ISSN: 1813-0410

Volume 3, Issue 3

Volume 3, Issue 3, Summer 2007, Page 1-350


Know-How Contracts and Its Warranties

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 18-29

The technology researches is one of the characteristics of the twenty one century, since the technology has hold a paramount importance in the economies of all the countries including the underdeveloped countries which are collecting all the efforts to transfer all kinds of technology to the various aspects of its life. Since the technology is a collection of technical information, so the Know –How contracts (the method by which the countries bring the technology to its borders) has raised many legal problems about its legal qualification, and this difficulty stems from the subject matter of these contracts which then reflects upon the specialty of the warrantees given to the importer of technology.So that this research is an intensive attempt to give accurate qualification for the Know-How contracts , by either classifying them as one of the named contracts or contracts having a dual legal nature which then enable us to determine the warrantees of the importer according to the qualification adopted.

Cole –Cole diagrams of gold doped germanium films

Bushra A.Hasan

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 1-11

The gold doped germanium films with different gold concentration CAE(0,0.08,0.15, 0.2,0.3) weight %have been prepared by thermal evaporation under vacuum of (10 -5 Toor) with thickness (1 µm ) at substrates temperature (553K)and annealed at( 793K)to achieve good diffusion of gold in the germanium films texture. Measurements of The dielectric measurements were carried out over frequency range (102-107 Hz) for all pure and doped Ge films .It was found that all samples displayed dielectric dispersion thus the curves log (ε1 )versus log (w),log (ε2 ) versus log (w)gave direct evidence of the existence of Debye-type relaxation have a wide distribution of relaxation times. Cole –Cole diagrams had been used to determine the distribution parameters (α ) and the relaxation time (τ ).

Anomalous Diffusion in Turbulent plasma

Qusay A. Al-obidy; Mohammed A. Hameed; Amer.A. Ramadan

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 12-20

The semi-empirical equation of Bohm (DB) doesn’t take into the account the fluctuation properties of plasma parameters in the plasma. So, the Bohm formula did not explain the diffusion behavior caused by instability. The 1/16 factor in Bohm formula represent the relation between the diffusion and the instability that causing it. Therefore, the Bohm factor studied as instability factor (C), this factor derived into two turbulence cases (strong and weak turbulence).The results of this factor was tested with experimental results in Q-machine and shown good results. The diffusion coefficients are drived according to this instability factor for strong and weak turbulence cases.

The Effects of Levamisole Hydrochloride and LaSota Strain of Newcastle Disease Virus in the Treatment of Cancer

Abdul Ameer Oda Ismail

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 21-26

This study concluded the effects of levamisole hydrochloride and LaSota strain of Newcastle disease virus in the cancer treatment using seven groups of mice . The first group , which was treated with levamisole hydrochloride orally and multiple injection of LaSota strain of Newcastle disease virus (LS. NDV)Intratumoral, show reduction in the relative tumor volume (R.T.V) and the percentage at the end of treatment (33%) statistically significant compared with the tumor size before treatment,that means (67%) of tumor size was regression. While the relative tumor volume in the group treated with levamisole orally and injection of virus intraperitonealy and group treated with levamisole only show increased in the R.T.V but less than increased will occur in the positive and negative control groups.
The relative body weight show increased in the group treated with LS.NDV intratumoral but decrease in the group treated intraperitonealy
compared with the body weight before start the treatment.

Photocatalytic Purification of Wastewater by Potocatalytic Degradation Reactions

Fouad F.Mohamed Hussain; Abbas J.Attia; Salih H.Kadhim; Faris H.Mohammed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 27-32

Photocatalytic degradation reactions have been done on dyes thats present in the industrial wastewater from Hilla textile factory. Titanium dioxide , and zinc oxide are used as a photocatalysts.Irradiation of reaction mixture was performed by the solar energy. The photcatalytic fragmentation of dyes in the solution has been followed spectrophotometrically by measuring the absorbance at λ max = 380 nm by using UV.visible spectrophotometer. The reactions were done at three different temperatures .It has been found that the efficiency of the photocatalytic degradation is increased with reaction time and increasing in temperature of the reaction. The effect of temperature on the reaction is used in the calculation of the activation energy by using Arrehnus plot ,it was about 21 kJ mol-1 . The results showed that titanium dioxide was more active in the photocatalytic degradation of dyes than zinc oxide under the same reaction conditions.

study of the optical properties for BDN-I dye solutions which are used to Q-switch the Nd:YAG laser

Sahib Nimma Abdul-Wahid; Methaq Mutter Mehdy Al-Sultany

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 33-54

The Nd:YAG laser system has been mounted and the BDN-I dye was prepared and dissolved in different pure organic solvents such as ( carbon-tetra-chloride , chloroform, Acetone, Dioxane , and pyridine ) and in a mixture of carbon–tetra- chloride with another polar organic solvent at 1:1 and 2:1 mixing ratios. The dye solution was situated in a dye cell ,and modulated inside the laser resonator . The giant laser pulse power , and the dye solution transmittance (T) have been measured. The (T) values are utilized in calculation of the optical properties such as (Reflectance (R ), Absorptance (A) and refractance ( r) ), some indices as optical density (d) , refractive index (n), relative refractive index (nr).The effect of the variation Of the BDN-I molar concentration dye solution and mixing ratios have been studied on the optical properties firstly , the effect of the optical properties on each other secondly ,and finally , the effects of the BDN-I dye solutions optical properties on the giant laser pulse characteristics. It can be concluded that the relative refractive index (nr ) has an important role in controlling the passive Q-switching process by specifying the optical properties of the BDN-I solution. The main conclusion that the mixing method of carbon-tetra-chloride with other organic solvent at different mixing ratios is the best way to improve the giant laser pulse characteristics, where it decreases the optical properties which causes the losses of stimulated photons energy, and increases of that which causes consolidations the saturation absorption process.

