ISSN: 1813-0410

Volume 2, Issue 4

Volume 2, Issue 4, Autumn 2006, Page 1-456


«Legislative codes and Reforms before the code and the legislation of Hamorabi and their effect on the civilization of masopotamia »

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 38-45

This study includes «Legislative codes and Reforms before the code and the legislation of Hamorabi and their effect on the civilization of masopotamia» due to the importance of these codes as they established the bases of justice and the equality among people, protected the rights of poor people and slaves from their masters, also dealt with different sides of incident life, and finally the king Hamorabi took advantage of thses codes and legislations that were issued before himThe subject of that study was focused on Orcajeena code, Urnam code, the code of Eshnona kingdom, legislations of Isen or Lebeet Ishtar, and the codes and the legislations of Hamorabo and their importance to the society of masopotamia.That study depended upon a number of resources and references the researcher took advantage from and that enriched the subject with good information whether these resources were translated in to Arabic or not. Among thses resources are: Burhan Adden Dalu in his book «the civilization of Egypt and Iraq», Ahmed Ameen Saleem in his book «studies in the history and the civilization of ancient near East, and other resources.The Study has a conclusion that was the most prominent result reached by the researcher.

Foreign Rights in Iraqi Law No . 118 year 1978

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 114-134

The research deals with Foreign Rights in Iraqi Law N. 118 year 1978, and the obligations levied upon them on interning the Iraqi Soil, I .e.retained entry visa , their existence ( address) to insure Residential permit, and ascertained procedure law on leaving the Iraqi Territory of the date of expiration . Also deals with the subject we put it in the research that we mentioned the Iraqi resolutions of the past authoritarians government of the foreign affaire treaties. Also deals with the wife of Iraqi person live in the other country, law N. 26 year 2005 . Also deals with the Foreign wife married Iraqi citizen live in foreign country, which entitled a an Iraqi nationality, and we discuses the provisional must have this Wife to took Iraqi Nationality according the new Law N . 26 year 2005

Environment in Islam : Awareness and Ethics

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 164-172

This modest study aims at shedding light on one of the issues that has emerged from the contemporary movement of scientific and technical progress , namely the issue of man and environment and the deterioration inflicted upon it as a result of an instrumental dominant thought despite its inability to manage the culture which it has produced. This means that Islamic thought should promote its mechanism to copy with the reality through a complete and comprehensive theory which is able to study environment and passing judgment regarding it , thus confronting the negative aspects caused by its materialistic culture and rectifying the direction of human culture according to constructive Islamic values. Environment from the viewpoint of Islam relates exclusively to the endurance of man who is charged with the trust of being a caliph on earth. Man, therefore, has deserved bearing this trust without abusing the blessings constituting the elements of environment or behaving towards it in an illegal or incorrect way in order to achieve a narrow personal interest. Man has to take care of earth and construct it through spreading welfare and peace and working on showing the greatness and omnipotence of the creator by making positive use of all creatures which God has subjected for man as plainly manifested in His Holy saying " He has originated you from earth and made you husband it '' (Hud: verse 61) This can not be realized except through two things: the first of which is to preserve the goodness of that which is good and not to make mischief on it while the second is to rehabilitate that which was damaged and increase in that rehabilitation. There is no doubt that both things are good for the protection and safety of environment. This is an invitation for us all to contribute towards a peaceful and healthy environment in line with His Holy saying '' Eat and drink out of the provision of God and don't go through earth making mischief'' (The cow: verse 60)

King's deputy and his influence on Royal court of Almanthrah and Kendah kingdoms before Islam

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 185-193

This study includes « King's deputy and his influence on Royal court of Almanthrah and Kendah kingdoms before Islam» due to the importance of this post to Arabic tribes at that time. Most of Arabic tribes were trying to get this post to achieves the interests of the tribe and its individuals and to the ensure the royalty of those tribes to be under the command of Almanthrah and kendah kingdoms. Since these two Arabic kingdoms were a subject th the aggression Roman and Sasani empires, the assistance of those tribes were needed.The subject of this study was focused on the meaning of king's deputy on the asyonomony in the language and the idom itself, the beginning of the post of king's deputy in Almanthrah and Kendah kingdom Arabic tribes that occupied this position in Almanthrah kingdom and finally the effect of this post on kendah kingdom.The study depended upon group of Arabic genuine resources and modern subsidary references, among these resources Ibn Menthoor in «lisan Alarab» Alasfahani in «Tareekh seni Melook Alarth and Alanbiaa», Ibn habeeb in «Almehaber» and other Arabic resources.
This study are includes the conclusion which was the most prominent result reached by the researcher

The Effectiveness of Using Non-Classroom Linguistic Activities In A Dictated Comprehension For The Second Stage Students Of Intermediate School

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 194-217

Abstract
The Goal Of The Research:
The effectiveness of non-classroom linguistic activities in the dictated comprehension for the students of the second stage of the intermediate school.
The Suppositions of the research:
-There is not a difference which is statistically indicated between the comprehension average of students who practise the non-classroom linguistic activities and comprehension average of students who do not practice these activities in dictation at the level of (0.05).
1- The Research Procedures:
The researcher choose a sample of (62) students and female students according to cluster sampling technique. He teaches (59) students of both gender a long with practicing non-classroom linguistic activities (experimental group students of both gender), and teaching students of both gender without practicing these

activities (who they are students of exacting group).
The researcher corresponds between those two groups with the act of time and educational-level of a father and a mother in addition to Arabic language degree of the previous year. (The first stage of the intermediate

school) more, the degree of test in dictation.
The Results of the Research:
The researcher reaches to the following results:-
1- Surpassing the students of experimental group who practicing non-classroom linguistic activities over the students of an other group who practicing no such activities in “Dictation”.
2- Surpassing the students of experimental group who practicing non-classroom linguistic activities, over students of another group who don’t practice these activities in “Dictation”.
3- Surpassing the female-students of an experimental group who do practice non-classroom linguistic activities, on the female students of another group who don’t practice these activities.
4- There isn’t a difference among students of both gender of an experimental group in dictated comprehension as a results of practicing non-classroom linguistic activities.
The researcher concludes that the dictated comprehension gets no improvement within the students of the second stage of intermediate school unless modern manners have to be adhered in studying it (dictation) specially practicing non-classroom linguistic activities.
The researcher places recommendations and suggestions in the light of the research results.

Lights on the reconciliatory thought in the scientific Hawza in Al-Najaf Al-ashraf1946 – 1980

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 232-241

The reconciliation idea among the different Islamic sects is considered one of the basic components of any reformatory project requires cultural renovation and adheres to the high interests and the general aims and values of Islamic Sharia and nation, provided that reconciliation or Islamic unity dose not means bringing . Muslims under one doctrine, rather, it means specifying the Islamic bases on which all the sects agreed, so as to bring them closer, and to moles each group of them respect the other's opinion in minor issues as long as this opinion is supplemented by the scientific proof. Hence, reconciliation dose not mean that the Sunni should be shi,i or vice versa, but it dose mean eliminating convulsion resulting from the historical, ideological and jurisprudential disputes, and unifying the political attitudes to wards such important Islamic issues as the Palestinian issue. There fore ; this research came in a framework of a simple attempt to shed the lights on the efforts undertaken by the scientists of the scientific Hawza in Najaf between 1946 – 1980

Adoring Hussain By the poet Abud J. Al –HILLY Art structural study))

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 279-294

Poetry is one of the fine Art Arabs were familiar to ,since past ages, It basically depends on literary talent and innate character poet has which inspire him to say and compose verses. Prof. Abud Judy al-hilly seems to be qualified with these gifts, his early mature talent, his academic study of Arabic language the holly and spirited effect of kerbala environment where he lives attracts people souls all over the world and thus was his poem (adoring Hussain ) one of his most beautiful verses and its a distinguished pattern (as to our opinion ) subject, structure, style and technique. For all that proceeded I present this study to reveal these properties and under two main titles, firstly is study in the structure of the poem. The other is study of the poetical language, which include a study of poem parts according to the art technique and style. It is all preceded by a brief biography of the poet.

The moral dimmension of the literary texts

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 309-325

The present paper deals with finding a new reading of the creative text in old Arabic critical tradition in terms of the intellectual and moral variables which our sytalizes the critic`s awarness . the latter therefore , tring to impose his preconceived views on the text instead of exploring what it actually says and analyzing its technical and aesthetic dimensions . the paper talls in six section dealing respectively with the concept of moral purpose in the literary text , the religious variable , the customs dimension , the human dimension , the emotional dimension , and the didactic dimension , the researcher concluded that a critical reading of the text should overcome preconcird dimension , and form on the meaning actually embadits by the texts form . this results in a varity of approaches and methods in analyzing the text .

