which was used as prediction of biological activities of this insect, in order to control it in field. The results showed that the threshold temperature degree required for nymphal stage developments was 5.65C, and under this temperature no development was occurred. Also, the result showed that the average units of degree- day required for the four nymohal stage developments were 25.64, 33.33, 38.46 and 45.45 degree- day respectively.

The effect of fertilizer rate and sowing depth on the some growth characteristics and yield and its components for three wheat cultivars(Triticum aestivum L.)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 223-235

An experiment was carried out at Yosefiya which located(30)km from Baghdad .three wheat cultivars were tested (IPA95,Rashid,and Sally) . Three fertilizer rates were applied (no fertilizer ,200kg N and 300kg N/ha) and two sowing depth were used (4and8cm) . Results showed that Shallow planting gave siginificant influence on plant height ,lodging index, number of spike/m2and grain yield. Whereas ,deep planting had significant effect on spike length ,number of spikelet /spike and number of grains /spike. In general sally cultivar gave the highest lodging index and Al- Rashed Cultivar gave the highest weight of 1000 grains and spike length.While IPA95 Cultivar gave the highest leaf area index ,number of spikes/m2 and numper of grains/ spike . the interaction between cultivar and fertility treatment was significant on the most studied traits while the interaction between Cultivar ,fertilizer treatment and sowing depth was not significant. fertilizer treatment of 300kgn/ha was superizer on the most studied characters.The highest yield was 4.2 ton/ hectare for the cultivar IPA95 with the fertilizer treatment of 300Kg N/hectare .

The effect of soil fertilization with DAP and foliar spray of boron on the nutritional status and some fruit quality characteristics of apple trees cv. "Anna".

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 236-242

An experiment was carried out in a private orchard (30 km) north east Kerbala' city on 9 – year – old apple trees cv. "Anna". This experiment included two levels of diammonium phosphate (DAP) (0 and 1 kg/tree) interacted with three concs . of boron (0,10 and 20 ) mg /l as foliar application . The aim of this experiment was to assess the influence of these factors and their interactions on macronutrients concs . in leaves and fruits as well as on some fruit quality characteristics. A completely randomized design was adopted, included 6 treatments (2x3) for DAP and B concs. respectively with three replicates .Treatment means were compared using L.S.D.at 5% probability level . The following results were obtained :
1- Soil fertilization with DAP significantly increased leaves and fruits N,P,K,Ca and B , whereas, Mg conc. was decreased .
2- Foliar application of boron markedly increased leaves P,K,Ca and B and fruits N,P,K,Ca and B as well as all characteristics of fruit quality , while, Mg was decreased .
3- The interaction between these two factors significantly increased leaves P,Ca ,Mg and B as well as fruits N,P,Mg,B and (T.S.S.).

Estimation of heritability for some productive traits in Leghorn hens by using REML , ML , MIVQUE and TYPE1

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 253-256

The study was conducted at the poultry farm of Animal Resources Department, College of Agriculture, Baghdad University, Abu-Gharib over period from Janu.2005 to Sep.2005 on White Leghorn (24 sire , 131 dam ,336 progeny ). The aim of the research is to make a comparison between age and weight at sexual maturity as adjustment factors on some traits (egg weight, egg number and egg mass) and the effect of each of them on estimation of heritability by using fourth methods .General Linear Model (GLM) within the SAS program 2001 was used. Component of variance for the random effects in the employed mixed model were estimated by fourth methods REML , ML , MIVQUE , TYPE1 . Heritability estimated for egg weight after adjusting for age at sexual maturity using REML,ML.MIVQUE and TYPE1 were 0.34 , 0.32 . 0.26 .0.32 and for egg number 0.69 , 0.66 , 0.51 , 0.63 and for egg mass 0.44 , 0.42 , 0.34 , 0.42 . , whereas the corresponding estimates of heritability of the same traits after adjusting for weight at sexual maturity were 0.31 , 0.29 , 0.25 , 0.30 and 0.68 , 0.65 , 0.65 , 0.50 , 0.62 and 0.47 , 0.45 , 0.37 , 0.45 respectively .

GENETIC EVALUATION OF SOME REPRODUCTIVE EFFECINIECY INDICATOR IN HOLSTEIN FRIESIAN CATTLE

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 257-262

At the Nasr and Al-Ishaki Dairy Cattle Station, 944 , 931 and 977 records of period from cow birth to first service(BFC), cow birth to first days open (BDO) and age at first calving (AFC) belonged to Holstein Friesian cattle were analyzed statistically.The aim of present study is to investigate the estimate of genetic variance after adjustment of fixed effects and to estimate genetic parameters of traits.The Bolls of Holsteins Friesian at the both Station were evaluated genetically due to their daughters BFC , BDO and AFC. The General Linear Model (GLM) in the SAS program was used to study the effects of stable factors (season & year of birth and herd). Components of variance for the random effects in the employed mixed model were estimated by the Restricted Maximum Likelihood procedure. The Harvey program was also used to estimate BLUP values. The overall means for the BFC , BDO and AFC were 19.43, 21.51 and 30.91 month respectively. Season of birth significantly (P<0.05) affected on BFC and BDO, whereas, effects year of birth on physiological traits highly significant, herd affected significantly on BDO (P<0.05) and AFC(P<0.01). The heritability of the BFC , BDO and AFC were 0.38 , 0.29 and 0.35 respectively. BLUP (Best Linear Unbiased Prediction) estimates displayed a wide range among bolls included in the current study. Therefore, they are of utmost importance for selection programs aiming at reducing and curtailing of bolls.

