ISSN: 1813-0410

Volume 3, Issue 4

Volume 3, Issue 4, Autumn 2007, Page 1-249


MEASURMENT AND ANALYZES OF POVERTY BY FOOD SECURITY AND FRAGILE GROUPS IN KARBALA COMMUNITY

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 206-214

The present paper studies the phenomenon of poverty in the Karbala community. The phenomenon is analyzed according to the premises of the nutritional condition that the survey conducted in 2005 showed. This was based on a vision that that looks at the food security and fragile groups indicators as one of the most significant manifestations of poverty.The paper relied on the inductive approach using quantitative analysis with a theoretical introduction for the phenomenon from the food security and the fragile groups perspective. The contribution of the paper is in the origination of a theoretical knowledge regarding the relationship of poverty to food security and also the analysis of the main indicators in the light of the premises of the food condition in the province trying at the same time to measure poverty and richness in the same province.The paper concluded in some recommendations which may contribute to draw new policies that could face this malaise.

Synthesis of the new carbohydrate Ibuprofen ester as possible prodrug

Mahan K. Mahmmod

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 4-10

Synthesis of new ibuprofen ester (5) is described . Ester formation was achieved by esterification of the ibuprofen carboxylic acid (1) with diacetone fructose (3) The structure of synthesized compounds were characterized by means of FTIR and UV, Preliminary results showed that the prepared fructose-drug conjugates underwent hydrolysis and released the pound ibuprofen and fructose. However, detailed kinetic studies of chemical and potential enzyme hydrolysis still remain to be down.

The relation between waist circumference, hypertension and type two diabetes mellitus

Kadhim A.Al-hilali; Hadi A.Sayah; Riadh M.AL-Saigh

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 11-17

Background:Waist circumference is a useful parameter used to measure abdominal obesity .Values higher than normal are associated with increased prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension.
Objective: To evaluate the association between increased waist circumference and the increase in incidence of hypertension and type two diabetes mellitus.
Methods: The total number of persons examined was 1677. Their age ranged from 20-70 years with an average of 53 year.The waist circumference was measured in centimetre , together with other data designed in the data sheet for this study , hypertensive and diabetic(type two) people were identified and recorded.
Patients who had coexisted Diabetes Mellitus and hypertension were excluded from the study.
Results: The total number of females was 785,out of them ,379(48%)had increased waist circumference ,This included 137(36%)hypertensive, and 55(14.5%) diabetics ,compared with 406(52%)women with normal waist circumference and included 53(13%)hypertensive and 32(7.9%)diabetics.
Out of 892 males ,104(11.7%)had increased waist circumference and included 37(35.6%) hypertensive and 19(18.3%)diabetics, compared with 788 men who had normal waist circumference ,and included 81(10.3%)hypertensive and 60(7.6%) diabetics.
Conclusion:
1. The prevalence of hypertension and type two diabetes mellitus was seem to be increased in proportion to the increasing in waist circumference.
2. Low educational level and socioeconomic state associated with increased prevalence of obesity and its complication.
Keywords: waist circumference, abdominal obesity, central obesity, cut-off points, companions

Mathematical Calculation of Patient's Fluoroscopic Entrance Dose in Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy

Ali Baker; Hussein Abed; ed Mohammed Kadhum; Abrar Mohammed Khuder

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 18-22

The aim of this study was to determine the radiation doses to patients during extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) and compare them with the available bibliographical data. In this method localization of the renal stones is attained by the use of fluoroscopy, and thus ESWL is included among those medical practices associated with patient radiation exposure. The main parameters that which enrolled in this project are the time of exposure and x-ray techniques (mA and kv). Fifty cases were enrolled in this project. Entrance dose were calculated using mathematical equation that which relate the X-ray techniques (mA and kv)and distance from the patients to entrance dose. The results show that the entrance dose was significantly very high relative to these obtained from normal radiographic examination

A study of the effect of cytokines and LPS on the growth of some pathogenic bacteria

Mahdi H. M.Al- Ammar; Angam M.Ali

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 23-28

Patients with respiartory tract infection have elevated rates of proinflammatory cytokines in the lungs and circulation and increased levels of bacterial infections. Pathogenic cells activated with lipopolysacchride( LPS) that elecate a high levels of proinflammatory cytokines in monocytic cells ,are ineffeicient for killing ingested bacteria in spite of having intact pathogenic activity.Bacteria may adapt and utilize cytokines and LPS in high concentrations on their growth . A primed a monocytes cells with exessive concentrations of cytokines TNF-α ,IL-1β and IL-6 and with LPS .Then exposed to isolates of some pathogenic bacteria represented by St. pyogenes,Pseudomonas aeruginose ,and Haemophilus influenzae that cause diseases for respiratory tract .The intacellular growth were decreased with lower concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines (10-100 µg )or LPS (0.5 to 1 µg ). However , when human monocytes were primed with higher concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines (100 to 1000µg ), intacellular growth of the testing bacteria increased significally.

Local And Systemic Effects Of Injection Of Lytic And Non-lytic Strains Of Newcastle Disease Virus On Regression Of Cancer

Abdul Ameer Oda Ismail

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 29-36

In this paper report the regression effects of NDV(lytic and non-lytic strains) adiministered by either the intratumoral (I.T) route or by the systemic (intraperitoneal , I.P ) route to treat murine mammary adenocarcinoma transplanted subcutaneously in mice . For (I.T)treatments,mice were randomized in to treatment groups and given a five doses I.T injection of lytic strain of NDV (ELD50109) or non-lytic strain (EID50109) ,vehicle (allantoic fluid) .Significant tumor size regression(70%) was seen in the group treated with lytic strain and (54%) was seen in the group treated with non-lytic strain compared with tumor size at the start of the treatment. For I.P treatments with lytic and non-lytic strains ,shown increase in the relative tumor volume but less than increased will be occur in the groups treated with allantoic fluid and group without treatment. In groups ,tumors treated I.T or I.P with allantoic fluid or negative control group displayed rapid tumor growth. These data shown that the ingection of NDV I.T is an effective more than when injection I.P,and the lytic strain causes regression of tumor size more than will causes by non-lytic strain.