Synthesis And Photolysis Study of the New Reagent 2-[(6-Nitro-2--benzothiazolyl)azo] – pyrogallol (6-NO2BTAPg)

Ahmed K. A; Khalid J. AL Adely; Shaima M. E

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 55-66

New heterocyclic azo dye 2- [(6-nitro-2־-benzothiazolyl)azo] – Pyrogallol (6- NO2BTAPg) was prepared by coupling reaction a diazonium salt solution of 2-amino-6-nitro benzothiazole with pyrogallol in alkaline ethanolic solution. The organic reagent was characterized by elemental analysis and spectrophotometric method such as infra- red and electronic spectra. The photoreaction of the reagent was occurred under visible light at λmax = 409 nm. Many parameters such as temperature, irradiation time and effect of pH were studied. The experiments showed that the reagent degraded with increasing of irradiation time and the temperature. The optimal pH condition was at pH = 6 in which the reagent possesd highest molar absorpitivity (Є). The order of the photoreaction was of first order and also the kinetic parameters such as the rate reaction constant, half time, activation energy and thermodynamic functions ∆Sо, ∆ Hо and ∆Gо were determind.

CALCULATION OF THE LONGITUDINAL ELASTIC ELECTRON SCATTERING FORM FACTORS FOR SOME LIGHT NUCLEI

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 67-77

The effects of the two-body short range correlation (SRC's) and the occupation probability ( ) of higher states on the elastic electron scattering longitudinal form factors F(q)'s are investigated. Considering the effect of higher occupation probabilities and the effect of SRC's are important in getting good agreement between the calculated elastic longitudinal electron scattering F(q)'s and those of experimental data for 4He, 12C, 16O, 28Si, 32S and 40Ca nuclei.

Bayesian Fixed Sample Size Procedures for Selecting the Better of Two Exponential Populations With General Loss Function

Samira Faisal Hathot

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 78-86

In this paper an optimal (Bayesian) fixed sample size procedure for selecting the better of two Exponential populations is proposed and studied . Bayesian decision-theoretic approach with general loss function and Gamma priors are used to construct this procedure . A suboptimal procedure that is based on posterior estimate of the parameters and a method of obtaining an approximation to the optimal procedure using stirling’s formula are also presented. Comparisons among these procedures are made using performance characteristics such as Bayes risk .

The Module of A-derivations

Hanan Ali Hussein

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 90-99

In this work we have dealt with module and produced the arrangement as one of its example.We have also shown some of the basic properties related to it and one of them is the module of the product of two arrangements.

THE EFFECT OF TWO-BODY SHORT RANGE CORRELATION FUNCTIONS ON THE CHARGE DENSITY DISTRIBUTIONS OF SOME LIGHT NUCLEI

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 100-112

The effects of short range correlation are taken into account in an effective way, that is, expressing the ground state wave function in terms of the occupation probabilites of singl particle orbits for various closed and open shell nuclei with N=Z.
The effect of the SRC's and the occupation probability ( ) of higher states on the ground state 2BCDD's and the root mean square charge radii are investigated. It is found that the inclusion of SRC's leads to enhance the probability of transferring the protons from the central region of the nucleus towards its surface since this causes to reduce the central part of the 2BCDD's significantly and increases the tail part of them slightly and consequently leads to increase the calculated values of for 4He, 12C, 16O, 28Si, 32S and 40Ca nuclei. Considering the effect of higher occupation probabilities and the effect of SRC's are important in getting good agreement between the calculated 2BCDD's.

Synthesis and Characterisation of Novel Polydentate Ligand Type N2O6 Derived from Hypophosphinic Acid and Their Metal Complexes

Ashour Hamoad Dawood

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 120-129

The synthesis of ligand [H3N2O6] including the preparation of the compound bis-(2Hydroxybenzamide) propane. Then the reaction of this compound with one mole of paraformaldehyde obtained the ligand. The complexes of the ligand with Ni+2 and Cu+2 ions were prepared by reacted the metal salts with ligand in 1:1 ratio. The prepared compounds were characterised by [IR, UV-Vis, 1H, 13C, 31P NMR spectroscopy] and the physical method. The spectral studies showed the geometry around Ni ion is octahedral, while the geometry around the Cu ion is square planar.

Traffic Conflict Technique: A Tool for Traffic Safety Study at Three-leg Signalized Intersections

Hussein Ali Ewadh; Sahar Safaa Neham

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 130-140

Traffic accident data are the principal tool for identifying degree of safety at traffic system. In situation of no reliable accident record, traffic conflict technique TCT is a suitable alternative aid. This paper aims at studying the traffic safety at three-leg signalized intersections using TCT.
Three different sites of three-leg signalized intersections are selected according to specified criteria. The data concerning; traffic volume, traffic conflict, are collected using video camera. Spot speed and some of the geometric characteristics (lane width, median width, and availability and length of auxiliary left lane), are determined and measured due to observation at site.
A developed model shows that, an extra increase of traffic conflicts can be represented by negative exponential trend in relation with approach traffic volume. That negative exponential model shows a better explanation rather than linear model. On the other hand, developed models are introduced to indicate the traffic conflict rate in relation with some geometric characteristics. Further, a statistical analysis of extracted data of previous works in sites of four-leg signalized intersections reveals that no significant dependency of traffic conflict occurrence, in relation with approach traffic volume, with the type of signalized intersection (three or four legs). In addition, it is found that, linear relation explains increasing variation (97.8%) of total hourly traffic conflict in relation with total stopped delay time. This may reveals that the potential conflict increases when drivers argue from unacceptable delay introduced due to the traffic operation at the intersection.

