ISSN: 1813-0410

Volume 2, Issue 2

Volume 2, Issue 2, Spring 2006, Page 1-216

Partial purification of tannins from Quercus infectoria galls and the study of its effect on some isolated skin pathogenic microorganisms.

Ali Abdulkadhm AL-Ghanimi; Aziz Yasir AL-Ethari; Husain Kadhm Abdulhusain

journal of kerbala university, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 14-22

Five methods were used for the extraction of tannins from Quercus infectoria galls. Results revealed that extraction with acetone (70%) was the best.
Biochemical detection showed the existence of tannins and glycosides in the gall extract, with no alkaloids and essential oils.
As regards biological test, the gall extract was very efficient in inhibiting the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogens, Pseudomonas auroginosa and the dermatophytic fungi: Trichophyton mentagrophytes.
Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were 5 and 10 mg/ml for S. aureus and P. auroginosa, respectively.
A partial purification for the above- mentioned extract was conducted. The purification steps included extraction with acetone (70%), extraction with ethanol (95%) and adsorption chromatography with Sephadex LH-20.

Risk Factors for Mortality in Patients with Renal Injury

Emad Hassan AL-Jaff

journal of kerbala university, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 23-28

Introduction: renal trauma is the most common urologic trauma and occurs in 3% of all admissions and as many as 10% of patients who sustained abdominal trauma.
Patients and methods: 36 patients had renal injury, 28 patients injured during explosion due terrorist's attacks. 30 males and 6 females, age 11-50 years.
All underwent emergency resuscitation then the patients either admitted to the ward for further evaluation or underwent emergency exploration if indicated.
The mechanism of injury was blunt trauma in 18 patients 50%, penetrating trauma in 14 patients 38.9% and combined in 6 patients 11.1%.
The grades of injury were grades I & II in 16 patients 44.4%, grade III in 8 patients 22.1%, grade IV in 9 patients 25% and grade V in 3 patients 8.3%. Other organs involvement was found in 20 patients 55.5%, 4 patients 20% had blunt trauma, 15 patients 75% had penetrating trauma and one patient 5% had combined trauma.
Death occurred in 9 patients 25%, 8 (44.4%) had penetrating trauma and one patient 5.5% had blunt trauma .The commonest causes of death were septicemia and renal failure.
Type and severity of injury and other organs involvement are important factors in mortality of patients with renal injury

The effect of obesity on left ventricular geometric patterns in obese essential hypertensive patients

Mansour Abbas Al-Sultani; Sabah Mikhael Yacoub

journal of kerbala university, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 43-50

This study was performed in Baghdad Teaching Hospital to study whether obesity adds to the adverse effects of hypertension on the heart, namely on the left ventricular geometric pattern, in obese hypertensive patients compared to non-obese hypertensive patients. One hundred eighty hypertensive patients were selected and grouped into two groups, 144 obese hypertensive (group 1: obese HT ) and 36 non-obese hypertensive (group 2: non-obese HT). The two groups showed non-significant differences in respect to the general and echocardiographic characteristics except for the body mass index in kg/m2 (obese HT vs non-obese HT, 31.68± 0.36 vs 26.06±0.33, p= 0.0001) and for the LV mass/height 2.7 in gm/m2.7 (obese HT vs non-obese HT, 93.96±3.79 vs 75.81±9.07, p=0.001). Of the obese HT patients, 12(8%) were having normal LV geometric pattern and 132(92%) showed abnormal LV geometric pattern; Of the non-obese HT patients, 9(25%) were having normal LV geometric pattern and 27(75%) showed abnormal LV geometric pattern (p= 0.0001 overall). There is percentage difference of 17% in the abnormal patterns in the two groups. This was attributed to the presence of obesity in the obese HT group. This study concluded that in the management of obese hypertensive patients it is very essential that not only treating hypertension per se but to plan for promotion of optimal body weight besides controlling hypertension through life style measures such as adequate exercise and proper nutrition and trying to maintain ideal body weight for the whole life of the patient.