The Training program Evaluation for the first Activity of Social Specialists in the ALfataih for the Care and Rehabilitation of the Disabled / Almarj

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 325-336

The study was conducted in Libya / Almarj town in 2001 and aimed the training program Evaluation for the first activity of social Specialists in the ALfataih for the care and rehabilitation of the disabled / Almarj care and rehabilitation of the disabled, and then develop proposals for the development of the positive aspects that might arise in the training program, and other proposals to reduce the negative if there is a The study was conducted research sample Included 51 females& males from social Specialists of 89% from research population . The researcher made Questionnaire for this purpose Ascertain the validity five prosecute During the presentation to five arbitrators and finding reliability factor was 0.81 in ALpa Cronbach the find of result of the research was the training program The advantage of positive aspects and negative and a researcher has developed some suggestions to overcome the negative and strengthen the positive at best those proposals Is the necessary a survey of the training needs Before the start Such programs As well as the need to contain training program Aspects of the training on how to apply psychological tests a And in a test at the end of the session to see the interest received by the trainee and attention to the implementation of the training program through the presence of educational techniques and lighting and ventilation where.

The 2003 Occupation Impact in Inflating Managerial Corruption and its Social and economic negative effects on the Iraqi Society

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 380-392

Maragerial Corruption way there where occupation started. The problem lies in enlarging the effects of corrupation to an extent that has never been witnessed in Iraq for a very long time. This, consequeatly, negatively affected the Iraqi society in a deformed manner.The importance of the stady is knowing the real reasons behind corruption and inducting some remedies.It is hypothesized that the occupation has a negative effective role socially and economically practised upon the Iraqi society. In order to attain the desired results, the study is handled in four points:
1) aspectual frame.
2) managerial corruption before the occupation.
3) corruption during occupation.
4) corruption's social and economic effects.

Assessing the Awareness of English Foreign Language College Students in ' Vocatives'

Nadya Khairy Al- Rifai

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 428-433

Vocative case is considered as one of the seventh noun cases in modern English besides (nominative , genitive , dative , accusative , locative , and instrumental case). The term 'vocative' is mainly taken from 'voco' which means 'call' in Latin (Huddeston,1981:199 ; Balme,1996:11 ).This case is used ( in some inflected languages) when the referent of the noun is being addressed . The vocative case ( also called the fifth case)* is the case used for a noun identifying the person ( animal , object , etc.) being addressed and / or occasionally the determiners of the noun. A vocative expression is an expression of direct address, wherein the identity of the party being spoken to is set forth expressly within a sentence ( Wikipedia Encyclopedia:1996,15). The vocative case indicated in Arabic by the particle 'ya'(Arabic:يا )placed before a noun. In English translations , this is often translated literally as 'O' instead of being omitted (Ibid.) . In this case the two languages , i.e. , Arabic and English , differ in the expression (s) used for a vocative . This element of the English language system is not studied thoroughly at college level. EFL Iraqi college students have no idea about the vocative case in English. Therefore, this study is an attempt to answer the following questions:
1-What is the level of Iraqi EFL college students in recognizing the vocative case in English?
2-Are Iraqi EFL college students aware of the different types of vocative case in English?
So , this study aims at finding out the level of Iraqi EFL college students in recognizing the types of vocative case in English language . The following null hypothesis is posed:
The level of Iraqi EFL college students in recognizing the types of vocative case is below the theoretical mean .
To the best of the researcher's knowledge , no other study in Iraq has tackled the problem before .Therefore , it is necessary to fill the gap. It is hoped that the results of the present study will shed light on the real problems and difficulties as well as the level of the Iraqi EFL college students in dealing with this topic

LIPID PROFILE RELATED TO OXIDATIVE STRESS AND ANTIOXIDANTS IN DIABETIC PATIENTS .

Mahmoud H. Hadwan; Mufeed J.Ewadh; Oda M. Al-Zamely

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 1-10

The concentration of antioxidant such as glutathione, high density
lipoprotein (HDL) were measured to assay the oxidative stress associated with Diabetes millitus(DM) compared with healthy controls, Glutathione was found to be reduced when compared with those of healthy controls, this depletion in antioxidant concentration may be due to their protective role against oxidative stress. The other finding is that Diabetes has lower HDL levels, but higher in low density lipoprotein(LDL), very low lipoprotein(vLDL), total Cholesterol(tCH) and Triglycerides(TG).

How To Understand The Relationship Between Oxidative Stress , Non Enzymatic Antioxidant And Trace Elements In Diabetic Patients

Ferdous Abbas Jabar; Oda Mizil ALzamely; Mufeed Jalil Ewadh

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 11-22

The correlation between free radicals produced by diabetic patients and non enzymatic antioxidants in addition to trace elements have been undertaken in this study to evaluate the risky of such effects on different biological parameters in such patients .The results appears in this study state that anew information have been released to consider these effects and how to neutralize it.

A NEW ROUT FOR THE EVALUATION OF OXIDATIVE STRESS IN DIABETIC PATIENTS BY USING THE ACTIVITY OF SOME ENZYMATIC ANTIOXIDANTS

Ferdous Abbas Jabar; Mufeed Jalil Ewadh; Oda Mizil; ALzamely

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 23-37

Diabetes mellitus is a common health problem characterized by hyperglycemia resulted from absolute or relative decrease in insulin secretion from β-cells of the islets of Langerhans in pancreas. Diabetes mellitus is considered as a member of oxidative stress syndrome. It is associated with an imbalance between types of free radicals and scavengers system. This study is aimed to assess the oxidative stress status in patients with type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus disease, and to explore the good free radical marker in this state.

Using of The Coaxial Cable to Construct a Current Pulse Generator

Abdul-kadhim A. Selman

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 38-47

THIS PAPER describes the design and performance of a coaxial cable current pulse generator, which is capable of produsing a single,fast speed,output pulse with short time duration.A (300 v) dc power supply has been used to charge a coaxial cable of length (100 ) with present of a mercury-wetted relay (M.W.R.) as switch.The generator design is relatively simple,being easy to construct and inexpensive.The output pulse from the generator rises in less than twenty nanoseconds and has a width of one microsecond.The device is suitable for low power such as a current shunt tester constant current source and trigger generator.A compensated ribbon shunt type of (9.808 ) has been used in this work. .

On Almost Open Sets In Metric Spaces

Mohammed Yahya Abid; Basim Karim Al-Saltani

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 47-48

In this paper we present a new notion the almost open sets, to define
the almost dense and almost perfect sets in metric space X. furthermore
we prove some theorems related by these concepts .

Extraction of mercuric ions Hg(II) from aqueous solutions by using 2-[4-carboxy methyl phenyl azo]-4,5-diphenyl imidazole

S. K. Jawad

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 49-60

The extraction of mercuric ions Hg2+ from aqueous media with ligand 2-[4-carboxy methyl phenyl azo]-4,5-diphenyl imidazole (4-CMePADI) dissolved in benzene studied. This study showed that the was optimum pHex of Hg2+ was (6) and the optimum quantity of Hg2+ ions in aqueous phase was 30 μg and the best shaking time needed to extraction was 15 minutes. The stoichiometric studies showed that by using slope analysis method, mole ratio method and continueous variation method, the structure of ion pair complex extracted was a sandwich structure (Metal : Ligand) (M : L) 1 : 2 [Hg(4-CMePADI)2]2+( )2. There is no any linear relation for dielectric constant of organic solvent with distribution ratio. There is an effect for Solvent structure on the extraction method as well as salting out effect on the extraction by use lithium chloride, synergistic effect appear there is aparticipate of one molecule of tributyl phosphate (TBP) in ion pair complex extracted with structure [Hg(4-CMePADI)2(TBP)]2+( )2, as well as the extraction method was exothermic reaction.

Effect of cultural conditions on the production of glucoamylase from Aspergillus ustus

Ali Abdulkadhm AL-Ghanimi; Aziz Yasir AL-Ethari; Saif Dawood AL-Ahmar

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 61-68

A strain of Aspergillus ustus was able to produce glucoamylase in a medium composed of date juice as the main carbon source supplemented with maltose as an inducer and additional carbon source, NH4CL or (NH4)2SO4 as a nitrogen source and KH2PO4 and MgSO4.7H2O as nutrients. The effect of cultural conditions on the glucoamylase production was studied using this medium.Results revealed that date juice of 0.1% total carbohydrates, maltose 1.5% (W/V), NH4Cl 0.2% supplemented with the above mentioned nutrients, adjusted at pH 4.5-5.0 and incubated at 30 ºC for 72 hrs under static conditions was the most efficient and gave higher enzyme yield.