Determination of 3-dimentional coordinates of Objects from Satellite Images

Loay E. George; Najem A. Najem; Duaa Deyaa

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 141-146

Mathematical framework of the inverse transform from image coordinates to geographic coordinates was developed and investigated. This transform was utilized to estimate the unknown parameters of the satellite imaging system using some of the data extracted from the raw images that produced by the imaging system. A sequence of determinations based on some geometrical relationships between the angular separation of the satellite projection point (nadir points) and a sequence of uniformly distributed reference points were used for autonomous assignment of the initial values of the imaging system parameters. Also, an estimation procedure is given to assess the value of the satellite distance, and an equation for estimating the value of image scale parameter was derived and implemented. Optimization used to improve the determination accuracy. Through each optimization step the value of one of the imaging parameters is adjusted leads to minimize the overall error. The optimization methods have been implemented as two layers. The suggested system was implemented on two sets of Meteosat and Noaa images, and the results justified the suitability of the proposed system.

The Natural Influence on Some Engineering Properties Of Advance Composite

Mohammed Abdul Hamza Mohammed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 147-151

This research studies the effect of thermal shock of (80οc) on some engineering properties of advanced composite with matrix of unsaturated polyester reinforced by the artificial fibers kind of (E glass) and (Kevlar) as a woven roven and continuous fibers, with weight percent of (7%). The results show the heat has a passive effect on the structure of materials. In general the Kevlar reinforced specimens appear better quality than the others which reinforced by glass fiber. The results were discussed.

Generation of Positronium Annihilation Lifetime Spectra in Polymers

Mohannad H. Al-Budiri; Bahaa H. Rabee

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 152-158

Positronium annihilation lifetime spectroscopy is a powerful prope that ia used in the study of free volume in polymers. In this work we study the positronium annihilation lifetime spectra in polymers contain free volume and in pure polymers. The spectra that generated contain single Gaussian component fixed at 400ps convoluted with three lifetime components (τ1,τ2 and τ3) and considering τ1 originated from annihilation of para-positronium, τ2 originated from annihilation of positrons in matter and τ3 originated from annihilation of ortho-positronium in free volume also the background fixed at 0.001% of peak. Also study the effect of mean value of free volume size and its concentrations by study the effect of intensity of long-lived component (I3) the theoretical spectra were compared with experimental spectra for polystyrene sample and we discussed the differences. We notice that as the long-lived component increase the right hand side of the spectrum rise. The difference between the experimental spectrum and the generated spectrum arises from that the background and time-zero channel in the generated spectra considered to be constant, but in experimental spectra, these parameter varied with thermal influences. Moreover the generated spectra described by single Gaussian component. The separating of 0.1 ns difference in lifetime components give specific description for positronium annihilation lifetime in polymers, also the difference of 5% in intensity give distinguished separating in the spectra, and these give distinguished components which have small intensities in experimental spectra . There are clear difference between positronium annihilation lifetime spectrum in pure polymers and positronium annihilation lifetime in defective polymers (contain free volume), this due to the effect of concentration and size of free volume on the spectrum. The small resolution (400ps) give a clear separation in smallest lifetime components (τ1 ,τ2 ) and smallest intensities in the generated spectra.

Design and Implementation of an Access Control System for a Bank

Abbas Fadhil Mohammed Ali; Bushra Jabber Mohammed Jawad

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 159-169

The access control system is a system used for protected information in many international companies , there are many ways to protect information , on of then by using the passwords that we use in this research.In this paper , access control system for a bank was presented , the system depended on different password of authorized persons like the manager , the assistant manager and other employees in charge . It consists of two main parts , the first for the customers and the second for the employees . It has many capabilities such as , add , delete , modify , and search for records .Visual Basic 6.0 , Microsoft Access and ADO tool were used to design the system

Kriging of Groundwater Level - A Case Study of Dibdiba Aquifer in Area of Karballa-Najaf

Waqed Hameed Al-Mussawi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 170-182

The application of the spatial statistical technique (kriging) is used in this research, for the spatial analysis of groundwater levels is shown. The data set consists of groundwater levels measured at about 13 hand dug wells were selected in the studied area for the observation water table (vary for ten month, from June 2002 to March 2003 ) in an area of 20x20 km2 Dibdiba hydrologic basin; which lies between Karbala and Najaf provinces. With the use of measured elevations of the water table, experimental semivariograms were constructed that characterizes the spatial variability of the measured groundwater levels. The experimental semivariograms were fitted into many models as Spherical, exponential and gaussian semivariogram. The finally selected models were used to estimate the groundwater levels and estimation variance (which express the accuracy of the estimated groundwater levels) at the nodes of a square grid of 2.5km x 2.5km and to develop corresponding contour maps .Also, used the Inverse Square Distance (ISD) method in order to interpolate the groundwater levels for the study area. It was found that ISD method resulted in higher errors as compared to kriging method. The groundwater table maps resulted by kriging method were compared with the groundwater table maps prepared using the ISD method.