Medical Images Compression using Wavelet Transform

Hanaa Muhsein Ali

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 37-47

In this project the compression system based on factor called weighting factor, which can be throughout it, specification the numbers of bits for each band. In this method wavelet transform was applied upon the image, and division the result transform coefficients into frequency blocks and then determining the standard devotion of each blocks. This was done to show the importance of each block and then to specify the numbers of bits necessary according to its subjection significance
From result which apparent in the tables, the smallest compression ratio equal (2) as in image (tt1) and the largest compression ratio equal (5), that mean in this project compression system design to compression the image between 2-5 times, but in high compression ratio appear blocks in the image. This indicate that the system utilized as the lossless compression system

STUDY THE VALIDITY OF USING THE WIND MILL DOUBLY FED INDUCTION GENERATOR SYSTEM FOR ELECTRICITY GENERATING IN IRAQ

Nizar Jawad. Hadi; Ali A. AL - Tahir

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 48-62

This study aims to investigate the complete technology cycle of windmill, the work consists of two parts, the first is mechanical part and the other is electrical part. The first part includes air attacking with the windmill blades and transfers the dynamic energy to the mechanical energy using triple or octal blades mill. The resulted velocity will increase with a certain magnitude by using a suitable gearbox. The final power and velocity resulted from this part used as an input to the electrical part. EXCEL program used to obtain the optimal specifications for number of blades, blade diameter, the tower height and wind velocity. The windmill doubly fed induction generator WMDFIG system consists of the windmill, the doubly fed induction generator, current, and torque control circuits. The (A.C / D.C) and (D.C / A.C) converter circuits are divided into two components; which are rotor side converter (Crotor) and the national grid side converter Cgrid, also an inductor is used to connect grid converter Cgrid to the electrical national grid.. The model of electrical part was programmed by MATLAB package Vol.7.0 using the inputs mentioned above and the output electrical power produced is controlled by a certain controller circuit and feedback speed meter. This study proves that power produced from available winds energy in Iraq is acceptable, which gives 15. 213 kW for eight blades model and 3.983 kW for three blades.

Effect of Adding Styrene Butadiene Rubber Admixture (SBR) on Concrete Properties and Bond Between Old and New Concrete

Mahdi Saleh Essa; Nada Flah Hassan

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 63-74

The study involves the effect of adding cempatch SBR ( Styrene- Butadiene – Rubber) emulsion to the followings:
1- Cement mortar with different dosages of SBR ( 10 %, 25%, 35% ) by volume of water. Compressive strength of this mortar was tested at ages ( 7, 28, 60 ) days. Initial and final setting time were also recorded.
2- Concrete mix 1 : 2 : 4 with 0.45 water to cement ratio by weight, and SBR in dosages of (10 %, 2 5%, 35 %)by volume of water . Compressive strength in ages ( 7, 28, 60 ) days was tested, also absorption, slump loss with time and flexural strength were also measured.
3- SBR was also used as bonding mortar layer between old and new concrete layers, the compressive strength and flexural strength of bonded samples were tested.
Adding SBR emulsion to cement mortar affects compressive strength negatively at all ages. Initial and final setting time decrease with increasing the dosage of SBR.
The using of SBR emulsion as admixture for concrete mix affects compressive strength with decreasing at early ages ( 7 days ) and increased at later ages. It also reduces; the absorption of concrete and slump loss with time and increase the flexural strength.
The use of SBR as bonding layer showed increasing in compressive and flexural strength of the bonded samples compared with samples having old and new concrete without bond layer.

High-Speed OTDM Demultiplexer based MZI, UNI

Ibrahim A.Murdas

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 75-83

Two types of semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) – based optical gate are investigated, the Mach-Zender Interferometer (MZI),Ultra fast nonlinear interferometer (UNI). The gate are characterized by switch window calculation. The switching windows are evaluated using different criteria such as switching width and on-off contrast ratio to compare the performance of the gates.The results indicate clearly that, with a suitable parameters control, a switching window width of ≈ 2ps and on-off contrast ratio below -11 dB can be achieved. The performance of the gates are investigated for demultiplexing application using the integrated contrast ratio (ICR). Simulation results are presented for OTDM bit rates up to 560 Gb/s and base data rate of 10Gb/s and 40Gb/s. the effect of SOA injection current ,control pulse energy and SOA length also presented.

High Temperature-High Pressure Effect on Performance of an Electrostatic precipitator

Fadhil.K.Fulyful

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 84-92

This paper presents a finite difference numerical model to calculate the effect of high temperature-high pressure on V-I curves for negative corona discharge of an electrostatic precipitator . The simultaneous solution for the governing Poisson's and current continuity equations helps in predicting the voltage –current characteristics of precipitator ,the results at atmospheric conditions are considered as a reference. Electrical characteristics were evaluated for an operating of (1,2,3and 4bar)pressures and temperatures (293,400,500,600 and 700 K).The numerical results are compared with experimental data from the literature, and the agreement is excellent.

Characteristic study of CoO-ZnO Catalyst

Salih Hadi Kadhim

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 93-100

CoO-ZnO catalyst was prepared by using the coprecipitation method, by adding sodium bicarbonate to cobalt and zinc nitrates solution until pH equal to 8.The resulted cobalt and zinc bicarbonate was calcinated at 773 Kº for 4 hours. Then the catalyst was characterized by chemical analysis, and X-Ray Diffraction Teqnique(XRD).The activity of CoO-ZnO catalyst was examinated in the photocatalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol, to the corresponding benzaldehyde,at different times, and temperatures. The results showed that the activation energy for CoO-ZnO catalyst equal 16 kJmol-1 , it is lower than that, for ZnO which equal to 21 kJmol-1.