Protons effect of the isobars nuclei (Te126, Xe126, Ba126and Ce126)

Heiyam Najy Hady Damin; Muhsen Cadem motleb

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 69-80

The protons effect on the nuclear structure of Isobars nuclei (Te126, Xe126, Ba126 and Ce126) have been studied using the Interacting boson model-1.The present results have been appeared that the nuclei undergo from the vibration limit U(5) to O(6)- like nuclei toward the SU(3) limit with increase the proton number from (52) inTe126 nucleus to (58) in Ce126 nucleus. The calculated energy spectra and the properties of electric transition ratios are in reasonable agreement with experimental data.

Serum Uric Acid / Creatinine Ratio in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

Abdulsamie H. Alta

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 81-89

Several studies reported that serum creatinine and serum uric acid significantly and independently associated with excess mortality of cardiovascular diseases and stroke.
The present study was done to express the relation of serum creatinine and uric acid to mortality and cardiovascular diseases in Iraqi people.Forty one patients (25 males, 16 females) with AMI admitted to Merjan Teaching Hospital in Hilla city (2005) clinically diagnosed and fifty two (25 males ,27 females) apparently healthy persons as controls subject to present study Serum creatinine was determined calorimetrically according to the reaction with basic picrate solution, whereas uric acid was determined enzymatically using uricase method. Results of present study show significant increase in the levels of serum creatinine and uric acid of patients with AMI when compared with healthy controls(P<0.05). Whereas serum uric acid/ creatinine (UA/Cr) ratio of patients with AMI found to be significantly decreased when compared with healthy controls(P<0.05). The relationship between serum uric acid and creatinine was negative correlation in patients, whereas this relationship found to be positive in healthy controls.In conclusion, serum UA/Cr ratio, serum creatinine and serum uric acid in Iraqi people patients with acute myocardial infarction AMI, may aid in the prediction of mortality of cardiovascular diseases.

Solution of non-linear optimal control problems using non-classical variational approach

Basim K. AL-Saltani; Mohammed Yahya Abid Ali

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 90-99

The aim of this paper, modify a new approach based on variational techniques to solve some optimal control problems including linear and nonlinear optimal control problems with equality and inequality constraints. This approach has its bases on using Magri’s approach for every operator, the results are established using direct Ritz method as well as optimization method to solve these problems numerically.

Intercalations on α and gamma-Zr-phosphate

Abbas Matrood Bashi

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 100-108

The intercalation of layered crystalline structures of some thoroughly investigated synthetic inorganic ion exchangers of some insoluble acid salts of tetravalent metals of general formula M(IV)(HXO4).nH2O where(M(IV)=Ti,Zr,Ce,Sn and X=P,As) have a layered structure, such layer consisting of a plane of tetravalent atoms sandwiched between tetrahedral phosphate or arsenate groups.

A study of the immune response of Salmonella typhi - LPS in rabbits

Mahdi H. M.Al- Ammar

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 109-116

The study included isolation of S. typhi from a diagnosed cases of typhoid patients, which dependent on the morphological and biochemical reactions in addition to the serological tests .LPS antigens were prepared and assuaged . as well as cell free culture filtrate antigen besides the ready prepared S. typhi agglutinogens. Such antigens were made available for plotting the immune status of the rabbits. In animals, S.typhi specific agglutinins titers(S.TH,S.TO) were measured and found to be within the range of 160-640 in peripheral blood respectively. The cellular immune response were determined by performing , leukocyte inhibition factor LIF. In case of S. typhi infection the LIF percentage raised up to 40% in systemic LIF when CFCF were used as a sensetizer . S. typhi immune protection was determined in animals ; the immune protection rate with LPS vaccine was 90% while the death rate was 10% .

Thallium(I)-Selective Membrane Potentiometric Sensor Based on Phenyl Disulfide

Mouhannd H. Naji; Aayad A. Sayhood

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 117-124

A thallium(I) selective electrode based on phenyl disulfide as membrane carrier was prepared. The electrode exhibits a near-Nernstian response for Tl+ ions over a wide concentration range from (1.0x10-5-1.0x10-1 M) with a slope of 56.9 mV/decade and a limit of detection of 5.6x10-6 M, and was found to be selective and useable within the pH range (4.0-10.0). The electrode was successfully used as an indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of thallium ions.

DIRECT ESTIMATION FOR MULTIVARIATE POLYNOMIAL APPROXIMATION

Eman Samir Bhaya; Hussein Ali Mohammed

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 137-142

The Bramble-Hilbert lemma is a fundamental result on multivariate polynomial approximation .It is frequently applied in the analysis of finite element methods used for numerical solutions. Our main result is to improve the following Bramble-Hilbert lemma to the case :let be abounded convex domain and let , ,0 ,where ( ) is the Sobolev spaces ,then there exists a polynomial P of degree m-1 for which
c(n,m)(diam ) g ,
where . = is the Sobolev semi norm of order . As a consequence we get that for f L , < .
c ,
where
,
is the rate of polynomial approximation of degree , and is the averaged modulus of smoothness, and >0.

Study of the Adsorption of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solution: a Comparison between Iraqi & English bentonite Activity as Adsorbents

Hussein Kadhem Abdul Hussein; Haider Naji Khudhaier; Najdat Redha Hameed Al-Khafaji; Hussein abd Ali

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 143-154

Background: Methylene blue dye uses as adsorbent to study the ability of different surface activities as adsorbents. The adsorbents can be used in the extraction of certain pollutant substances from solution on solids which is one of the cheapest and easiest separation methods. Furthermore, some of the extracted substances are economically important. In previous work, the ability of English bentonite to extract methylene blue dye from aqueous solution was carried out. In this work, Iraqi locally bentonite was used as a cheaper adsorbent for methylene blue from aqueous solution. The second aim of the present study is to make a comparison between English bentonite and Iraqi bentonite in different parameters of adsorption of Methylene blue dye from aqueous solution. Some practical parameters affecting adsorption process, in both clays, such as initial dye concentration and the thermodynamic parameters (ΔHº, ΔGº, ΔSº) for the adsorption process also computed and compared.
Materials and Methods: Ten milliliters of different concentrations of methylene blue solutions (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50 mg/L) were mixed in water shakerbath with 0.05g of bentonite clay. Supernatants were separated by centrifugation. UV-Visible spectrophotometer technique used to follow up the adsorbed quantities after mixing the dye solution with bentonite. The experiment repeated at three different temperatures (5, 25, 45°C) to measure the thermodynamic parameters (ΔHº, ΔGº, ΔSº) for the adsorption process.
Results: The extent of the methylene blue removal by Iraqi bentonite increased with increase in the initial concentration of the dye and with decrease temperature. Thermodynamic parameters, such as ΔHº, ΔGº, and ΔSº have been calculated by using the thermodynamic equilibrium coefficient obtained at different temperatures and concentrations.
Iraqi bentonite :( ΔHº=-32.04 KJ.mol-1, ΔGº=-14.78 KJ.mol-1, ΔSº=-57.91J.mol-1. ºK-1).
English bentonite: (ΔHº=20.21 KJ.mol-1, ΔGº=-5.17KJ.mol-1, ΔSº=85.16 J.mol-1. ºK-1).
Conclusion: Both English and Iraqi bentonite clays have ability to adsorb methylene blue. The dye removal increased with increase in the initial concentration of the dye. There is no significant difference in the amounts of dye adsorbed by both clays indicated the possible symmetry in the active sites of bentonite clays even they come from different origin. Thermodynamical data indicate that the adsorption of methylene blue on Iraqi bentonite is exothermic and spontaneous and high heat of adsorption indicates possibility of chemisorption process in addition to other ordinary forces including in adsorption. While same process on English bentonite is endothermic, spontaneous with very low free energy change. In conclusion, Iraqi bentonite clay is cheaper, available and has identical adsorptive activities for methylene blue. This research opens a series of studies for the uses of this Iraqi bentonite as adsorbent for different substances in pollution, medicine, supporter, and different fields in industry.

SPECTROPHTOMETERIC DETERMINATION OF HOLMIUM (III) WITH SOLOCHROME BLACK T REAGENT

Alaa F.Hussain; Muneer A.AL-Daam

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 164-171

Solochrome Black T reagent product a violet complex with Holmium(III)in aqueous solution media at (pH=5).The complex was found to be stable at the given pH.Beer,s law is obeyed in the concentration range(6.06x10-7-54.56x10-7M) with molar absorptivity of (14432L.mole-1.cm-1).The stoichometry of complex was confirmed by using mole ratio method which indicated the ratio of reagent to metal is 2:1.The effect of the presence of different cations and anions as interference in the determination of Holmium (III) under the given condition were investigated .The proposal method was applied for the determination of Holmium in standard rock sample by direct methods and a satisfactory results were obtained.