Some Hematological and Histological changes in seminiferous tubules of pigeon (Columba livia) that exposed to different periods of light

Bazii; Sinaa Al

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 189-195

Sixty two of male pigeon type Columba livia divided into three groups, 24 birds in each group since September to November in 2006 .one of this group exposed to normal period of light,anthor exposed to long- term period of light , the last one exposed to short-term period of light.The results showed that the body weight of birds increased significantly (p<0.05) ,in addition the mean weight of testis , WBC were significantly decreased (P<0.05) when exposure to short period of light in compared with other groups. Histological study carried out on seminiferous tubules to measured the outside diameters and counted the germinal epithelial cells(spermatogonia, Round spermatids and Primary spermatocytes) and sertoli cells , the results revealed that the seminiferous tubules diameters was significantly distended (P<0.05) with significantly decreased (P<0.05) in number of germinal epithelial cell and sertoli cells when exposed to short period of light in compared with other groups.

Active Inhibitor as Corrosion Protective of Carbon Steel

Ali Hubi Haleem

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 196-207

The present study is attempted to find new inhibitors that can to easily be prepared and applied, as well as nontoxic, cheap and available. In this study hibiscus leaves extractor was used to protect carbon steel in hydrochloric acid solution (1M, 2M, and 3M). Since the usable inhibitor is considered organic inhibitor, and for evaluating the inhibition performance of this compound, many tests have been conducted which include measuring the corrosion rate through methods known weight loss and microscopic examination test. In losing weight method the inhibitor gives good efficiency in protecting, the carbon steel to be corroded at 1M HCl is 77% while the efficiency is drop to 68% in 3 M HCl at 30 oC. Microscopic examination test shows the clearness of the metals surface which is under the corrosion medium and which contains inhibitor, from any kind of corrosion that can be found on those surface, which are under mediums completely empty from inhibitor, and also shows the clearness of that protect layer on the surface. The data of corrosion rate show that the way of doing this organic inhibitor is adsorbing and the inhibitor molecules are adsorbed on the metal surface according to Langmuir adsorption isotherm.

Effect of Mineral Filler and Additives Materials on the Adhesion Properties between Asphalt and Aggregate

Abdul Haq H. Alhaddad

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 208-217

Numerous attempts to study adhesion properties between the coarse aggregate and asphalt and then study effect of additives materials and filler aggregate (fine) by using three types of pure asphalts (according to penetration grade 40/50, 60/70 and 85/100), which obtained from Durah refinery. Low density Polyethylene as additive material in three percent (0%, 2% and 4%) is used too, and limestone filler in two percent (0 % and 4%) are made. The surface tension stress theory between asphalt, aggregate and water is applied at assuming the aggregate which used are hydrophilic type (explain this type as glass plane plate).
From the results are obtained, the asphalt viscosity improved by using additives materials (increasing surface tension force between asphalt and aggregate (adhesion forces) greater than using mineral filler materials, then increase ability of mixture asphalt to resist stripping.

Effect of Rizolex on Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn isolates and biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum Rifai in vitro

FAKHIR R. HAMEED

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 218-223

A study was carry out to detect effect of Rizolex(Tolclofosmethyl ) on growth of some isolates of a pathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn and growth ,sporulation and spore germination of biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum Rifai in vitro .Results showed that Rizolex was strongly growth inhibition of R. solani (100%) at all concentrations (0.025 , 0.05,0.25 and 0.5 ppm) ,while it’s less inhibited to T. harzianum (65.60% - 79.66%) compared with R. solani .Result of sporulation of T. harzianum showed that Rizolex reduce number of formed spores about 40.8% - 49.6 % compared with control . Germ tubes length of spores of T. harzianum decreased 30.6% , 34.88% and 43% by effect of fungicide concentrations 0.05, 0.25 and 0.5 ppm respectively .Also the percentage of spores germination were reduced 42% , 40.5% and 36.6% at same concentrations .While ,there are significantly different in spores germination of T. harzianum between concentrations 0.05 and 0.5 ppm (42% and 36.6%) .

Effect of Heat Treatments on the Impact Toughness and Hardness of (2024) Aluminum alloy

Jassim Mohammed Al- Murshdy

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 21-26

Excellent formability , low weight , Good weldability , Resistance to hot tearing and high tensile and fracture property are among the attractive charactersistics of (2024) aluminum alloy . The effect of solution treatment temperature , Aging time and the aging temperature on the machanical properties have been studied using impact and hardness testing . Microstructural changes were abserved using metallugical microscope .The increase in solution treatment temperature from 525 to 575 Cº resulted in an increase in the hardness and impact toughness was improved from 525 to 550 Cº and decrease at 575 Cº .When the aging time was increased from 3 to 21 hrs. (with an interval of 6 hrs). at 175C , the hardness increased , While the impact toughness decreased . When the aging temperature was increase from 160 to 190 Cº ( with an interval of 15Cº) ,The hardness increased , however the impact toughness decreased . The effect of heat treatments investigated in the present study was attributed to the microstractural change during this treatment , in the light of the results of the microstructral examination and concerned published literature .