Histo –pathological changes in the three aquatic birds intestines due to parasitic infestations in the Bahr AL- Najaf depression Iraq

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 101-106

The present study carried – out on thirty aquatic birds including Tringa nebularia , larus argentatus and phalacrocorax carbo . Among ten T nebularia two aquatic birds were infected with (cestoda) Anomotaenia microrhncha and Trichocephaloides megalalocephala And among ten l argentatus three aquatic birds were infcted with paricterotaen porosa while among ten phalacrocorax carbo one bird was found to be infected with haloparaxis crassirostris the infected birds were observed fibrosis surrounded the worm in the mucosa of small intestine (duodenum) also all infected aquatic birds were revealed the ulceration , destruction degeneration and necrosis in most epithelial lining of the small intestinal villi , beside decreasing in number or some time lost of the goblet cells , also the damage was extended in to intestinal glands , these pathological effectc which led to dyfunction of small intestines in the infected birds , and emaciation was appeared on the infected aquatic birds in this present study , also inflammatory cells infliterate in mucosa and submucosa of infected small intestines .

Calculation of the Standard deviation and Nuclear Magnetic Shielding Constant for Lithium atom

Kassem Shamkhi AL-Khafiji; Abbas Mohamed Selman; Shaima Awad Kadhim Al- Shebly

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 107-110

The division Technique has been used for the analysis of atomic open- shell of Lithium atom in the(1S22S) state by using Hartree-Fock(HF) wavefunction published by W.Weiss. The HF method is widely used and its based on the variational theory [1]. The aim of this work to study the Standard deviation and nuclear magnetic shielding constant for each shell where there are three shells for Li- atom (K-shell, KL(singlet),KL(triplet )

Domestic Refrigerator Energy Testing with Alternative Refrigerants

Talib Kshash Murtadha; Salam Hadi Hussain

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 111-116

As a result of the Montreal protocol (UNEP, 1987) that limits the production of ozone-depleting refrigerants, manufacturers are searching for alternatives to replace the R12 that is presently used in domestic refrigerator-freezers. Before an alternative can be selected, several issues must be resolved. Among these are energy impacts system, compatibility, cost, and availability. In an effort to determine the energy impact of some of the alternatives, energy consumption tests were preformed in accordance with section 8 of the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM) standard for household refrigerators and household freezers (AHAM, 1985). The results are presented for a 9 ft3 (0.2548 m3) top-mount refrigerator-freezer with static condenser using the following refrigerants: R12, R290/R600a, R134a/R22, and R134a. All refrigeration components remained the same throughout the tests, except that the length of the capillary tube, compressor size, and the amount of the charge were changed for each refrigerant. The experimental results from AHAM test obtained with the same compressor used with R12 indicated that the hydrocarbon mixture of R290/R600a at 61% mass fraction of R290 showed a (34-)% increase in energy efficiency and a faster cooling rate as compared with R12. On another side the R134a/R22 mixture with 0.48 mass fraction of R22 result was more promising (12% lower energy consumption) relative to R12 with changes to refrigeration system, such as a different capillary tube and compressor. Meanwhile the R134a was less promising (7.5% higher energy consumption) using different capillary tube and compressor size as compared with R12. It is noted that the test results are only an initial step in determining a replacement for R12. Further analysis should be performed to determine long-term effects on compressor life and operation over a wide range of ambient temperature.

Mathematical Calculation of Patient's Fluoroscopic Entrance Dose in Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy

Ali Baker; Hussein Abed; ed Mohammed Kadhum; Abrar Mohammed Khuder

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 117-121

The aim of this study was to determine the radiation doses to patients during extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) and compare them with the available bibliographical data. In this method localization of the renal stones is attained by the use of fluoroscopy, and thus ESWL is included among those medical practices associated with patient radiation exposure.
The main parameters that which enrolled in this project are the time of exposure and x-ray techniques (mA and kv). Fifty cases were enrolled in this project. Entrance dose were calculated using mathematical equation that which relate the X-ray techniques (mA and kv)and distance from the patients to entrance dose. The results show that the entrance dose was significantly very high relative to these obtained from normal radiographic examination

Graph coloring Analysis For Color Images by Detection of corners and local edge maxima Algorithm

Hind Rostom Mohammed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 122-127

New method for Detection of corners and local edge maxima is performed by selection of local maxima in both edge and corner enhanced images. The same low constant thresholds for corner and local edge maxima detection are used for different images. The Algorithm is based on an idea of spatially linking pointes along the edge that will fire in synchrony to indicate an extracted edge .

STUDY OF PREVALENCE OF GIARDIA INFECTIONS IN IRAQI SHEEP OF YUESEPHIYA PROVINCE / BAGHDAD

Hisham Atwan Swadi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 128-132

For Giardia investigation ,faecal samples of 145 sheep from three farms of sheep in Baghdad /Yuesephiya province, were identified by use the direct smear and zinc sulphate flotation method during the period from( Sept. 2007 to Feb. 2008). Out of 145 sheep examined , 36 sheep (24.82 %) were infected with Giardia. Prevalence was studied depend on the sex and age of the host. The prevalent was high in lambs 52.17% with significant difference (p< 0.01).Giardia did not show sex predisposition. Beside Giardia , Haemonchuc contortus , Nematodirus spathiger and Eimeria spp. were isolated by floating method.

Synthesis and Structural Studies of Novel 2,6-Diformyl-p-Cresol Bis-(thiosemicarbazone) Ligand and Their Binuclear Complexes with Ni+2, Pd+2, Zn+2, Cd+2 and Hg+2 Metal Ions

Mohamad J. Al-Jeboori; Ashour Hamoad Dawood

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 133-143

A new binuclear complexes of Ni+2, Pd+2, Zn+2, Cd+2 and Hg+2 ions with [H3L] {where H3L= 4-Methyl-2,6-bis(formylthiosemicarbazonyl) phenol}. The ligand was prepared from reaction two equivalent of thiosemicarbazide with 2,6-diformyl-p-cresol and then reacted with metal ions to form the title complexes. The ligand and complexes were characterized by {IR, UV-Vis, 1H, 13C, 1H-13C NMR and mass spectroscopy}, molar conductivity, atomic absorption and the microanalysis of elements (C.H.N). The spectral studies showed the geometry around the Ni+2 and Pd+2 ions are square planar and the Zn+2, Cd+2 and Hg+2 ions are distorted tetrahedral.