Synthises of N-( fructose ) tetracycline derivative.

Maha K. Mahmmod

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 172-179

N-( fructose) tetracycline was synthesized by alkylation of the 1-chloro di-acetone fructose with the hydrogen of 2-carboxamide group of tetracycline to obtaine a new derivative that may have more water–solubility than tetracycline.

Proteinuria and Ischemic Stroke in Diabetes.

Riadh al- Saigh; Adnan M.Al-Jubori

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 190-203

Proteinuria is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between proteinuria and ischemic stroke in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and to determine whether proteinuria is an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke.

Design and Implementation of Computerized control room

Hawrra H.Abbas Al-Rubiae

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 204-211

For any control system there is two basic operations the first one picking up the information (data) from around environment(such as factory) by using special electronic devices such as sensors to handle these data, the second make same action to the connected devices according to the result of these information’s. In this paper we design and implement computerized control system (contain H/W interface part and monitoring program) for doing the above operations.

Explosive Injuries in Karbala; Abdominal Organs involvement In relation to other body parts

ALI AZEEZ ALI FRCS; ADNAN HELLI CABS AL

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 212-222

Terroristic offences kill or disable people and destroy the infrastructures. Triage and management of the victims are challenge for the health personals and exhaust resources.
Ten percent of the injuries involve the abdominal and thoracic regions. Many of the clinical findings may present lately. Surgical teams should be initiative in dealing with such misshapen. The health personals should have continuous training and concerns, to do the best.
Objectives:
To determine abdominal organ injuries in relation to other body parts involvement, with evaluation of our triage and management system.
Methods:
A dual terrorist explosion violated people in Karbala city on fifth of Jan. 2006. Victims were evacuated and treated in Al Hossain General Hospital, triage was carried out by the clinical teams and marked as four severity scores.
Results:
Victims were 186.Survivors 74%, mortals 26%, arrived Emergency Department (ED) but not admitted cases 57%, admitted cases 43%; simple cases 56%, moderate 18%, severe 22%, and extensive 3.5%. Fifty one percent of the admitted survivors were treated conservatively, 26 (44%) cases needed major operative procedures; 20 laparotomies; 3 of them with no findings. Most common abdominal organ injuries were the small bowel, liver, spleen and colon. There were 24.5% extra bed occupation in the1st week.
Conclusion:
The high Mortality Rate) MR) at the scene was correlating the explosion tactic. The intra hospital MR, in part, depends on the triage, preparedness and facilities. The severity depends on the target organ involvement, and its severity rather than the regional multiplicity. Most traumas were penetrating, without a real barotraumas. Laparotomies highlighted other surgeries; some abdominal trauma entities were unappreciated.
Recommendations include initiation of trauma scoring system; the discharged victims need follow-up, introducing more ED investigations, beds, resources, and transport tools.
Consecutive scenario drills can be invaluable in our health service preparedness

Investigation about neonatal septicaemia in Karbala province

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 1-4

This study was included investigation about neonatal septicaemia for age less than one year. studying 1126 sample taken from neonatal suffering from septicaemia was sleeping in bed ridden patients Al-Hussein hospital in Karbala province between January 2005 and August 2005 . Only 172 sample show positive result The study was also included the distribution of patients according to the age and sex. It’s found that septicaemia was more prevalence in males than female 61.63% and 38.48% respectively. It was showed that gram negative bacteria were more predominant in ratio 59.3% followed by gram positive bacteria in 40.7% also showed predominant of E. coli in 26.7%, S. aureus 22.7%, S. epidermidis 15.7% Enterobactor spp. 10.5%. The study was included study the relationship between the primary infection septicaemia in neonatal with the type of bacteria cause septicaemia. Is show predominance septicaemia in neonatal infection with jaundice in 53.3% and also show predominance S. epidermidis in this group.

EFFECT OF GR0WING SEASON AND SOWING DATE ON YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTES FOR TWO SUNFLOWER VARIETIES .

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 5-11

An experiment was carried out at agricultural research station ,college Agriculture ,University of Basrah during the growing seasons of 1995 to study the effect of growing season and sowing date on yield and its components of sunflower .Two sowing dates (ie.15/2, 1/3 For the spring season and 15/7,1/8 for the autumn season and two varieties peredovick and Akmar were used. Results showed that plants of autumn season were superior on the most studied traits . sowing date of 15/7 gave the best results in capitululum diameter ,Number of total seeds / head , 1000kernel weight , yield , Number of filled seeds and oil percentage . There was no significant differences between the sowing dates 1/8 and 15/2 in head diameter ,no. of achene/ head ,weight of 1ooo seeds and grain yield. Variety Akmar Out yielded peredovick on the most characters being studied .

The Effect of The Temperature's Sintering on The Absorption of Hexagonal Ferrite BaFe12O19 For The RADAR Waves on X-band

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 12-15

This study aim to know the effect of the temperature's sintering on the absorption of M-Type hexagonal ferrite BaFe12O19 for the RADAR waves on X-band with (8-12) GHz frequencies. Two samples had been sintered from this type of ferrite with two temperatures; 1100 Cº and 1300 Cº i.e before and after the complete formed of ferrite with temperature,1250 C .We can note that the first sample which was sintered with 1100 Cº is the best absorption from the other sample which was sintered with 1300 Cº , because the ferrite is not completely formed in this temperature and the ferrite was passed with different phases led to the absorption of the RADAR waves (or Microwave ) , but at the other sample , the ferrite was completely formed and the resonance frequencies lay out the X-band

The efficiency of some insecticides used fieldly in different methods against eggs of Ommatissus binotatus f.sp. lybicus DeBerg at Karbala governorate

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 16-23

The insecticides Actara ,Medamec ,Nuvagold were used against eggs of Ommatissus binotatus f.sp. lybicus DeBerg at Karbala governorate in different methods (Spray,Drench,Injection) . The eggs of spring generation 2006 were used. Results showed a significant difference between the treatments at a levels 0f (0.05) . Actara was the most effective insecticide than others. It showed eggs death percentages of (45.58%,42.58%,42.3%) in different methods (Injection ,Spray and Drench) respectively in comparison with the control treatments which were (10.2,10,10.1) in previous methods

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF POTASSIUM FERTILIZER ON RHIZOCTONIA STEM ROT OF POTATO CAUSED BY RHIZOCTONIA SOLANI KUHN

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 24-30

Results of field survey for potato stem rot disease caused from R. Solani Kuhn in different regions from Potato fields of Ninavah province during May in 2000 showed that the disease was spread in all studied regions, the percentage of the disease ranged between ( 6-35% ) . Results of using several levels of potassium fertilizer has caused significant decrease in disease incidence and severity, in case of increasing potassium level from first level ( 0 ) to fourth level ( 60 mg K / kg soil ), disease incidence and severity decreased from ( 90 to 55% ) and ( 0.93 to 0.79 ) respectively for Ajax variety and (90to85%) and (0.95 to 0.20) respectively for Marfona variety. Results indicated a positive effect of fertilization levels on the increment of some studied characteristics such as length of plant, number and weight of tubers. Also the results indicated increase in concentration of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium elements in shoots with the increase of Potash fertilization in polluted and non polluted soils with R. Solani

Effect of the continuous using of oral contraceptive on the body weight and white blood cells of child bearing age female

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 31-34

The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of oral contraceptives on body weight and total white blood cells as compared with the use of intrauterine device IUD. 102 child bearing age females were included in this study . They were 30 healthy females control, 30 femsles used IUD and 42 females used oral contraceptives . The later group was followed for 1 month of pre-treatment period and for 16 monthes after treatment , The following were obtained :-
1. There is no changes of body weight were indicated in the group of the oral contraceptives females as compared with IUD females & healthy supject .
2 . Asignificant (P<0.05) elevation in white blood cells count were demonstrated in female used oral contraceptive with respect to IUD & healthy subject .