An Investigation of Kaolin influences on Mechanical Properties of Unsaturated Polyester Composites

Zuhair Jabber Al-asade; Jasem Mohammed Al- Murshdy

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 242-247

The aim of this work is addition of kaolin powder into unsaturated polyester matrix to prepare particulate composites. Samples with and without kaolin exposed for many tests to determine the effect of kaolin contents on the mechanical properties of unsaturated polyester. The results show that, kaolin improved the compression strength by 194% at 7% kaolin, and improved the flexural modulus of unsaturated polyester by 33% at 3% kaolin, and increase the flexural strength by 7% at 5% kaolin, while the impact strength improved by 14% at 9% kaolin and the hardness increased by 4.66% at 3% kaolin. It is concluded that, kaolin acts as binder materials and as particulate reinforcement materials results in improvement in the mechanical properties of unsaturated polyester at relatively low kaolin contents.

Spectrophotometric determination of Cadmium(II) with 2-[(6– Methyl–2- Benzothiazolylazo]-4-Chloro phenol Organic reagent

Aqeel . Mahdi . Jreo; Mohammed . K . Kahlool; Hakeem . J. Ilaybi; Karrar . A . Hassan

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 248-255

Anew 2-[(6-Methyl-2-Benzothiazolyl)azo]-4-Chloro Phenol (6-MeBTAClP)Organic reagent was re-synthesized. A sensitive and selective spectrophotometric method was proposed for the rapid determination of Cd(II) by using (6-MeBTAClP) reagent.The reaction between Cd(II) and (6-MeBTAClP) reagent is instantaneous at pH=6.0, and the absorbance remains stable for over 24 h. The method allows for the determination of Cd(II) over the range (0.05 - 8.0)µg.ml-1,with molar absorptivity of( 1.23 x 104 )l.mol-1.cm-1 and a detection limit of 0.045 µg.ml-1 .Recovery and relative error values of precision and accuracy of method were found to be R.S.D%=0.302,Re%=98.67% ,and Erel=1.33% .Study of complex nature shows that ; (M: R) ratio was 1:2 at pH=6.0 ,and the stability constant of (0.926 x 1010) l2. mol-2 . The interferences of ions (CrO4-2,Pb+2 ,Hg+2 ,Zn+2,Cu+2, Ni+2, MoO4-2,WO4 -2) and masking agents effect on absorbance were studied.

Collecting between the Collage Theorem and the optimization method to solve inverse problem of fractal image

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 256-259

The inverse problem of fractal shapes can be considered as the main difficulty in fractal geometry, because the problem of determining and identifying the parameters of the affine mappings that constitute the Iterated Function System (IFS). Barinsly state the most famous theorem in this subject, which is called The Collage Theorem. Using the optimization method to find inverse problem of fractal set also discussed this problem.
The purpose of this paper is to find Collecting between the Collage Theorem and the optimization method, so as to use the results of the Collage theorem as initial values to the optimization method, which is given speed and accuracy to find the parameter of IFS.

Estimation of surface dose (skin absorbed dose) for the patient undergoing standards radiologic examinations

Hussien Abid Ali Baker

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 260-267

Estimate surface dose (skin absorbed dose) for the patient who are examined by the X-ray (conventional X-ray)relative to different X-ray examination of the different parts of the body ,also to investigate the methodology used in the determination of the surface absorbed dose in diagnostic radiology. In kV X-rays for low-energy photons (tube potential up to 150 kV).The main parameters that which involved in this projects are ,tube potential(KVp),tube current and the time of exposure (mAs) .Different radiographic examination were enrolled in this project corresponding to different radiographic techniques (KVp & mAs) .Mathematical calculations were done to calculate the surface dose for the patient from the X-ray .The results show that the surface dose (skin dose) was differ from one radiographic examination to another depending on the radiographic technique that which applied .Mean surface dose were found to be within the established international reference doses. The results are useful to be used as a baseline upon which future dose measurements may be compared.

Synthesis and Structural Studies of Novel 2,6-Diformyl-p-Cresol Bis-(thiosemicarbazone) Ligand and Their Binuclear Complexes with Ni+2, Pd+2, Zn+2, Cd+2 and Hg+2 Metal Ions

Mohamad J. Al-Jeboori; Ashour Hamoad Dawood

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 268-276

A new binuclear complexes of Ni+2, Pd+2, Zn+2, Cd+2 and Hg+2 ions with [H3L] {where H3L= 4-Methyl-2,6-bis(formylthiosemicarbazonyl) phenol}. The ligand was prepared from reaction two equivalent of thiosemicarbazide with 2,6-diformyl-p-cresol and then reacted with metal ions to form the title complexes. The ligand and complexes were characterized by {IR, UV-Vis, 1H, 13C, 1H-13C NMR and mass spectroscopy}, molar conductivity, atomic absorption and the microanalysis of elements (C.H.N). The spectral studies showed the geometry around the Ni+2 and Pd+2 ions are square planar and the Zn+2, Cd+2 and Hg+2 ions are distorted tetrahedral.

Synthesis of the new carbohydrate Ibuprofen ester as possible prodrug

Maha K. Mahmmod

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 277-283

Synthesis of new ibuprofen ester (5) is described . Ester formation was achieved by esterification of the ibuprofen carboxylic acid (1) with diacetone fructose (3) The structure of synthesized compounds were characterized by means of FTIR and UV, Preliminary results showed that the prepared fructose-drug conjugates underwent hydrolysis and released the pound ibuprofen and fructose. However, detailed kinetic studies of chemical and potential enzyme hydrolysis still remain to be down.