Mechanism of bacterial biofilm formation in milk containers

journal of kerbala university, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 51-61

Different 44 bacterial isolates were isolated from biofilms of raw cow milk. The results were elicited that the Gram-negative isolates showed maximum percentage(81.8%) of total bacteria, whereas the minimum(18.2%) was found in the Gram-positive isolates. However, the average number of total bacteria count in biofilms of milk containers was 60000 cell/ ml/ cm. When the mechanism of biofilm formation was followed, using submerged slides technique, it was found that differences in the percentage of Gram-negative isolates (75.3%) from Gram-positive isolates (24.7%), however, the motile bacteria showed more competence than non motile in formation process. These findings suggest that the Gram-negative bacteria, with respect to motile bacteria have significant role in formation of biofilms and spoilage of milk.

"Effect of the Distance of Surroundings material on the Signal / Noise Ratio of the NaI (Tl) Detectors"

Fadhil Ismail shrrad AL- Taie; Amir Abdul Ameer Mohammed-Ali; Nawras Mohammed shaheedAL-Dahan; Khalid Hussain Hattif

journal of kerbala university, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 51-59

In the present work the effect of the distance surroundings material on the signal to noise (S/N %) are studied , for the two sizes of scintillation detectors NaI (Tl); (3"X3" and 1.5"X1.5"),by using two radioactive sources (Co- 60 and Cs -137) and Iron and P.V.C cylinders. The experimental results shows that the Signal to the noise ratio (S/N %) are increasing in both the distance and photons energy increasing. The effect of size of NaI(Tl) on the ratio of (S/N %) as well as the type of materials dependence is present too.

Biochemical Markers And Risk Factors In Acute Myocardial Infarction

Mufeed J. Ewadh; Riyadh A. Heniwa; Hassen G. AL-Awady

journal of kerbala university, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 60-78

This study included 100 patients with myocardial infraction 77 were males and 23 were females with their mean age ( 58 ± 19 years ). While the control groups consist of 45 subjects. They were chosen from medical staff and relatives who were free from signs and symptoms of coronary heart disease 38 were males and 7 were females, with their mean age (56±11 years old). Blood samples were taken from the patients 24 hours after attack and urine samples were collected from the patients in the 3rd day after attack. Blood and urine samples were gathered from the control groups for comparison. The results shows that creatine kinase , relative index micro albuminurea and serum uric acid found to be in high level compared with control as well as creatine kinase – MB . While the serum albumin found to be scientifically lower in its concentration .

Development Zinc-selective membrane potentiometric sensor based on crown ether.

Zeina Mohammed Kadhum Al-Mossawy

journal of kerbala university, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 79-85

A new liquid selective electrode for Zinc ions based on Di-benzo-18-crown-6 as membrane carrier with plasteicezer (DOPP) was prepared. The sensor exhibits a nernstian response for Zn2+ range with nernstian slope ,and detection limit of( )activity unit. .It has a response time of a bout(30 s) and can be used for at least (60 days) without any divergence. The proposed membrane sensor revealed good selectivity for Zn2+ over variety of other metal ions and could be used in pH range of (3-7).It was successfully used for direct determination of Zn2+ in solution.


Zuhoor F. Dawood; Adeba Y. Shareef; Manal A . Al-Shama

journal of kerbala university, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 86-94

The biological activity of some nickel (II) complexes containing mixed ligands {having the formulaes [Ni2(Sch)2(Py)4(NO3)2](NO3)2 and [Ni2(Sch)2(Py)4(NO3)3]NO3 (where Sch=benzaldehyde semicarbazone - Bsch or 2-fluorobenzaldehyde semicarbazone - Fsch; Py = substituted pyridine: 2-aminopyridine - Py1, 4-aminopyridine – Py2, 2,3-dicarboxypyridine - Py3, 2-amino-3-hydroxypyridine - Py4, 2-amino-4-methylpyridine - Py5 or 3,4-dicarboxypyridine - Py6 )} in dimethylsuphoxide solutions(DMSO) have been evaluated by agar plate diffution technique against five human pathogenic bacterial strains: Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris . The complexes were found to have antimicrobial activity on some gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, in vitro. The effective concentration ranging between 62.5-500 µg/ml. Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the most sensitive bacteria followed by Staphylococcus