Effect of spraying with NAA ,Cacl2 and wax material Vapor-Gard on percentage diseases of fruits fig cv.Asowd diala during storage

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 35-39

This study was carried out on a private orchard at AL-Abbasyia/Najaf for season 2006 to investigate the effect of spraying with three concentration of Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) (50,75 AND 100)mg/L,Cacl2 (0.50,0.75 and 1)% and vapor –Gard (1,2 and 3)% of fig trees cv.Asowd Dial when fruits of second grop at the depressed period on 20/6/2006. fruits of these treatments were stored at 5C˚and 80-85% R.H. for 10 days. The result indicated that fruits of treated trees with cacl2 1% gave asignificant decrease in percentage disease of Aspergillus niger , Alternaria tenuis, Alternaria fici, Fusarium solani and total decay it was (0.44,1.14,0.89,0.45 and 4.97)% respectively compared to higest percentage of disease in fruits of control treatment which reached (1.22,1.79,1.56,1.10 and 9.88)%. Also treating with Vapor- Gard 3% reduced percentage of diseases(penicillium expansum and Souring) significantly to (0.13 and 0.78)% comparted(1.14 and 3.10)%in control treatment .

Influence of Microbial pesticide (( Agerin )) and Insect growth regulator (( Match )) in eggs of Spodoptera littoralis ( Boisd ) )Lepidoptera : phalaenidae(

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 40-44

Results showed that Agerin has no effect on e eggs hatching while the higher larval mortality percentage was 100% at the Conc. 1.5 gL and the less percentage was 84.9% at the Conc. 0.5 gL. Also the higher larval mortality percentage get after six days from the hatching of the eggs. But the IGR`s " Match" has a significant effect on eggs hatching. The higher hatching percentage was 76.6% at the Conc. 0.25 mlL while the less percentage was 0.0% at the Conc. 1.0% mlL. And also the pesticides has a significant affection on the first larval instar from treatments of the eggs with different Conc. of this pesticides. The higher mortality percentage was 100% at the Conc. 0.5mlL and the less percentage was 97.3% at the Conc. 0.25mlL and the higher mortality percentage get after 2 days from the treatment of the eggs and the sensitivity decreased with the age of larvae.

Effect of irrigation water quality and Zinc foliar spraying on flowering growth parameters and productivity in wheat

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 69-80

This experiment was conducted on wheat plant ev. Ipa 95 from the period of 3/12/2004 until 6/5/2005 on Kufa region , Najaf . The aim was to study the effect of watering with different salinity water (river water E.C.=3.3 mlmo.cm−1, mixture water consist of water river and drainage water at aratio of 1:1 , and drainage water E.C.=6.55 mlmo.cm−1) and Zinc spraing as ZnSO4.7H2O at conc. of 2 and 4 g/l . Besides control treatment that was water sprayed on wheat seedlings at two intervals 65 and 95 days old . The interaction between the two factors were also studied on flowering parameters (i.e. spike length , numbers of total flowers , sterile flowers , total seeds , spike dry weight ) ; numbers of fruiting tillers , non - fruiting tillers the weight of 1000 grain and productivity per unit area . It could be concluded that :
1- Flowering growth parameters and productivity were reduced in plant that grown with drainage water for all parameters . The productivity was reduced from 904.5 kg/D when plants watered with river water to 496.4 kg/D when plants watered with drainage water .
2- Zinc spraying significantly affected the growth of flowering parameters and productivity characteristics . Productivity reduced from 820.0 kg/D . When plants were sprayed with zinc at 4 g/l. conc. to 584.6 kg/D . with control treatment .
3- Watering wheat plant with drainag water with out zinc spraying had anegative effect on flowering parameters and productivity that reached (438.2 kg/D.) . Meanwhile , watering plants with drainage water with zinc spraying resulted in an important in studied characteristics , Productivity increased to 513.5 kg/D. with 4g/l. conc. compared with control treatment .

Effect of GA3 , NAA and wax Vapor – Gard on physical and chemical characteristics of local apple fruits

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 87-91

This study was carried out on privat orchard at AL-Abbasyia . Najaf for season 2004 and 2005 on the local apple fruit propagated from seed stalk . The trees were spraying with three concentration of GA3 (50 , 75 and 100) mg / L , NAA (10 , 20 and 30) mg / L and V-G (1,2and 3)% after 70 days from full bloom stage . Fruits were piked after 120 days from full bloom .
The result indicated that length , diameter , weight , firmness and humidity of fruits in creasing with increase concentration of GA3 , NAA and V – G . Also reduced percentage of cracking , T.S.S , acidity , Vitamin C and respiration of fruits for two seasons . There was significant differences between these treatments . The concentration of GA3 100 mg /L gave the best results on length , diameter , weight , firmness and cracking of fruits ,it was (7.24 ,7.40) cm , (6.98, 7.10) cm , (1.43 ,19.,145,42) g,(8.77 , 8.37 )kg/cm2 and (4.30 , 4.97 )% for two season respectively .

Epidemiological Study of the gastro – intestinal nematodes of horses in AL- Najaf Govornorate

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 95-101

After examination of (137) faecal samples of horses from different regions of Al-Najaf governorate from the first of February to the end of October 2005 . The study revealed infection of horses with Larg red worms Strongylus spp. (27.7 %) , & the infection Percentages of S . vulgaris , S . edentatus and S . equines were (13.8%) , (9.4%) and (4.3%) respectively , While the percentage of infection with the small red worm (33.3%) and the higher percentage was with Trichonema spp. (27%) while the Triodontophorus spp. (6.5%) . The study also revealed infection of the horses with Parascaris eqourum & Trichostrongylus axei at rates (16%) & (3.6%) respectively & the Habronema spp. Worm was recorded with (2.18%) .The year months have significant effect of P < 0.01 on the infection rates in all worm except P. eqourum & the higher rates were at April & March , on the other hand lower rates were at August & July .Significant effect of P < 0.01 detected for the year months on the worms eggs number which reach the maximum numbers at April and March .

The Toxic Effect of Diazinon in Gold Fish Carassius auratus

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 102-109

The present study deals with the effect of Diazinon on Gold fish Carassius auratus .
Fish were exposed to different concentrations of the mentioned pesticide, the percentages of mortality were increased as the pesticide concentration increased. Median lethal concentration (LC50) of pesticid was calculated after an acute exposure period (96) h. (14.55) ppm. The result showed that the Diazinon was observed mortality in fish during (24) h. in concentration (16 , 18) ppm, whereas mortality was not observed during (24) h. in concentration (12,14) ppm. After (24) h. the percentage of mortality was increasing gradually with the increase of exposure time. It is found that the increasing of the concentration of pesticide under study correlated reflexive with (LT50) of these concentrations. The concentration (12) PPM recorded higher LT50 (562) h. , whereas the concentration (18) ppm recorded lower LT50 (33) h.

Economical importance of the increasing number of chemical sprays for the control of pomegranate fruit worm Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller at Mikdadiah / Dialah

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 110-114

This study was carried out at one of pomegranate Orchards at Mikdadiah / Dialah during 2001& 2002 to know the economic importance of the increasing number of chemical sprays to control pomegranate fruit worm Ectomyelois ceratoniae . Results indicated that increasing the number of sprays for more than four times was not economical , as there was no significant differences between the percentage of infected fruits and the number of sprays from 4-8 treatments .

The effect of using VAM Fungi and Rhizobia on growth of white corn and chick pea Plants

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 115-119

A Study was done to show the effect of Mycrrhizal fungi and Rhizobia inoculum on the qualitative and growth of white corn and chick pea plants.The experiment was performed in experimental fields where the soil used was poorly fertilized and of high Ca content leading to conditions of Ph 7.5. The results showed that the effect of the mycrrhizal fungi and Rhizobia inoculum lead to a significant increase in the growth of the white corn plants and chick pea plants . Also it showed asignificant effect on the increase in the absorption of minerals P,K,and Zn. Therefore concluding that the increase in the plants growth was due to the combination of the direct effect of the Azetobacteria and the Mycrrhizal fungi inoculum and also due to the influencing effect of Azetobacteria on the Mycrrhizal fungi and both the Mycrrhizal fungi and Azetobacter will each act directly on the rhizosphere were producing significant effect.On onclusion we see that the experimental results prove that the use of Mycrrhizal fungi with Azetobacteria as an organic biofertilizer instead of inorganic chemical fertilizer on poor nutritive soil will improve the quality and quantity of plant growth

Effect of cultivar, Potassium soil fertilization and Zinc spraying on vegetative growth and yield parameters of Rice

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 132-143

An experiment was conducted at Al- Mishkhab Rice Research Station for growing season of 2001 and 2002. The aim was to study the effect of three cultivars of Rice, viz. (Al- Somood, Yasmin and Al- Bernamag 4) and Fertilization levels (Soil application by K and foliar application by Zn), 8 treatments were used: 1. Control: with out any fertilization. Neither K application nor Zn application. 2. K as K2SO4 at rate of 30 Kg D. 3. 0.5 Zn as ZnSO4.7H2O. (0.5 g L. water). 4. 0.5 Zn + K. 5. 1.0 Zn at conc. of (1.0 g L. water). 6. 1.0 Zn + K. 7. 1.5 Zn at conc. of (0.5 g L. water). 8. 1.5 Zn + K.
Zinc spraying was adopted twice at the age of 35 and 65 days with conc. of 100 L D. each.
Split- plot design was used. Treatments were spread as Randomized Complete Block Design (R.C.B.D.) with three replicates. Duncan's Multiple Range Test was used to compare means at probability levels of 5%. Results can be as fellows:-
1. The best fertilizer combination for K and Zn, when K adopted into the soil at a rate of 30 Kg D. and Zn sprayed at a conc. of (1.0 and 1.5 g L. water). These combinations produced the highest values for vegetative growth studied parameters and productivity.
2. Al- Somood cv. revealed the most effective in plant height and productivity, mean while, there were no significant effects for cvs. on plant leaf number.
3. The interaction between Al- Somood cv. And fertilization by K and spraying by Zn. at conc. of (1.0 g L.) produced the highest productivity (1745.0 and 2020.8 Kg D.) for the two seasons, respectively.