Using of rain water into leaching of saline soil and description that by first order equation

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 33-37

using of First order Equation to discreb the Leaching process of saline soil by rain water .so the rain efficiency of leaching had been examined in these area had desert climate for tow seasons. however appearance of the intensity of leached ion was: HCO3- SO4= < K+ < Mg++ < Ca++ < Na+ < Cl- The Leaching efficiency was 86% with Leaching requirement L.R was 0.071 m.m . also The mean of result coefficient( Kd ) were reached on 0.0142 per minute with mean of Correlation factors ( r = 0.96 ) . then ,The Release Salts quantity of area unit 81.8 kg . Dunum per Hour and estimate mean of precipitation for leaching this soil to remove salts from roots zone.

A use of Gamma ray spectroscopy analysis technique to measure the radioactivity for samples of underground water

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 58-66

A measure had been of radioactivity for samples of the underground water by use the germanium detector of high purity (HPGe). Sample of underground water were collected in different region of Babylon governorate relying on the administrative map of the governorate . twenty samples of the underground water were collected for two stage where ten samples were collected in 1st step therefore determined radioactivity regions & relying on that the ten samples were collected of 2nd stage. A measure prove found natural radioactivity for some samples of underground water for different regions of Babylon governorate with found some isotopes of Uranium-238 decay series (Radium-226,Lead-214&Bismuth-214) , And the presence of Lead-212 isotope which belongs to Thorium-232 series in one sample. The concentration of the Radium-226 was found under the sensitivity level & 16.4±8.6 Bq/L in Al-Kifl region whereas the concentration of Bismuth-214 & Lead-214 have range between the sensitivity level & 6.72±2.4 & 9.8±2.1 Bq/L respectively in Al-Kifl & Al-Kasim regions . Lead-212 isotope has the concentration of 3.2±1.1 Bq/L in one sample only in Al-Kifl region. All obtained results referred to the fact that all the concentration were within the allowed limits to agricultural & domestic use at comparing the results in this work with those published by international atomic energy agency & universal researches.

A study on the side effect of smoking for a youth age.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 80-85

The research was done to study effect of smoking on health of the young ages (18-21) years .
The research was done on a number of students so of a smoker students and a similar number of a non smoker students . blood sample were taken from the smoker to study the following :-
Heamoglobin(Hb)., Packed cell volume (PCV) ., Differential count of White blood cell (W,B.C.) .It was found that the student were smoking less than 10 cigarette ber day , and most of the smokers have started smoking at early stage of there lives. Also it was found that a (70%) of the smokers have a smoking parents . the smokers weight was less than the normal weight of the other students. The blood analysis show a significant decrease of (Hb) . a significant increase was found on the (PCV) , (WBC)and (RBC) .The lymphocyte percentage was significant increased , on the other side the monocyte percentage was significantly decreased. There was no significant effect on the neutrophile and Eisonophiles

Experimental infection of broilers with Giardia lamblia parasite isolated from human.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 92-95

Twenty of broiler birds, 30 days age were experimentally infected with a dose about 25000 cysts per bird of G. lamblia parasite that isolated from human. This study was ensure the occurrence of the experimental infection with Giardia parasite in broilers for the first time in Iraq. The results exhibited that from a total of 20 birds, experimentally infected with the parasite, 15 birds were found infected (75%), comparison to the control group (20 birds) that not exhibited any case of infection. There was no significant difference in the rate of infection with the parasite between male and female. The prepatent period of infection was 5-8 days and the soft consistency of faces changed to liquid, as well as the results show that the scarping of duodenum mucous membrane was the best to detected the trophozoites of the parasite comparison to flotation method using zinc sulphate and with significant difference was p > 0.001. The excretion of the parasite cysts was continued for 30 days post infection and the rate of cysts excretion about 70 10³ - 190 10³ cyst per gram of faces

Effect of zinc acetate in reproductive system on the male white rats

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 142-145

The aim of this study to investigate the effect of different concentrations of zinc acetate on spermatogenesis on male reproductive system of white rats. theerty male of white rats were treated with three concentration 4 , 8 , 16 mg / kg for 45 days (completed spermatogenesis cycle ) and then histological study was conducted by sectioning the testes animals . The data were showed signifigant decrease (p<0.05) in number of Spermatogonia ( 73.222) ; Spermatocyte ( 71.212 ) ;
Spermatid ( 73.777) and Spermatozoa ( 70.111 ) for the highest concentration of zinc acetate and the examination of slides showed histological changes in testes such as odema and separation of germ cells .

A study Intensity and Wave Length TEA-Co2 Laser for sensitivity of Plasma detector

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 162-167

The change of incident laser TEA – Co2 intensity for (109, 1010) W/cm2 values in (10.6,9.6) μm wave length are studied for sensitivity of plasma for many sold target which have (2,3,4) values number . The result appears that the electron density , electron emission current , output voltage and sensitivity of plasma detector are decreasing with increasing of valence number for target , sensitivity of Plasma detector are decreasing with intensity and increasing with wave length of laser. This results also show that the laser intensity is increasing of the target temperature, the density of electrons and ions in plasma state .