Speeding up Fractal Compression Using Different Values of Domain Steps Size

SADIQ HESSEN LEFTA

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 143-155

This research is test a different values of domain block size which used in the domain pool (codebook) constructed from image partitioning, which reduces the computational complexity in the encoding step and which are led to decreasing the encoding time while the reconstruction image from the work as good as we wont .We applied this method on medical images also present a comparison of this method against the quadtree method. The application of fractal images compression presented in this research is based on minimize size of domain pool (codebook) by using different values of domain steps size this led to decreasing of the computational complexity of fractal encoding procedure which make high effective one encoding time that make another way to speeding up fractal medical images compression.

ASTUDY THE ADSORPTION OF IRON (III0 ION ON SELECTED IRAQI CLAY SURFACES

Abdul Muhsen Al-Haidary; Alaa Fraq Hussain; Ruaa Moayed Mahmmod

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 156-172

This work is concerned with one of application of adsorption from solution .It deals with the study of the ability of selected clay surfaces (Attapulgite , Bentonite and Kaoline ) for the adsorption of iron(III) ion . The target of study is to search for suitable surfaces which posses high activity for the adsorption of iron (III) ion ,and the to use these surfaces for treatment of the pollution of aqueous solution by this heavy metal ion.The technique of Vis- spectrophotometry has been utilized for the determination of the quantity of ion adsorbed by forming a colored complex with NH4SCN (Ammonium thiocyanate ) , construct the relation between the amount of the adsorbate (ion) and the concentration of equilibrium leads to know the adsorption isotherm in different condition of pH ,temperature ,ionic strength ,particles size and adsorbent weight .

Estimation of entrance skin exposure for patients undergoing fluoroscopic examination in extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy(ESWL)

Hussien Abid Ali Baker; Talib Abdul AlRudah; Muthna Hassan Hady

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 173-176

Localization of renal stone in extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) involving the use of fluoroscopic examination before the destruction of renal stones ,that which offering high exposure to the X-ray which in return contribute to high patient dose. Rad Pro software had been used to calculate the patient entrance exposure(mR).33 casa were enrolled in this project (19 male and 14 female ).Different radiographic techniques (X-ray tube voltage and current) were used representing different patients conditions (body weight and size) that which input to the software to calculate entrance skin exposure .The results obtained was significantly very high when compared with international diagnostic level.

Study of the Mechanical Properties of HDPE Matrix Composites Reinforced with Rice Hulls Particles

Kadhim Finteel Al-Sultani

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 185-192

The present article summarizes an experimental study on the mechanical behavior of high density polyethlene (HDPE)/ rice hulls (RH) composites. The mean goals of this investigation were using of rice hulls (RH) as a filler (reinforcer), effectiveness of hulls flour fiber with different size (10-30 mesh as fine) and (30-50 mesh as coarse) on mechanical properties of composites and effect of maleic anhydride (MA) as a coupling agent treatment is performed to improve interfacial adhesion between the particles and HDPE matrix. Generally, (16) treatment were conducted as (8) treatment of HDPE with 5, 15, 25, 35% coarse rice hulls with (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0) MA, 8 treatment of (HDPE) with 5,15, 25, 35% fine rice hulls (RH) with (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0) MA, (HDPE), (RH). This study focused upon tensile strength, flexural, impact strength and hardness of reinforced polyethylene. The results showed that increase rice hulls rate to 25% in both fine and coarse, improved [tensile, strength, hardness, flexural and impact strength] values, Pine (RH) particles sample showed better, then coarse (RH) when addition for HDPE as matrix to produced composite material.The optimum formulation for the (HDPE and RH) composites on the mechanical properting is (25wt.%RH as fine-HDPE-1.5wt.%MA).

Echocardiographic Assessment Of The Left Side Physical Parameters Of The Heart In Ischaemic Heart Disease Patients

Ghazwa Hatem Al-Zubaydi; Raja Khadum Mouhamed; Nadwa Jasim Abdual-Zahra

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 193-198

Ischaemic heart disease is a common health problem after the age of 40, it has a several complication including changes which has very important effect on the heart. This disease causes myocardial changes, which could be physically evaluated by echocardiographic type "combison 530D model voluson 530D". which was used to evaluate the left ventricular structure parameters(Left Ventricular Internal Diameter in diastole and systole LVIDd & LVIDs, Inter Ventricular Septum Thickness in diastole and systole IVSTd & IVSTs, Posteriov Wall Thickness of left ventricular(LV)in diastole and systole PWTd & PWTs). Evaluation of left ventricular geometry by using specific formula of(Left Ventricular Mass LVM , Left Ventricular Mass Index LVMI and Relative Wall Thickness of LV in diastole and systole RWTd & RWTs). The study sample included two groups: control group (Group I),and group Ischaemic Heart Disease (IHD) (Group II). Control group constituted of (40) normal individuals and group II constituted of (45) ischaemic heart disease patients.

Role of Run Length Encoding on Increasing Huffman Effect in Text Compression

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 199-204

Most digital data are not stored in the most compact form. Rather, they are stored in whatever way makes them easiest to use, such as: ASCII text from word processors, binary code that can be executed on a computer, individual samples from a data acquisition system, etc. Typically, these easy-to-use encoding methods require data files about twice as large as actually needed to represent the information. Data compression is the general term for the various algorithms and programs developed to address this problem. A compression program is used to convert data from an easy-to-use format to one optimized for compactness. Likewise, an decompression program returns the information to its original form.
This research aims to appear the effect of a simple lossless compression method , RLE or Run Length Encoding , on another lossless compression algorithm which is the Huffman algorithm that generates an optimal prefix codes generated from a set of probabilities. While RLE simply replaces repeated bytes with a short description of which byte to repeat it.