Effect of Timing and Severity of Leaf Removal on Some Chemical and Physical Fruit Composition of SALTANI Grapevines

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 144-151

The investigation was conducted to study the Effect of timing and severity of leaf removal on some chemical and physical fruit composition in two severity level 30% and 50% , two time pea size and variation on some physical and chemical characteristics for grape .To the best time and level for removal .The result shown ,the growth curve is double sigmoid curve reach 13 week after full plume , the depressed period reach 7-10 day . The change leaf area was linearity during growth season. The removal effect is significant on increase cluster weight in time pea size and variation but no noticed significant different in two level 30% and 50% , the removal increased weight and size fruit ,TSS, total and reducing sugar in level 30% and pea size, the acidity increase significant in two level 30% and 50% but no noticed significant different in twice time pea size and variation..

THE EFFECT OF SPRAYS NUMBER WITH DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF BORON ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF TOMATO PLANTS VAR. SUPERMARIMOND UNDER GREEN HOUSE CONDITIONS

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 161-166

A factorial experiment was conducted during the season 2005/2006 to investigate the effect of sprays number of boron at levels (0,10,20mg B / l.) on the growth and yield of tomato plants variety supermarimond under green house conditions.The treatments distributed according to R.C.B.D design , 4 replicates to every treatment. Results showed that the highest average of plant height(95.66), number of branches(13.80), trusses and flowers per plant (25.13, 84.33) and set flowers percentage(67.22%) were realized when using 10mg B / l with two sprays , the first at the beginning appearance of trusses , the second after (20) days from the first spray. The fruits number/plant and fruit weight were 38.45fruits and 112.23gm respectively while were 29.88 fruits and 95.30gm in control caused a significant increase in plant yield and total yield/greenhouse by 39.19 and 37.78% respectively. .

SURVEY STUDY FOR SOME TYPES OF WATERFOWL PARASITES IN AL-RAZZAZA REGION

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 167-172

Investigations for waterfowl parasites were studied at the period from feb. _ November 2005 , the study included dissecting of 95 immegrated waterfowl which 65 of its were from Rallidae represented by Gallinula chloropus spp. bringed from AL- Razzaza lake region in Kerbella and 30 waterfowl from Anatidae bringed from same region represented by Anas platyrhynchos spp. , the study were performed in Alrazzaza researchs unit , education coll. Kerbella University .The results showed infections by Trematode from the familly Cyclocoelidae in the chest cavity front to left air sacs of water fowls, infected fowl rate were 28%, it is the 1st registration in Iraq , also manifistation by eggs of Fasciola belong Cyclocoelidae in 15 of same fowls were recorded at infection rate of 15% from examined fowls. In Anas platy rhynchos infections by Echinostoma revolutum in rate of 43% were recorded , and infection by Cappilaria at rate of 24% , coccidiosis belong type Eimeria acervulina at rate 31% , and infection by Plasmodium gallinaceum inside Red Blood Cells at infection rate of 6% from diagnosed fowls were recorded .

A study of antibiosis activity of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L) leaf extracts on Staphylococcus aureus in vitro

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 187-193

This study was conducted to test in vitro the effect of active materials that extracted by cold and boiled water, in addition to the extraction by different organic solvents , i.e. Ethyl Alcohol ; Hexan and Ethyl Acetate for the leaves of Thyme plant on inhibition growth of Staphylococcus aureus for its importance due to the causes of numerous diseases .Results showed from the preliminary chemical (filtration) test that, the extracts of thyme leaves contain, phenols and terpens, but without alkaloids, the active groups from alcoholic extracts were also seperated and its inhibition activities were tested against S. aureus. This study proved that, the aqueous extract and aqueous part of alcoholic extract produced an inhibition effect of 6.25 mm in diameter for both extracts, while, the bicarbonate part of alcoholic extract was the most effective in inhibition diameter, of 11.65 mm.The study also showed that, the minimum inhibition concentration of the bicarbonate part of alcoholic extract was 12.5 mg/ml growth of S .aureus. while, the minimum bactericidal concentration was 25 mg/ml .

Vegetative growth and mineral content of leaves of Ziziphus mauritiana seedlings as affected by urea spray cv. Zitoni

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 205-210

The aim of this paper is to introduce the best spread nitration fertilization level on Ziziphus mauritiana of cv. Zitoni concentration at (0 ,2 ,4 ,6 )% .The result show significant effect for fertilization on the lengths and diameters of main and auxiliary branch , it have reach on 6% level 9.6 cm , 0.23 cm , 19.2 cm and 0.31 cm for mean level to main branch , auxiliary branch and diameters of main and auxiliary branch respectively .The result shows there was significant effect on the number and area leaf with the nitrogen fertilization increase but do not notice significant change in the number of auxiliary branch . The result shows there was significant effect on the phosphor and nitrogen concentration with the concentration of urea spray increase, the phosphor concentration reach at 6% level 0.37%...The result show there was significant effect on the carbohydrates and chlorophyll concentration with the concentration of urea spray increase, the carbohydrates and chlorophyll concentration reach at 6%levle 25.1% and 3.53 mg/g respectively

Behavior Effects of Sodium , Magnesium and Calcium on Clay Dispersion in Different Locations of Organic Matter

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 211-217

This Study included to do series of folculation and dispersion experiments on sa-linity effects soils that have different organic matter to control between three ions effects calcium ,magnesium and sodium in ability on soil dispersion to know organic matter relation in effect on these phenomenon.Seven electrolyte concentrations ions were used(10,25,50,100,250,500,1000 ) mmol.c/L of NaCl ,MgCl2 and CaCl2. dispersed particles were detered by measuring optical density at 641 nm wave length on spectrometer .The re-sults of dispersion experiment have shown that sodium ionic increased as to two ions disper-sion magnesium and calcium but the sodium capability in dispersion was decreased in soils that having high organic matter and the values of optical density in these soils were (0.391,0.310,0.303) of Na+ ,Mg++ and Ca++ . the difference in relation to dispersion my be due to difference in the volume of hydration layers of Na+ and Mg++ compared with Ca++ ,The second reason in dispersion ratio difference between the two soils is the organic matter that made organic matter complex that will be on decreesing of thes ions e concentrations in soil suspension, and then the capability of ions decreased on clay dispersion that will lead to reduce soil destruction

The effect of the discharge of emitters on the distribution of water,salt, gypsum in gypsiferous soils .

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 233-235

The effect of different emitters discharge on salts,gypsum,and water distribution in the gypsiferous soils was investigated .The gypsum horizon was located at about 20-25 cm.The emitters discharge were 1.89,2.91 and4.23 L/hr. The results indcated that the wetted zone was deeper with the low discharge emitters in comporison with the higher discharge which revaled the opposite .Salt distribution was noticed at the end of the experiment. The salts concentrated deeper but closer to the emitters of low discharge but was further away and shallower with high discharge emitters .A decrease in gypsum content was observed at a depth of 20-30 cm with low discharge emitters.

Three New Species Of Cestodes In Iraq From Digestive Tract Of Two Bird Netta rufine And Anas crecca

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 256-263

The present study aims to investigate the parasitic helminthes from digestive tract of two migrated brids. A total of 141 specimens of which (81) N. rufina and (60) A. crecca were puechased from Diwaniya city markets during the period from Novermber 2004 to Feberuary 2005.Examanation of digestive tracts of both species of birds. Three cestodes are diagnosis )Cloacotaenia megalops , Hamatolepis teresoide , Microsomacanthus compressa( from intestine of N. rufina with percentage (% 1.23 ; % 1.23 ; % 12.3) respectively and intensity (1 ; 2.3 ; 1) respectively. While in A. crecca. Only (Microsomacanthus compressa) during three month (December , January , Feberuary) with total percentage %20 and total intersity 6 . These three species of cestodes are not record in Iraq in last time. For that these species consider new species in Iraq.