Synthises of 3 – glucosyl ibuprofen ester derivative

Maha Kasem

journal of kerbala university, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 94-101

3-glucosyl ibuprofen ester was synthesized by esterification of ibuprofen carb-oxylic acid group to obtaine a new ibuprofen derivative that may have more water– solubility than ibuprofen and may also be possible to reduce the dose by effectively delivering the drug inside the cell.

Seismic Refraction and Cross-Hole Techniques for Investigate the Top Soil and Water Table Beneath the High Pumping Station Hall of Al-Hussian water Supply Station, Kerbala, Iraq

S. Al-Banna; Ahmad; Ammar; J. Al-Khfaji; Esam; S. Banno

journal of kerbala university, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 33-42

The present study aims to investigate the possible causes of cracks, in the walls of buildings and storage tanks, in Al-Hussian water project of Kerbalaa city. Eight seismic refraction profiles and seven cross-hole sections were made to investigate the pumping station hall in the studied site.
Two refractors were obtained. The first one is at depth range 1–2.5 meters, which coincides with the water table level and base of foundation (two meters below the ground level). The second refractor is depending on cross-hole results of depth range 4- 4.5 meters; which confirms to the top of the dense sand layer.
It is believed that water seepage from broken pipes and its infiltration through the soil play the great role in washing the soil and changing the water table level from one point to others. The differential washing of soil causes differential settlement beneath the buildings which is appears as cracks at the walls.

Solution of Fractional Differential Equations by Using Variational Approach

Fadhel S. Fadhel; Basim K. AL-Sultani

journal of kerbala university, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 1-8

In this paper, we modify a new approach based on variational techniques for solving fractional differential equations of the form:
y()  F(x, y)
y(1)(x0)  y0,
where 0 <  < 1
This approach has its bases on using Magri’s approach (see [8] )for every linear operator, the results are established using direct Ritz method as well as optimization method to solve these fractional differential equations numerically.

Glutathione,Calcium and Glucose levels in lenses of Patients with Cataract

Mufeed J. Ewadh; Qasim Al-Rubayee; Rafid S. Ewadh; Khawla A. Shemran

journal of kerbala university, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 29-32

A cataract is an opacity of crystalline lens(congenital or acquired) .The lens works with the transparent cornea to focus light on the retina at the back of the eye.Fifteen patients with lens cataract who attended the department of ophthalmology at Al-Hilla Teaching Hospital were examined for some of the chemical contents of their cataractous lenses.Patients were eight females and seven males,presented with a mean age of (62±5.96)years old.
The mean calcium ion concentration in the cataracted lenses was(24.2±14.7)µmol/gm.Considering antioxidants,reduced glutathione concentration (GSH) in the lenses was analysed and found to be (6.88±3.57)µmol/L.As Monosaccharides D-glucose, D-galactose are know to be cataractogenic, glucose content of the catarctous lenses was estimated and it revealed a mean concentration of (27.62±11.5)mg/dl.

The Evaluation of Antioxidants status in patients with bladder Cancer.

Mufeed J. Ewad; Rafid S.Ewadh; Imad H. Mahmood

journal of kerbala university, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 1-13

Sixty seven patients with prooved carcinoma of the urinary bladder in Babylon Governorate and show changes in their glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in the blood. The studied patients were (57) males and (10) females and the control group was (36).The mean age of the patients was (55) years old,68% were exposed to chemicals,46% of patients had history of urinary stones,84% were smokers and 91% presented with negative family history of tumors.The results of the study were:both GST and GSH in the blood decrease in bladder cancer,exposure to chemicals had affected both GST and GSH,urban and rural areas had nearly the same incidence of cases,GST is affected by testosterone while GSH is affected by estrogen and the size of the tumor affected both GSH-and GST.It is concluded that bladder cancer affects GST and GSH levels in the patients' blood.Gender,smoking,exposure to chemicals and age had a signifecant effect on blood levels of GST and GSH.