ON BINDING EXTENSION

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 205-208

In this paper , we show that: there exist two integers u,v such that , for every relation R with cardinality greater than or equal to u , there exist v elements of the base, such that the restriction of R to its base with these v elements removed respects the embedding inequalities in the Bi's (Bi's be a finite relations ), and has an extension of arbitrary large cardinality not respecting the non-embedding inqualities in the Ai's where A¬1 ,… Ah be a finite set of finite relations with common arity .

ESSENTIAL OIL COMPOSITION OF LAVANDULA OFFICINALIS L. GROWN IN JORDAN

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 209-212

Essential oils isolated by steam distillation from the fresh and dry flowers of Lavandula officinalis L., the oil yields were (1.35% , 3.8%) respectively . Oils were analyzed by GC, among 26 compounds identified , the major components were 1,8 – cineole (18.9% , 20.3%) , linalool (34.2%,33.0%) and borneol (12.1%, 11.0%), respectively .

Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in patients with acute myocardial infarction In Najaf City

Sadiq Jabbar Al- Mohanna; MohammadA.Abdul- Hussain; Abbas Hamza Najim

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 213-220

Background:
Metabolic syndrome patients are at an increased risk for developing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality .
Objectives:
This study was designed to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with acute myocardial infarction.
Patients and methods:
Forty eight patients with acute myocardial infarction diagnosed by ST segment elevation and ischemic chest pain admitted to the coronary care unit at Al-Sader teaching hospital in Najaf, were evaluated and screened for criteria of metabolic syndrome.
Results:
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with acute MI found to be 43.8 %.
Metabolic syndrome was more in females than males.
Conclusion:
These results suggest ,that there was a strong association between metabolic syndrome and myocardial infarction (MI) and it was more in female patients.

New record of Diplotriaena tricuspus nematode parastized in Corvus frugilegus and Sturnus vulgaris in Al-Najaf Governorate; Iraq

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 7-10

Fourty birds of Corvus frugilegus and fourty birds of Stunus vulgaris were colleced from AL-Najaf AL-Ashraf city. These birds were examined for helminth parasites. Six birds of Corvus frugilegus were found to be affected with Diplotriaena tricuspus; and three birds of from Sturnus vulgaris were found to be affected with D. tricuspus.This nematode belong to aenus Diplotriaena was newly recorded in Iraq in this study .

Genetic evaluation of sires according to days open of their daughters in two herds of Holstein cows in the middle of Iraq

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 11-15

A total of 2718 records of days open belonged to Holstein cows in two herds , Nasr and Esehaqi dairy cattle over period from 1997 to 2001 were analyzed . The aim is to evaluated sires genetically according to days open of their daughters after adjusting for fixed effects and to estimate heritability. General Linear Model (GLM) within the SAS program 2001 was used to study the effect of some fixed effects ( level of first milk yield , season and year of calving , parity , age at first calving and herd ) in days open. Component of variance for the random effects in the employed mixed model were estimated by REML method. The Harvey program was also used to estimate BLUP values for 29 sires. The overall mean of days open was 133.46 days and the effect of all fixed factors was significantl (P < 0.01) except season of calving which was significant ( P < 0.05 ) and age at first calving was not significant. The heritability of days open being 0.04.
Best linear unbiased estimation for 29 sires ranged from – 30.00 to 26.31 days.

Biological control to seed decay &damping – off diseases on Wheat caused by Rhizoctonia solani fungi by using biological fungus Trichoderma harzianum Rifai growth on cheap culture media

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 16-25

This study was carried out to determine the effect of Phragmites communis & Schanginia aegyptioce leaves used as source of carbon and potato extract & nutrition solution ( unigreen) used as source of nitrogen & other nutrients elements on the growth and probagetion of the biological fungus Trichoderma harzianum . The Laboratory experiments showed that although all the culture media were effective , Schanginia aegyptioce powder + nutrition solution ( unigreen) was the most effective concerning the sporulation (1.9 x 610spore/ gm ).
Also It achieved better economical value since it verified highly effective on Rhizoctonia solani attained 100% since it increased significantly the percentage of seed emergence to 90 % & significantly decrease the percentage of seedling damping- off which reached 10 % compared with control treatment (contaminated) the percentage of seed emergence reached 66.6 % & the percentage of seedling damping- off reached 33 % . On the other rand, it did not differ significantly from the treatments of the chemical fungicide (vitavax) and control (uncontaminated) treatment.

Some factors affecting incidence of retained placenta for a herd of Holstein cows in Iraq

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 26-31

A total of 19235 records belonged to 5148 Holstein cow and 89 sire were analyzed over period from 1990 till 2004 , at Nasr Dairy Cattle Station. The aim of the research is to study the effect of some environmental fixed factors on incidence of retained placenta and to estimate heritability of the mentioned trait. .Data was analayzed using General Linear Model within the SAS (2001) program to study the effects of some fixed factors ( season and year of calving, parity sex of calf )on the incidence of retained placenta.The overall means for retained placenta was 11.09%.The effect of all fixed factors were significant (P < 0.01 ) . Component of variance for the random effects in the employed mixed model were estimated by the Minimum Variance Quadratic Unbiased Estimation (MIVQUE) method. The heritability of retained placenta was 0.10.

Charge Effect Of Stopping Power for Swift and Slow Heavy Ions

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 52-56

Charge effect of stopping power for slow heavy ions through Lindhard dielectric function have been studied by using the random phase approximation (RPA) and also using the plasmon pole approximation (PLA) for fast incident ions. The investigation shows stopping power at low velocities greater than the stopping power at fast velocities, as well as, the dependence of stopping power on atomic number for incident ions (z1) . The numerical formulas, found in the research, were solved by using computer program in (Fortran- 90) language with many subroutines

A Study of Fungi Contaminitated with Polatery Food and the ability to produce aflatoxins

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 63-68

This study involved isolation and identification of fungi associated with local chick food in three location in Al-Qadissiya Distract. Results showed the presence of fungi: Aspergillus niger, A. candidus, A. flavus, Penicillium notatum. P. italicum, Fusarium oxysporum, Alterneria alternata, curvularia lunata and Rhizopus stolonifer. A. niger was farther of fungi frequency in sterile grains also Rhizopus stolonifer was the farther frequency in non sterile grains and dust of food. The relative humidity in food were 11.6-15.2% A.flavus was more active to produce aflatoxins production but A. niger and other fungi isolates had low ability in different temperature or media.