Effect of Partial and Complete Replacement of Yellow corn Germs Supplemented with methlonine and Lysine for soybean melin produc tive performance of Broller

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 264-270

This study aimed to investigate the effects of partial and Complete replacement of locally produced yellows corn germs supplemented by lysine and methionine instead of soybean meal in the diet of meat type chicken (Hubbard strain) and their effects on some performance traits of broiler .Five groups were used ranging from Control (100% soybean meal , 0.0% corn germs) with similar levels of total metabolizable energy . crude protein , lysine and methionine in all treatments Data were Collected to evaluate average feed consumption , weight gain feed Conversion ratio for (1-4) , (4-8) and (1-8) Wk's respectively and for carcass weight and dressing percentage at (8) weeks of age . Results revealted that control )0( and treatments with 25 and 50% replacement of Corn germs were significantly better than other treatments CT3 and T4¬ ) in weight gain , feed consumption and feed conversion ration . There were no significant differences among treatments in dressing percentage while there were highly significant differences (p < 0.01) in carcass weight and giblets as aresult of differences in live weights at 8 weeks .

Uniaxial Compressive Strength Estimating of Rock samples From Selector Injana Formation Within ( Al Najaf – Karbala ) Area .

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 271-275

The study relied on the selection of ( 43 ) samples representing of rock samples from sand stone within Injana formation in ( Al Najaf – Karbala ) area , to determine Uniaxial Compressive Strength by point load test apparatus in order to classification of strength of rock quarrying engineering . It is found that upon the Uniaxial Compressive Strength range between ( 0.72- 15.6 ) MPa that very low strength for quarrying .

Prevalence of Head Lice Among Pupils of Some Primary Schools in Kirbala Province

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 276-279

It is found, in a study conducted in three primary schools for girls in karbala from January 2004 to Sept. 2005, that the highest rate of injury is among pupils of (8-10) years which is 16.2%) compared with pupils aging (6-8) years.The injury is rife among thick-haired females rather than the short-haired females which is ( 19.09,0.68%) respectively . It is noticed, via (T-test), that the educational standard for the parents is of paramount significance regarding the spread of the infection (louse) where it is found that girls having educated parents are less exposed to the infection than the girls with parents of low standard of education in addition to the significant differences between the length of hair with the infection with lice and the significant differences between the educational standard of the parents and the infection.

Effect of planting dates, nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer on the growth and root parameters of local coriandrum plant

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 298-305

A field experiment was conducted in the research field of the College of Agriculture / University of Kufa in 2003-2004 winter season , to study the effect of two planting dates (15/9,15/10/2003) and four levels of nitrogen fertilizer as urea (46%N)(0,100,200,300 kg N/ha) and for levels of phosphate fertilizer as triple super phosphate (48-52% P2 O5) and their interactions upon shoot parameters (plant height ,stem diameters, number of branches, shoot yield, dry weight of shoot and its percentage of dry weight of shoot ) and root parameters( dry weight of root and its percentage of dry weight of root) of Coriandrum sativumL. Local variety .Treatments were arranged according to the randomized complete block design (R.C.B.D) as a factorial experiment with three replications. The results showed the earlier planting date had significantly best in number of branches, dry weight of shoot and its percentage of dry weight of shoot. Increasing levels of nitrogen from 0 up to 300 kg N/ha improvement shoot and root growth parameters Significantly, that the fertilized plant with 300kg N/h gave best plant height (82.31cm), number of branches per plant (9.23),shoot yield (106.19gm), dry weight of shoot (36.09 gm), the percentage of dry weight of shoot (33.93) root dry weight (5.06 gm) and it percentage (36.08) significantly compared with not fertilized plant which gave the least parameters (72.37cm, 7.33, 75.55 gm, 15.61 gm, 20.49%, 1.58 gm and 30.30%) respectively. More that fertilization with 300 kg P2O5/h increasing significantly the number of branches, shoot yield and its dry weight to (9.02, 99.83 gm and 28.17 gm) compared with the plant not fertilized which gave the least parameters. From the interaction between three factors the results showed that the early planting date and fertilized with nitrogen at 300 kg N/ha or phosphors with 300 kg P2O5 /ha gave the best results significantly (number of brancher, shoot yield, dry weight of shoot, dry weight of root).

Effect of Using Salts Sodium chloride and Sodium tripoly phosphate on Some Chemical Characteristics and Sensing of Minced Frozen Beef Meat

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 318-331

The present study was conducted to improve some of the quality features in beef meat by applying NaCl salt to it with 0, 1.5 and 3% concentration, and Sodium tripoly phosphate ( STPP) with 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2% concentration.these treatments were stored individually for 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120 and 140 days under )2±18(-ºC After making several chemical, and sensing tests, The following results were obtained:
1- The process of salting meat with NaCl led to increase Free Fatty Acids( FFA) (P<0.05); whereas the use of( STPP) led to delay the degredation and oxidation of meat FFA (P<0.05) the process of freeze-storing increased values of those indicators.
2-The concentration of myoglobin increased (P<0.05) with increasing the concentrations of NaCl and STPP salts. Some decreasing occurred in the concentration of myoglobin during the period of freezing meat.
3- The resutls of electrophoresis myofibril proteins indicated some kinds of degredation in myofibril proteins in low concentrations of salt. The degredation increased with increasing salt concentrations.
4-The results of Sensory evaluation indicated significant improvement (P<0.05) in tenderness, flavor and juiciness of salting and salting meat.The storing process resulted in increasing the tenderness, and flavor and decreasing of meat juiciness.

STUDY OF CHANGES IN PROTEIN; WATER AND SOME MINRAL ELEMENTS CONTENT OF FIVE DATE CULTIVARS DURING MATURITY STAGES

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 336-339

This study has been conducted during growing season 2004to determine the change in the water ;protein and some mineral elements during growth and maturity of five fruits of date palm in Basrah governorate the water ;protein ;phosphorus and potassium content at four stages hababok ;kamry; khalal and rutab were measured.Results elucidated the decreasing of water content from the starting of hababok stage to rutab ,the difference in this parameter was not significant amongst cultivars at hababok and kamry stages ,but Hillawi cultivar surpased than other cultivars during khalal stages with an average reached 75%.Protein content had the similare results when decreased gradually from hababok stages to rutab stages ,Um-aldahen cultivar had the lowest average at hababok stages ,about phosphorus and potassium elements increased but mildy during hababok to rutab stage.

Study the morphological and physiological behavior of two cultivars of barley to salt tolerance using hydroponic teqnique

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 348-356

An experiment was carried out in the greenhouse of the department of Biology, College of Education Ibn Al- Haitham, University of Baghdad.The objective was to study the effect of increasing concentration of sodium chloride salt (0,50,100,150,200 mM/L) in some morphological and physiological characteristics of two barley cultivars (Nomar and Arivat) using hydroponic technique. Results indicated that increasing concentration of sodium chloride in growing solution caused a clear reducing in values of dry weight of shoots and roots, leaf area, absolute growth rate and chlorophyll content for both barley cultivars. However there was explicit deferences in the values of this characteristics between the two cultivars due to them salt tolerance ability. Nomar cultivar showed beter behavior under high concentrations of sodium chloride compared with Arivat. It can be concluded that Nomar is able to grow beter than Arivat in the nutrient solution with high salt concentration.