Comparative Study of Fungi in the Air of Kerbala City.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 263-267

The research was carried out during November and December, 2002. This research included comparison of air fungi in a specific area in Kerbala city during crowd and normal days . This study proved that, Aspergillus showed the highest per cent of occurrence in normal and crowd days . A.fumigatus species and Penicillium which gave high per cent of occurrence, frequency and DII in crowd days compared with other fungi on the other hand , A. niger and A.flavus gave high percent of occurrence, frequency and DII in normal days compared with other fungi . These fungi were considered as an indicator for air pollution and pathogenic for human.

Effect of Fertilization by Ammonium Sulphate and Naphthalene Acetic Acid Spraying on the Growth , Yield Components and Medical Substance ‘Glutathione’ for Onion Crop (Allium cepa L.)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 284-293

This experiment was conducted at Babylon Governorate in AL-Musaib farms during the growth season of 2004/2005 to study the effect of fertilization by Ammonium Sulphate NH4(SO4)2 at levels (0 , 90 and 180 kg/D) and spraying by Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) at concentration (0 , 75 , 100 and 150 mg/L) for one time at vegetative growth (after 50 days of rise) on growth , yield components and Glutathione content of onion crop (Allium cepa L.) variety Local red .The random complete block design was used at split-plot three times . The means were compared according to (Duncan’s Multiple Range Test) at probability of 5% . Results showed that Fertilization at level (90 kg/D) effected significantly on characters of (Leaves number , shoot dry weight , total chlorophyll , bulb diameter , bulb wet weight , total yield , percentages of protein and total soluble solid ) which gave heighest means . Meanwhile , the level (180 kg/D) gave significant superiority in leaf length , percentages of carbohydrates and bulb contents of medical substance . And the results showed that spraying by NAA with 150 mg/L concentration effected significant on most study characters except on leaf length , percentages of carbohydrates and bulb contents of medical substance , which appeared significant effect when treating with 100 mg/L NAA .The interaction (90 kg/D Ammonium sulphate with 150 mg/L of NAA) suggested the highest means of the characters (Leaves number , shoot dry weight , total chlorophyll , bulb diameter , bulb wet weight , total yield , percentages of protein and total soluble solid ) while the interaction (180 kg/D Ammonium Sulphate and 100 mg/L NAA) give the highest means of the characters (leaf length , percentages of carbohydrates and bulb contents of medical substance) compared with comparing treatment which give the least means .

GENETIC RESISTANCE OF THE INCIDENCE OF MITRITIS IN FRIESIAN CATTLE

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 304-310

At the Ishaki Dairy Cattle Station (50 km north Baghdad),. and over the period from 2003 to 2006 , 1500 records produced by 600 cows were analyzed. Friesian cows were analyzed statistically . An index for the resistance to metritis was derived for each cow depending on the duration and period of infection , the number of infected and parity of infection . A genetic evaluation of the Friesian at the Station as to their degree resistance to metritis.The General Linear Model within the SAS program (2001) was used to study the effects of fixed factors and estimate of components of variance for the random effects in the employed mixed model was estimated by the Restricted Maximum Likelihood procedure. The Harvey program (1990) was also used to estimate of the BLUP values.Overall means of resistance to metritis (RM) and incidence of the disease(IM) were 81.62 degree and 18.09 % respectively.The effect of parity, season and year parturition on RM and IM were significant.Heritability of RM,TMP(total milk production), SPC(service per consumption) and calving interval (CI) were 0.29 , 0.`19 , 0.04 and 0.06 respectively.The genetic correlation between RM with TMP, SPC and CI were – 0.26 (p<0.01), - 0.09 and 0.04, while the phenotypic correlation – 0.32 (P<0.01) , - 0.11 and 0.05 respectively. BLUP (Best Linear Unbiased Prediction) estimates displayed a wide range among cows included in the current study. Therefore, they are of utmost importance for selection programs aiming at reducing and curtailing the resistance to metritis.

Chemical anf physical proprties of flour produced from Kerbala millers compared with standard proprties

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 496-504

Flour produced from AlWala', Alhana', Alrawdha, Kerbala and Alali millers was used in this study with 85% extraction rate. This flour was taken from different wheat combination supplied from Kerbala silo. Percentages of moisture content, ash, wet and dry gluten and flour particle size were determind from Dec. 2006 till Feb. 2007.Results revealed that, (apart from moisture content of flour in Alwala', Alhana' and Alrawdha and ash content in Alwala' and Kerbala mills) each mill production was different in the above mentioned proprties according to the wheat cultivars and the mixed percentage.It was also appeared that, values of the studied characteristics of all samples were within the standard ranges inspite of the slight differences between one mill and the other.

Main line terminations in palm of three generations in Karbala province

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 546-554

The main line terminations in palm for a sample consist of (300 individual) represented three generations respectively, which are seventieth ,eightieth and ninetieth (50 individual for each sex). When the comparison between identical hands to the samples, the following terminations showed increased significant to the eightieth males, A-5¯ and B-7,and to the ninetieth male samples A-2,A-5¯,B-7,C-x and D-11compared with seventieth male sample. And to the eightieth female sample A-2,A-11,B-4,C-5 and D-7, and to the ninetieth female sample B-4,C-5,C-0,D-7 and D-9 compared with seventieth female sample. The following terminations showed decreased significant to the eightieth male sample A-4,B-5= and D-7, and to the ninetieth male sample A-4,B-4,B-5= and D-7 compared with seventieth male sample. And to the eightieth female sample A-4,B-7,C-9 and D-11,and to the ninetieth female sample B-7,C-9 and D-11 compared with the seventieth female sample.