Genetic analysis of functional longevity in Holstein cattle

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 78-83

Records of 1039 Holstein cattle culled during years from 1998 to 2004 at the Nasr Dairy Cattle Station, United Company for Animal Resources Ltd., Al-Soueira were analysed using general linear model within the SAS program to study the effect of some fixed factors (season and year of birth , stage of lactation and level of first milk yield ) on longevity.
Results obtained that season of birth have a significant effect ( P < 0.05 ) on longevity, whereas the residual factors had a high significant effect ( P < 0.01 ). The heritability of founctional and true longevity using MIVIQUE method were 0.03 , 0.008 respectively and the corresponding heritability were 0.04 and 0.03 by using TYPE 1 method.
Best linear unbiased pridiction ( BLUP ) for 24 sire using Harvey program were ranged from 17.15 to – 11.71 months respectively

Epidemiology of parasitic ocular infection among population in Kerbala province

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 92-99

This study was undertaken to detect the parasitic ocular infections among 740 of attending patients to the ophthalmological department in AL-Hussian general hospital in Kerbala governorate during the period from April 2004 till March 2005 .The people under study was rangad one year old to more than 40 years old. Parasitic ocular infections including:ocular toxoplasmosis (8.33%) , ocular pediculosis (7.0%) and ophthalmomyiasis(4.89%).
Different methods were used for detection of parasitic infections in the eyes such as IFAT test was used to detect the ocular toxoplasmosis using ophthalmoscope, and direct smear method using slit lamp from lashes and lids and conjunctivia to detect ocular pediculosis and ophtalmomyiasis and by helping of specialist doctors.
No significant differences were noticed of infection between males and females in ocular parasites ,also no significant differences were recorderd of infection and seasonal change while significant differences were recorderd in fection and area of living and social level of people.

Effect of fasting period before slaughtering on the carcass traits for the Iraqi lambs

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 99-108

This study was conducted in the animal field that belongs to Animal Resource Dept. in the College of Agriculture and Forestry,Mosul University. Sixteen local males lambs with age about 7-8 months and initial weight average 38.200 kg , were divided randomly into four groups and then distributed randomly to four treatments. The treatments consisted of different fasting periods which were 0 ( control), 12 , 24 and 36 hours pre-slaughtering lambs. During this study the animals were fed about 1 kg of concentrate diet per day for each animal , Moreover these animals were go out to graze for pastures in every day through this experiment as a flushing for one month before slaughtering operations .The statistical analysis of this results indicated that there were a significant effect (P≤ 0.05) of fasting period before slaughtering on many traits which were amount of losing live weight between control treatment and other treatments , rib-eye muscle area , major cuts and alia (tail) percentages , Offal’s carcass weights and it percentages such as weights of liver, kidney,spleen,full content of rumen, empty content of rumen, and legs. Percentages of full content of rumen, empty content of rumen, and legs on the other hand the statistical analysis indicated no significant differences in animal performance traits such as the live weight averages before and after slaughtering, empty body weighty averages , hot and cool carcass, dressing percentage calculated by two methods ( live weight and empty body weight) ,fat subcutaneous, cuts of carcass weights, some weights of the offal’s carcass such as heart, testes, lungs, skin, head and other of percentages of the offal’s carcass as like percent of testes weight, percent of lungs weight, percent of skin weight and percent of head weight respectively.

Som factors affecting herdlife lactating days and herdlife dry days in Holstein cows

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 109-113

Records of 946 Holstein cattle culled during years from 1998 to 2004 at the Nasr Dairy Cattle Station, United Company for Animal Resources Ltd., Al-Soueira were analysed using general linear model within the SAS program to study some fixed factors (season and year of birth , age at first calving and first milk yield ) on herdlife hactating days and herdlife dry days ,we found that all factors have a significant effect ( P < 0.01 ) on lactating days whereas only year of birth was significant on dry days .The overall means for herdlife lactating days and herdlife dry days 1187.02 , 333.42 days respectively. The heritability of herdlife lactating days and dry days using MIVIQUE method were 0.11 , 0.09 respectively.

Ability of Iraqi Siliceous Rocks Surface in Adsorption of Acetophenon and Some Derivatives

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 132-140

Water is the most widely used and a bundant chemical and for industrial and domestic purposes ,however water is polluted by pollutants such as sewage ,solid wastes,organic materials and industrial effluents ,if the concentration of the pollutants increases to such an extent as to make the receiving wasters unfit for use,steps must be taken to reduce or completely remove the objectionable pollutants.In general ,the methods that are usually adopted include sedimentation ,filtration ,biological oxidation ,chemical precipitation ,adsorption ,etc…. .The need for the control and preventation of pollution of water arises from the fact these are vital for our existence. This search is concerned with the adsorption of acetophenone and some derivatives from aqeous solution on Iraqi siliceous rocks powder by using spectrophotometric method.The results shows that the adsorption isotherms are of types S3 and S4 according to Giles classification and are in a good correlation with Freundlich isotherm in the range of concentrations.The effect of introducing electron with drawing groups and electron donating groups which substituted in the aromatic ring on the adsorption process has been investigated ,the results showed that the derivatives is less in adsorption capacity than the adsorption capacity for the origin compound as in the following order :-
Acetophenone > p-Bromo Acetophenone > p-Nitro Acetophenone > p-Amino Acetophenone
Adsorption of Acetophenone on siliceous rocks powder was examined as a function of temperature in the rang (296-333k),the wxtent of adsorption was found to decrease with the increase in temperature (exothermic process). The results of adsorption study of p-Nitro Acetophenone at different pH values showed an increase in the following order :-

Study in some of the liver´s functions and level of non specific immune response in the patients of kidney, ureter and urinary bladder stones in Babylon governorate

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 141-148

this study included test 42 of Blood samples 12 of them taken from a healthy person as a control sample versus 30 samples taken from patients suffered from kidney , ureter and urinary bladderStone. The analysis appeared high levels of (cr) and (ur) in serums of kidney ,uretur and urinary bladder stones with significant increase comparision with control groups . also this stud appeared disease increase in the levels of (TP) and Albumin (A) in the serums of disease comparision with control group. At this time we are confirmed signs ficant increase in the levels of GOT and GPT enzymes comparision with control group. And this study included the effectiveness of on the Differential Leukocytes count in it's found that significant decrease in the numbers of neutrophils , ,Basophils , lymphocyty , and Monocytes in comparision with control groups.