Serum Cholesterol Level in Iraqi Depressed Patients: Results and Review

Hussein K. Abdul Hussein; Amir Fadhel; Amir Omran

journal of kerbala university, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 102-121

Background: Cholesterol is widely distributed in all tissues, but it is especially abundant in the nervous system, where it is important for many aspects of cellular structure and function. Depression is present in high range in patients admitted to hospital after a myocardial infarction and is an independent risk factor for increased mortality. Cholesterol is one of the risk factor of ischaemic heart diseases (IHD). Any association between depression and cholesterol level is complex and may be confounded by the increase use of antidepressants and other medications among persons with depression.
In this work, an attempt was carried out to link depression, serum cholesterol, and the effect of treatment by measuring serum cholesterol in the tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) treated depressed patients and compare with control and untreated depressed patients to evaluate the effect of treatment
on serum cholesterol. The second aim of this study is to review the majority of researches that studied serum cholesterol in different categories of depressed patients in different countries.
Patients and Methods: This study included (38) depressed patients who are on TCAs as one of the drugs prescribed for the treatment. The second group consists of seventy two untreated depressed patients. Fifty apparently healthy subjects (no depression and IHD) were selected as a control group. Their sex and age were comparable to those of patients.
Total serum cholesterol was measured by using enzymatic method for the trhree groups under study. Results: There is a significant decrease (p<0.05) in mean serum cholesterol in untreated depressed patients as compared with control or treated depressed patients. While no significant changes noticed from the comparison between treated depressed patients and control group. The results showed that there is a significant difference between males and females in control and untreated depressed patients groups while there is no significant difference in serum cholesterol in between male and female in Treated Depressed Patients.
Conclusion: From the results of this research and the review, it can be concluded that:
Depression is not yet a consistent risk factor for IHD. Low cholesterol in suicide patients (usually severely depressed) can be predicted by a severe decline in appetite and cease of food ingestion. Therefore, cholesterol levels in their serum should be decreased.
Treatment with TCAs results in improvement in depression symptoms, including appetite, but has bad side effects on heart. Hence, the diagnosed depressed patients, who already under treatment, have a higher risk of IHD than control. In those groups of depressed patients, serum cholesterol will be normal or higher than the baseline, but they have a higher risk of IHD.

Evaluation of antidermatophytes activity of Nystatin

Ali Abdul Hussein S. AL- Janabi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 122-125

Antifungal activity of Nystatin was tested against three species with two variants of Trichophyton, one genera of Dermatophytes groups, (Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, T. rubrum and T. simii) which are revealed a significant differences (P<0.01) effect on the growth of T. rubrum & T. mentagrophytes at concentration 2 mg/ml and against T. simii at 3 mg/ml , whereas complete inhibition of T.rubrum & T. simii had shown after culturing on media containing 4 mg/ml of Nystatin .

Water extract effect of Datura fruit on emergence and early growth of wheat , barley ; toothed and rye grass seedlings .

journal of kerbala university, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 103-109

An experiment was conducted at Dept of Biology , Science college . Kufa Univ . on 2001 , to study the effect of Datura fruit extracts ( by cold and boiled water ) at a conc. of 0,25, 50,75 and 100% for germination percentage ; length of plumule ; length of radicle and radicle number ,
for four species wheat , barley , toothed and rye grass , that their seeds were sown in Petri- dishes that were covered in side by filter paper .
Then , they watered by equal amounts of the above extracts conc . for ten days .
The experiment was adopted by ( R.C.D) with three factors ; extract method , extract concentrations and plant species .
Results indicated that , with both equous extracts for Datura fruit , and with all its concentrations the percentages emergence and the growth of tested plants for early period were reduced . Tested plants responded differently towards the extract effects and its concentrations . The severe effects were with toothed seedlings