The Effect of Solar Magnetic Field on The Measured Integral Energy Spectra of Solar Electrons , Protons and X– Rays

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 168-179

Observations provided by the satellites NOAA/GOES [GOES11&12] during November,2006, have been used to study the effect of solar magnetic field on the integral energy spectra of the emitted solar electrons, protons and the generated x – rays in the corona region of the sun.
The results indicate that, the increased value of Kp causes great loss in the emitted electrons, due to the shitted back process towards the Sun s chromosphere , which causes also the reduction in the generation of X-rays flux, whiles the spectra of the emitted high energy protons shows an increament with respect to that of the low energy protons , due to the effect of magnetic field.
The study shows also that,the relation between Hp and Kp is of random behaviour,and there was no existence for a systematic mathematical relation.

STUDY EVALUATION OF WATER TREATMENT IN THE NEW AL- MUSSIAB TREATMENT PLANT

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 180-188

This research aim to study the physical and chemical properties of raw water from Euphrates river and treated water from the new Mussiab water treatment plant and compared this properties of a produced water according to the W.H.O and Iraqi standard for drinking water for evaluation the efficiency of treatment plant . The results of this study show that the treatment plant has good efficiency for removal turbidity, the maximum removal of turbidity is (90%) , on the other hand it was found unacceptable efficiency for removal of ions, hardness and dissolved solid, the maximum removal of this parameters are (12.5%, 13.6% , 14%) respectively . Also, the results show that some characteristics for river water were within standards like alkaline, chloride and dissolved solid , but another some like turbidity, hydrogen ion and hardness were exceed .

Studying the Distortions produced caus from Additive Noise Removing From Digital Images using mode Filter

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 189-200

Noise accompanying to different imaging systems is the most complex Problems that stand agaianast the image analytic and concluding information , so the benefit was few .Imaging systems don't give perfect ideal images , but they often give images with limited clearaness (i-e they don't give images with sharp edges) . The important image information and details are contained in the image edge regions , so the estimation of image quality must not taken generally for all image plane without recognize the important image regions .Most image evaluation measurements don't depend on determining image edges quality and its sharpness , but depend on general evaluation for all image plane . In this paper we shall examine the image quality by calculate the contrast , entropy , and the mean square error in the image edge regions , also find the quantity measurements to evaluate the image goodness and then the efficiency of different processing for digital image .We depend on effects of image smoothing to remove Gaussian noise by using (average filter mode filter) and determine the amount of blurring in the image .

The effect of different concentrations of Calcium sulphate in some growth characteristics of shoot and root for six wheat cultivars

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 204-209

An experiment was carried out in the green house of State Board of Agricultural Research – Abu Ghraib during the winter season of 2004-2005 to study the effect of the different concentrations of calcium sulphate which was 0,5,10 and 15mMol/L on the green covers and roots developments of" six bread wheat cultivars which was Abu-Graib" , "ALfateh", "Sham-4", "Sham-6", "Telafar-2" and "Telafar-3". The experiment design was factorial in C.R.D. with three replications. The results showed that there was a significant decrease of the dry weight , the average growth of the green covers and the root , and the diameter of the roots with the increase of the concentration of the calcium sulphate in the nutrient solution. Howere the variety" Alfateh " was more resistant to the high concentration of the calciun sulphate when compared with all other cultivars whereas the variety "sham- 6" was sensitive to the high concentration of calcium sulphate as it gave the lowest results for all the characters which were studied.

Effect of NAA and Vapor-Gard spraying on infiction percentage disease and quality characters of local pomegranate ( Punica granatum L) after storage

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 210-215

was conducted on a private orchard at AL-Abassyia / Najaf to This study investigate the effect of spraying two concentration of NAA (50 ,100 ) mg/ L and Vapor-Gard ( 2 , 3 )% on 1/10/2006 on local pomegranate trees, the treatment was stored (3) months from 1 /11 /2006 in vaporization storage at the Department of Horticuturel , Kufa Univ to assess what weight loss of fruits , Fungal disease, total decay and some of physical and chemical characters in the end of storage period. Results indicated that fruits of treatment trees with material study gave a significant decrease in percentage of weight loss , injury disease, total decay ,acidity , T.S.S., Anthocyanine and C vitamin in juice and also increased percentage of juice, moisture of peel and pulp compared to control treatment and there was a significant differences between these treatment. The treatment with ( NAA 100 mg / L +Voper-Gard 3% ) gave a significant decrease in percentage of weight loss, fungal disease of Penicillium italicum, Penicillium digitatum , Alternaria tenus, Alternaria- Penicillium expansum, punica, and total decay , acidity, T.S.S. and vitamin c it was ( 3.25, 1.18, 1.39, 0.27, 1.30, 1.62, 5.76, 1.39, 16.12, )% and ( 121.06, 25.66 ) mg / 100 ml juice respectively at the end of storage compared with highest percentage in control treatment. The treatment of hight conc. of NAA and Vapor-Gard gave the highest of percentage of juice and moisture of pell and pulp it was ( 44.46, 52.70, 61.08 ) % with significant differences compared with the lowest percentage ( 41.19, 47.42, 58.50 ) % in control tree fruits

Improvement of Flame Resistance for Composite Material Consist of Phenol Formaldehyde Resin Reinforced by Carbon Fibers by Using Flame Retardant Material Layer

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 226-231

The objective of this study is to investigate effect of flame retardant material addition includes zinc borate as layer thickness (3mm) on composite material surface which consist of phenol formaldehyde resin reinforced by Carbon fiber with (10%,20%,30%) flame retardant material and observes its flame resistance to oxyacetylene flame in different exposed distance as illustrated in the diagrams between surface temperature and time .
Keywords : composite material , flame retardant material , flame resistance .