The Effect of spraying of Urea on leaves of five Jujube cvs.(Ziziphus jujube) in early spring

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 149-155

This study was carried out atAbu- Graib research station ,Collage of
Agriculture,Baghdad , during early spring 2004,in order to determine the effect different Urea (46%N) concentration (0.10.20 gm N/L) on transplants of five jujube cultivaris , in Randomized Complete Block Desgin(RCBD) with 3 replication.
The results was summarized as below:-
** Cultivar Factor : the local cultivar ( Al-Bathry) gave the heights number of leaves (88.66) while (Zaituni cv) gave biggest leaves area , leave length and width (12.5 cm ,5.93 cm, 3.3cm consequently , while
(Tuffahy cv) shows the heights fresh & dry leaves weight(4.83 and 1.82 gm) consequently .
**Nitrogen Concentration:- the result revealed that the seedlings treated with 20 gm N was significantly increased in all cultivars, in all parameters studied.
** Interaction factors (cv x N concentration) :
The results shows that the (Bathry ) cultivars gave the height leaf number at 20 gm nitrogen ( 91.00 leaf/ plant ) while ( Zaituny cv).gave the biggest leaf area at the same treatment (14.91 cm)and the leaf length , width (7.8and 4.4 cm) consequently , but( Tuffahy cv.) gave the heights fresh and dry weight at the same treatment ( 5.3, 2.3 gm ) consequently.

Effect of translocation of Al-Zahdi date Juice in stead of Sugar in manufacturing the Laboratorial manufactured Sauce

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 156-161

This study was conducted in order to identify the ability of translocation the table sugar (sucrose) by date sugar syrup ( Invert sugar) , Sugar a high moisture content) . Al-Zahdi dates were used due to it’s a viability ,and cheap prices while the manufactured vinegar was used from the date it self in order to obtain a production with a good accepted quality to customers , and a high calories .The production was stored for 16 weeks at 4cْ and 25cْ. Total soluble solid, a moisture content , pH , a total acidity , and total saccharides were measured in addition to a sensitive evaluation for a final productive .The results showed that it was as in a agreement with the standard ,as well as its showed an acceptation’s of referees due to its competition with imported production .

INFLUENCE OF SUPPLEMENTING DIFFERENT LEVELS OF VITAMIN E IN THE RATION ON SOME PRODUCTIVE AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS IN BROILER CHICKENS

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 162-169

This experiment was carried out in the . Animal Production Department – Technical Institutel AL- Musaib . to investigate the effect of supplemeting four levels of vitamin E 0 , 100 , 200 , and 300 mg kg which represent four treatments is 1st , 2nd , 3rd and 4th respectively on some productive and physiological trats of broiler chickens strain Arbor – Acres at age 3 and 6 weeks. The results refered to dominance the treatment 4th upon treatment 1st in body weight , while there is no recorded significant different among treatments 1st , 2nd and 3rd . Feed consumption we notice a significantly dominant of treatment 3rd and 4th upon 1st and 2nd also no signifieant difference in feed conversion ratio at 7 week age among all treatment in this study concerning plasma glucose concentration we notic asignificant dominant of treatment 4th upon treatment 1st also treatments which contain vit . E (2nd , 3rd and 4th ) recorded asignificanty dominant upon the treatment 1st in plasma cholesterol There is no significan differences among all treatments in plasma total protein concentration .

Image coding by new coding edges colors image Algorithm

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 170-182

New method for coding and encoding color image is performed by selection Algorithm for edges colors image , analysis it values with laplacain operator than coding by one of 24 keys from coding keys. The programmer can input any types and any size of image by this method, to convert the type to (.BMP)image type.
The simulation contain three basic stages
1- Determent of the type and size image stage and edges colors
2- Analysis image stage
3- Processing image stage
Pentium 4,1700GHz,Delphi language used to implementation this simulation the results show 100% of correct coding and encoding image.

Fabrication holographic sensitive film by photopolymers

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 183-186

In this research the holographic sensitive film has been fabrication by photopolymers ,such as PVAand acryl amide in addition to the triethanol amina and toluidine blue, using He-Ne lsser of wave length 632.8 nm and its powers of 50 mWatt.the diffraction grating of 1000 line/mm ang diffraction efficincy of 80% have been obtained. After that the effect of an exposure time has been studing on the diffraction efficiency, and the besttime for exposing was 4 minutes.

Using Iraqi Siliceous Rocks Surface In Adsorption of Benzaldehyde and Some Derivatives

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 194-200

This study is concerned with the adsorption in solution of Benzaldehyde and some derivatives on Iraqi Siliceous rocks powder. In this work a U.V-Visible spectrophotometric technique has been obtained to study the adsorption isotherms;the isotherms are of type S3 and S4 according to Giles classification and are in a good correlation with Freundlich equation in the range of concentrations studied . The effect of introducing of electron withdrawing and electrondonating groups which substituted in the aromatic ring on the adsorption process followed the sequence :

Epidemiological study of diabetes mellitus in Karbala holly city from the year 2001- 2006

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 209-214

Depending on statistic department sataistic department data in Al-Hussein general hospital, out of the total number of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) 1453 ,605 were males and 848 were femles. with type1 DM ( Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus IDDM ) were 412 while Patients those with type 2 DM ( Non Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus NIDDM ) were 1041 The number of Patients live in urban area were 1161, whilethose who live in rural are area were 294 It s found from the research that the incidence of DM has been increased with year , DM found to be more prevent in femle s and and there is significant increasein the number of patients with DM who live in urban area in comparison to those who live in rural area