Study Some Dielectric Properties for Wood of the Tree of Olive

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 362-369

This search which is for wood of the tree of olive include study effect of temperature and frequency at supplied alternative electrical field on dielectric properties. The properties which were study: Dielectric Constant, Loss Factor and Alternative Electrical Conductivity.Degree of the temperature which were used (25,45,65)ْc while frequency (15,45,75) KHz. Dielectric characteristic dependent on a many factors and the most important of these factors are frequency and temperature, therefore, these factors are studied remaining one of them as a constant to assess the effect of changing the second on as dielectric constant property, while in loss factor and alterative electrical conductivity properties studied the effect of frequency on every one at three different degrees of temperature. Results showed that, dielectric constant have appositive correlation with frequency and temperature while for the loss factor it showed that only the frequency is effect on it and there is no effect by the temperature, Alternative electrical conductivity behavior like the loss factor in relation with frequency and temperature

Application of the nuclear shell model on the nucleus 51V by using Modified Surface Delta Interaction (MSDI)

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 391-395

تم التوصل لمستويات الطاقة النووية لنواة 51V التي تحتوي على ثلاث بروتونات خارج القلب المغلق 48Ca closed core وتشغل القشرة f7/2بتطبيق نموذج القشرة النووي Nuclear Shell Model (N.S.M) واستخدام برنامج حاسوب لحساب عنصر المصفوفة باستخدام جهد دلتا السطحي المعدل Modified Surface Delta Interaction وبرنامج آخر لحساب معاملات كلبش – كوردن C.G. . وقد قورنت النتائج لقيم الطاقات التي تم الحصول عليها مع القيم العملية لمستويات الطاقة وكانت كالآتي حيث تم تأكيد قيم الطاقات المحددة بشكل غير مؤكد عملياً وهي (1.61,2.41) MeV وكان الزخم الزاوي والتماثل لها كالآتي (11/2-,3/2-) على التتالي وكذلك تم تحديد الزخم الزاوي الكلي والتماثل لمستوي الطاقة (2.79) MeVالغير محددة بالزخم الزاوي والتماثل عمليا وكان زخمها وتماثلها (9/2-) وكذلك تم تحديد مدى معاملات التصحيح المستخدمة لهذه النواة حيث تم تحديد أعلى وأدنى مدى لها المختار من خلال العديد من الاختبارات وكان مداها الأعلى A=B=1.2MeV والأدنى A=B=-0.9MeV على فرض المعامل التصحيحي الثالث C=0 MeV .

Indumentumal Study of the genus Cichorium L. ( Compositae ) in Iraq

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 396-403

The present work is a part of a comparative systematic study of the species of the genus Cichorium L. in Iraq . Indumentum of stems , peduncles , leaves , involucral bracts , florets , and fruits were studied for the species C.glandulosum ,C.intybus and C.pumilum , it was clear that the indumentum of these parts had a taxonomic importance , so it has been contained two groups of hairs , eglandular hairs which distinguished the three species and glandular hairs which distingushed C.glandulosum and C.intybus , each character and its variation was discussed . Table also presented to the three species explained the distribution of the glandular and eglandular hairs.

Effect of Temperature on plant growth of Common Hornwort Ceratophyllum demersum L.

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 404-406

An experiment was conducted in Biology Department, College of Science , Kufa University . Samples were collected from Kufa river during December , 2004. The aim was to study the effect of different temperature regimes on growth parameters ( plant fresh and dry weights , number of branches and length ) of "Common Hornwort" that signal the starting point of weed control. Plant were subjected to different temperature ( 10 , 15 , 20 , 25 , 30 , 35 and 40 C˚) with three replicates. Results showed that 30 C˚ was the best temperature due to producing the highest values of measured growth parameters. Meanwhile , 10and 40 C˚ gave the lowest values for the above mentioned parameters.

Study the numerical taxonomy of the two genera Calendula L. and Matricaria L. Compositae (Asteraceae) in Iraq

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 415-422

This study include the comparison of the two genera species , Calendula L. andMatricaria L. have been in Iraq. These species of the genera treatment numerically by using numerical taxonomy methods , by selection four number of morphological, anatomical and ecological characteristic. This characteristics were arranged in table , the planner structure were prepared and polygonal graphs were drawn.This method gives a good results, new indicators were available and help
Isolation of these species belong of the two genera . the for

The Effect of different concentrations of NAA and Length cutting on rooting response of Parkinosonia culeata L .

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 423-432

This experiment was conducted in the college of sciences university of karbala from 15/ 2 / 2004 till 15/ 6 / 2004 .
The aim was to study the effect of :
1- The best cutting Length to be used . The concentration of the NAA which should be used in propagation.practices in order to obtain the highly possible rate of rooting.Experiment included planting cutting of three Lengths; VIZ ;( 15,20,25) cm , .After wounding and soaking cutting for 15 seconds in a solution of NAA at ( 500, 1000, 1500 ) ppm. the following characteristics were measured :percentage of rooting , roots number, roots Length, shoots number, leaves number, and the dry weight of leaves and roots. Acompletely randomized design ( C.R.D ) also adopted with 3replication . Means were compared using Duncan`s Multiple Range Test ( D. M. R. T ) at 5% probality level .

The Characteristics of dermatoglyphics for the clever students in Karbala Province

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 433-437

The fingerprints patterns have been studied of dermatoglyphics of a sample of (160) person(80) for each sex, where the qualitative analysis has shown some differences in the frequencies of patterns among the studied samples and for each sex separately. The frequency of arches and whorls has increased for the male sample of the clever students(31&150) compared with the control sample of males(22 &147) respectively. Whereas the frequency of arches and the ulnar loops in the clever female samples(66&215) compared with the control sample of females(24&193) respectively. Theses differences have reached the significant level when using the Chi Square (χ2) to compare the two female samples where its value is (34.518) under the probability of (0.001)and the differences were not significant when using it with the two male samples. As regards the quantitative analysis of the dermatoglyphics in the finger tips, it is found that the clever males carry the highest mean compared with the control males and for the two analyses, the unilateral and bilateral analyses. As for the clever female samples, the result was the anticlockwise to what is found in the male sample, where they possessed a lesser mean than the female control sample and for the two analyses, the unilateral and the bilateral. When using t-test for comparison of the two female samples, they are found that their value equals(2.519) under the probability of (0.025) for the unilateral analysis, and the value equals(2.659) under the probability of (0.025) for the bilateral analysis. The differences did no reach the significant level when used to compare the two male samples.

Effect of cultivar, Potassium soil fertilization and Zinc spraying on flowering growth and yield parameters of Rice

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 438-448

An experiment was conducted at Al- Mishkhab Rice Research Station for growing season of 2001 and 2002. The aim was to study the effect of three cultivars of Rice, viz. (Al- Somood, Yasmin and Al- Bernamag 4) and Fertilization levels (Soil application by K and foliar application by Zn), 8 treatments were used: 1. Control: with out any fertilization. Neither K application nor Zn application. 2. K as K2SO4 at rate of 30 Kg D. 3. 0.5 Zn as ZnSO4.7H2O. (0.5 g L. water). 4. 0.5 Zn + K. 5. 1.0 Zn at conc. of (1.0 g L. water). 6. 1.0 Zn + K. 7. 1.5 Zn at conc. of (0.5 g L. water). 8. 1.5 Zn + K. Zinc spraying was adopted twice at the age of 35 and 65 days with conc. of 100 L D. each. Split- plot design was used. Treatments were spread as Randomized Complete Block Design (R.C.B.D.) with three replicates. Duncan's Multiple Range Test was used to compare means at probability levels of 5%. Results can be as fellows:-
1. The combination for K and Zn (when K adopted into the soil at a rate of 30 Kg D. and Zn sprayed at a conc. of 1.0 or 1.5 g L. water) produced the highest values for flowering parameters studied and productivity for both growing seasons.
2. Al- Somood cv. produced the highest values of spike length, weight of 1000 seeds for the two seasons and the highest productivity for the first season compared to other varieties, mean while, Al- Bernamaj 4 produced the highest values in productivity for the second season. There were no significant differences for varieties in number of spikes for both seasons and number of seeds per spike and setting percentage for the first seasons only.
3. The interaction between Al- Somood cv. And fertilization by K and spraying by Zn. at conc. of (1.0 g L.) produced the highest productivity (1745.0 and 2020.8 Kg D.) for the two seasons, respectively.

Effect of Garlic (Allium sativum) extracts in inhibiting of the mutagenic action of Methotrexate in albino mice

journal of kerbala university, 2006, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 449-456

In vivo experiments were designed to investigate the role of garlic (Allium sativum) in the inhibition of genotoxic effect of methotrexate (MTX) in albino mice (Mus musculus).The genotoxic effects of MTX at a dose of 4 mg/ kg B. wt. on somatic cells (bone marrow) and germ cells of male mice were analyzed cytogenetically by determining the mitotic index of somatic and germ cells and chromosomal aberration in somatic cells.The potential genotoxic and mutagenic activity of garlic extracts (cold aqueous, boiled aqueous, alcoholic) at doses (50,100,250) mg kg B. wt. were investigated by using the above mentioned parameters. The antigenotoxic activity of garlic extracts against MTX effects for 7 days before and after exposure to MTX was tested. The results revealed the absence of toxicity and mutagenicity for all garlic extracts at tested doses, the high inhibitory effects of MTX for cell division in addition to induction of chromosomal aberration, the inhibitory efficiency of all garlic extracts against the toxicity and mutagenicity of MTX, the high inhibitory efficiency of cold and boiled aqueous and alcoholic extracts against the toxicity and mutagenicity of MTX and the best inhibitory efficiency of all garlic extracts occurred when the extracts were used before the MTX in comparison with their effects when used after the MTX.