Effects of Boron and NAA spraying on some characteristics of growth of sour orange ( Citrus aurantium L. )seedlings

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 253-258

An experiment was conducted on Najaf governorate at private nursery of seedlings production near Kufa technical institute to study the effect of Boron spraying at four concentrations : ( 0 , 10 , 20 and 30 mg.Lˉ¹ ) and Naphthalene Acetic Acid at four concentrations : ( 0 , 2000 , 4000 and 6000 mg.Lˉ¹ ) . The interactions between spraying of Boron and NAA on 3- month old seedling were also studied. Seedlings height leaves number , leave area, stem diameter and roots length were recorded. The following Results were obtained :
Boron spraying at concentration of 30 mg.Lˉ¹ or NAA spraying at concentration of 4000 mg.Lˉ¹ caused an increase in seedling height : leaf number , seedling leaf area , stem diameter and roots length compared with the control treatment that gave the least values for the mentioned parameters. It was found from the interaction between spraying Boron at a concentration of 30 mg.Lˉ¹ and NAA spraying at concentration of 4000 mg.Lˉ¹ results in significant increase in all shoot and root characteristics , their values were 75.35 cm , 81.87 cm , 123.06 cm² , 88.8 mm , 64.6 g/plant , 46.8 cm , for the character of seedling height , leaf number , leaf area , seedling stem diameter , shoot weights and root length , respectively compared with the control treatments that gave the least values for the above mentioned characters , that they were 50.09 cm , 5.76 , 102.96 cm² , 7.14 mm , 15.83 cm respectively.

The influence of the interaction between the growth regulator Gibberllin (GA3) and the fertilization on the growth of wheat crop

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 274-282

The experiment was conducted in Kalar horticulture station / Sulaimania province in growing season 2006-2007 in a soil brought from one of the regional fields to determine the influence of interaction between the increasing concentrations of growth regulator (GA3) Which is (0, 25, 50, 75, 100) ppm and two level of the NPK fertilizers 18- 18- 18 is 40and 80 Kg/d this equals (0.32 , 0.64gm/4kg pot) in some growth characteristics of wheat. The experiment was applied through Completely Randomized Design. Results showed the increase in the value of the studied characteristics with the increase in the concentrations of (GA3) and the level of the NPK fertilizer.The influence of the interaction between concentration (75) ppm with the level of (80) Kg/d was positive giving the highest values of the studied characteristics. These characteristics dry weight, leaf area, absolute growth rate, relative growth rate, total chlorophyll content and soluble carbohydrate.

Improvement of Al-20%Sn Microstructure by Using New Rheocasting Process

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 307-319

New Rheocasting process is used to produce Al-20%Sn alloy for modernity of this alloy and its potential importance in industry, particularly the parts that need high wear resistance. A casting of dimensions 6x6x12 cm was chosen, having V/A ratio of 1.2 and mould inclination of 75º.The casting produced at different pouring temperatures ranging from Tm+10-50.The cooling was done from different temperatures within the freezing rang of the alloy between liquidus and solidus lines, to study the effect of their variables on the shape and size of grains. The microstructure shows the possibility of producing equiaxial grains along the cross section of the casting when the pouring temperature was 640ºC and cooling at 550ºC. The decreasing in the pouring and cooling temperatures helped to increase the refining degree of the grains to approach the equiaxid shape .The average size of the grains was 45 μm while the average volume fraction for the primary phase was 0.662-0.656 .The hardness test showed the casting produced by new rheocasting achieve higher hardness values of 37HB in comparison with gravity die castings refined by using Al–10Ti. This work appearances the development in ultimate tensile stress and elongation of the castings which achieved by new rheocasting processes (UTS 108 MPa & 13% Elongation) comparing to gravity casting (UTS 95 MPa & 8% Elongation).

Genetic evaluation of sires due to stillbirth of their daughters in a herd of Holstein cows

journal of kerbala university, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 320-329

A total of 9691 records of borns belonged to 3076 Holstein cow and 58 sire were analyzed over period from 1990 to 1999 , at Nasr Dairy Cattle Station. The aim of the research is to study the effect of some fixed factors on stillbirth and to estimate heritability ,phenotypic trend and best linear unbiased prediction for sires due to the stillbirth of their daughters.Data was analayzed using General Linear Model within the SAS program to study the effects of some fixed factors ( season and year of calving, parity sex of calf )on the stillbirth. Component of variance for the random effects in the employed mixed model were estimated by the Minimum Variance Quadratic Unbiased Estimation (MIVQUE) method. The Harvey program was also used to estimate BLUP values for sires. The overall means for stillbirth was 11.19% in primiparous , 8.69% in multiparous and 9.49% in both of them.The effect of all fixed factors were significant (P < 0.01 ) .Heritability of direct effects estimated for primiparous and multiparous and both of them were 0.03, 0.007, 0.02 respectively ,whereas the corresponding estimates for heritability of maternal effects were 0.04 .0.02 ,0.03 respectively. Phenotypic trend of stillbirth in primiparous was positive and non significant (0.19% / year) whereas nagative and non significant ( P < 0.05 ) (- 0.11%/year) in multiparous and in both of them (- 0.07%/year) , as well as that Minimum and maximum BLUP of sires due to stillbirth ratio were 7.33 and 10.33% respectively.