Effect of different levels of the dried poultry manure as NPN source on the nutritive value of wheat straw silage for lamb feeding

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 215-221

This experiment was conducted by using15 local Arabi lamb ,to study the effect of the level of the dried poultry manure (DPM) , ( nil , low and high levels ) as a nitrogen source on the nutritive value of wheat straw silages treated with 10% molasses, The three silages were supplemented with 300g/day of concentrate. The study involved two experiments to determine the average dry matter intake of silages and the total digestibility of dry mater, crude protein and crude fiber . All silages were of good quality according to good flavor and low PH values of 4.1,4.3 and 4.5 for the untreated silage , treated silages with low and high level of DPM respectively , all of these silages were palatable through minimizing the preliminary period to less than the expected one , as well as there was no harmful signs and disorders had seen on the experimental lambs due to feeding treated silages . Chemical analysis showed a reduction in crude fiber content , especially for the DPM treated silages , which at the same time showed a noticeable increase in crude protein content . Results showed that an increasing N content of wheat straw silages due to the addition of DPM at ensiling time improved the voluntary intake of silage dry matter significantly (P< 0.01 ) and that better results ( P< 0.05 ) were obtained by using the low level of DPM as compared to the high level . Data of digestibility determinations showed a significant improvement (P<0.01) in the digestibility coefficients of dry matter , crude protein and crude fiber due to the addition of DPM at ensiling time. better digestibility ( P< 0.01) of crude fiber and crude protein were obtained as a result of using DPM at high level , but better digestibility (P<0.05)of dry matter was obtained at the low level of DPM.These results had clearly pointed out that the addition urea as a nitrogen source to silages made from roughages and plant residuals of low nutritive value could be efficiently substituted by dried poultry manure at ensiling time .

Effect of genetic and non-genetic factors on productive traits of Friesian cows in the middle of Iraq

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 222-225

This study includes 630 records of milk production for lactation length and dry period between 2001-2005, belong to 123 Friesian cows in Al-nasr diary cattle station. This study deals with genetic factor (spotting) and non-genetic factor (parity, calving season and calving year). General linear model (GLM) method is used for statistic analysis system (SAS) program is performed to estimate the fixed factors effect (spotting, parity, calving season and calving year). The Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) method is adopted for variance components of the random effects by assuming the mixed model.General average of lactation length and dry period was (323.65 and 71.06) days respectively .The spotting is significant effect (p<0.01) on the lactation length but no significant effect on dry period . Both of calving season and calving year were effect significantly (p<0.01)on lactation length but the parity has no significant effect (p<0.01) on both lactation length and dry period .

Some aspects in the integration for control spiny cotton boll worm pest Earias insulana ( Boisd. ) Lepidoptera : Phalaenidae)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 226-231

A study was conducted under laboratory conditions in Al-Mussiab Technical College during 2004-2005. Different concentrations of biological insecticide (Agerin) and insect growth regulator (Match) used against Earias insulana ( Boisd ) insect. Results indicated that these insecticides were significantly effective against pupa and adult stages. Also results showed pupa development delay, decreasing in pupa weight and length, deformation in shape and small size and change in color, in addition to mean depression in adult emergence from infected pupa resulted from 1st larval stages deeded for one or three days on different concentrations of this insecticides. Reduction in adult ages, number of eggs / female, eggs hatching and deformed adults. Results indicated that the effect of these pesticides on pupa and adults stages produced from the 1st larval stages feded for three days more effective than the 1st larvae deeded for one day. The insect regulator (Match) was more effect on the pupa and adult stages of E. insulana insect compared with (Agerin) insecticide.

ADDING LIQUORICE EXTRACT TO LAYING HEN DIETS AND ITS EFFECT ON EGG QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 232-241

A total of 72 ISA brown laying hens at the age of 24 weeks were reared in cages for three production months. The cages were placed in a semi-closed room , and all necessary requirements for rearing were supplied . The birds were randomly distributed to four treatments , and each treatment contained 18 laying hens with three replications and each replicate contained 6 hens , which were placed in 3 cages. The birds were fed on a production ration , which was supplied with different levels (Treatments) of liquorice extract (T1 : 0.00% as a control , T2 : 0.02% , T3 : 0.04% , and T4 : 0.06%) .Results revealed that significant (P < 0.05) increases in egg weight ,eggshell weight and egg sherr thickness were observed in T3 and T4 during the first , second and third months of production . The weight of egg albumin and the relative weight of egg album and Haugh units of eggs in were significantly improved in extract treatments. No significant differences in albumin hight of all treatments were observed . No significant differences in the weight of yolk and the relative weight of yolkin all treatments were observed . During the second month of production , treatments showed a significant increase in yolk hight , yolk diameter, yolk index in extract treatments compared with that of the control group (T1)It can concluded that adding 0.06% of liquorice extract to laying hen diets resulted in a significant improvement in most of the egg quality characteristics .

A study of Interdigital areas in palms of three generations respectively in Karbala province

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 242-249

The Interdigital ridge counts areas in the palms of three generations in Karbala province were studied respectively . The study includes a sample consisting of (300 individuals) divided as follows: 100 individuals born during the 70s , 100 individual born during the 80s and 100 individuals born during the 90s (50 individuals for each sex) to know the effect of migration from different provinces in Iraq to Karbala city. Differences among various variables have been found when comparing samples of each sex , when comparing the sexes of each generation, when comparing the variables in the right hand with its counterparts in the left hand and for each generation and sex alone. Some of these differences have reached the significant level while the others have not when using t- test for comparison . As regards the possession of the right hand of more ridge counts than the left hand and for each variable alone, all the results referred to a decrease in the number of right hand ridge counts compared with the left hand for the two variables a-b, b-c where the rate was less than 50%( except for the 80s male sample for the variables b-c). As regards the variables c-d, the number of ridge counts in the right hand was higher than that of the left hand with a high percentage (more than 50%) and for all samples (except for the 70s female samples.