ISSN: 1813-0410

Volume 1, Issue 0

Volume 1, Issue 0, Winter 2005, Page 350-0

Measuring the concentrations of uranium in Samples of chicken bones and domestic and imported fish using nuclear track detector CN-85

journal of kerbala university, Volume 1, Issue 0, Pages 1-8

In this research take samples of imported chicken bones (Brazilian and Turkish) and domestic as well as sample of fish bones of domestic and imported, in order to measure and compare the concentrations of uranium in these samples using nuclear track Detector CN-85 through the density of track of alpha particles on the surface and radon concentration in the air and then find effective radon and the number and weight of the uranium atoms in the sample and thus find concentration unity ppm.,
and measurement using nuclear track detector CN-85, as was samples preparation scientific way and according to several sources in this area. After a long period of time (60) days, the samples were collected and chemically treated according to scientific sources, then the track number were calculated using an optical microscope The results showed for the chicken bones that the highest concentration of uranium was in the chicken Turkish and reached (4.59ppm), and less concentration was in Brazilian chicken and (1.52ppm), either chicken Iraqi value was (3.4ppm), compared with background radiation amounting to (1.12 ppm).
For Fish was the concentration of uranium in importer frozen (3.53ppm), and this value is higher than the concentration in fish is Iraq, which was (2.15ppm), compared with the background radiation of (1.12 ppm)

Study the Doping Effect with Mn on the Morphology and Optical Properties of ZnS Thin Films Prepared with Pulsed Laser Deposition

journal of kerbala university, Volume 1, Issue 0, Pages 18-25

In this research was to study the effect of Doping manganese Mn Morphology and optical properties of zinc sulfide ZnS thin films , ZnS films were deposited on glass substrates using technology pulse laser Deposition (PLD) under vacuum (10-3 Torr) and the conditions of preparation included substrate temperatures (400 0C), Oxygen pressure (0.1 mbar) and laser energy (700 mJ) using a pulsed (532 nm) Nd:YAG laser , And has a Dope agent by mixing the substance to be Doping (ZnS) with the ratio of grains of impurities (Mn) . Select the topographic properties of films using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM), respectively for the purpose of screening surfaces of thin films , And we found that the structural of polycrystalline films , While Optical properties of the films were determined from the transmittance data using Swanepoel model And less increase Doping rates , Transmittances of film were measured by spectrophotometer. noted that the absorbance increases with increasing Doping rates Up to (0.8) , While optical energy gap of at least (3.3-3.6 eV) when ratios Doping (0 - 1.5 Mn%) on the respectively .

Role of proline acid in mitigating the adverse effect of drought in minerial content for macronutrients of Mung Bean plant (Vigna radiata L.)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 1, Issue 0, Pages 26-35

A experiment was conducted in the botanical garden of Biology Department in the College of Education for pure sience - Ibn al-Haytham / University of Baghdad, during the growing season 2010 to study the effect of increasing concentrations of proline acid (0,25,75,125) ppm on minerail content of macronutrients in Vigna radiata plant was exposured to different periods of drought (0,2,4,6) days.
A factorial experiment within a completely randomized design with replication
The results suggest a decrease in : Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Calcium and Magnesium in Mung Bean plant (Vigna radiata) after being exposed to the drought condition in comparison to the control.
2-The content increase of the above ions, along with an increase in proline acid was independent of the drought period.
3-The optimum concentration of proline acid was 75 ppm in achieving the maximum concentration of the acid.

Inhibitive action of swak on corrosion behavior of 316 L in artificial saliva

journal of kerbala university, Volume 1, Issue 0, Pages 36-43

In this study we use as inhibitor of bio corrosion of SS 316 L in Artificial saliva was used as the electrolyte The temperature of the polarization test cell was maintained at (37 1C) by thermo stated water bath to simulate the human body temperature Recently the corrosion of SS316L was suppressed in solutions containing swak add in different concentrations of the swak extraction to compare the corrosion behavior investigated by electrochemical measurements. The result showed that corrosion current density of SS 316 L specimens in artificial saliva solution containing was much lower than the values obtained in artificial saliva solution without the swak extraction.

Abundance and distribution of Liza abu eggs and larvae in the north part of Shatt AL- Arabe River

journal of kerbala university, Volume 1, Issue 0, Pages 53-61

The eggs and larvae of Liza abu were surveyed from the northern part of Shatt Al-Arab River during January 2008 to June 2009. A total of 3481 Liza abu eggs and 4634 Liza abu larvae were collected. The highest abundance was 133.3 egg/10m² - 19480 egg/10m² in April were collected from conical nets and aquatic plant. A total of 4634 Liza abu larvae were collected. The highest abundance of Liza abu larvae was( 249 larvae/10m² - 15800 larvae/10m² ) from conical nets and aquatic plant in March 2008 . The results indicated that the northern part of the Shatt Al-Arab River is a spawning and nursery ground for larvae of this species.

Effects of hot and cold aqueous fruits extracts of Citrullus colocynthis on mortality of house flies Musca domestica ( Diptera : Muscidae )

journal of kerbala university, Volume 1, Issue 0, Pages 62-68

This research include study the efficiency of different concentrations ( 1, 3 , 5 ) This research include study the efficiency of different concentrations ( 1, 3 , 5 )
% of hot and cold fruits aqueous extracts of Citrullus colocynthis on mortality percentages of three larval instars of house flies Musca domestica after ( 24 , 48 , 72 ) hours from treatment , and then the accumulation mortality percentages in treated larvae was recorded after 72 hours.
The results of present study showed that the hot and cold aqueous extracts caused high effects on mortality of all larval instars of house flies . Highest mortality percentages was recorded in first larval instars when treated with both
aqueous extracts compared with lower mortality percentage was recorded in
other larval instars . In all larval instars the highest mortality percentages was recorded after 24 hours of treatment by both aqueous extracts .
The highest accumulation mortality percentage 93.6 % was recorded when first larval instar was treated with 5 % of cold aqueous extract while the accumulation mortality percentage 83.6 % was recorded in first larval instar treated with hot aqueous extract . The accumulation mortality percentages in all larval instars were higher when treated with cold aqueous extract than others when treated with hot aqueous extract in all extracts concentrations which using in present study .

% of hot and cold fruits aqueous extracts of Citrullus colocynthis on mortality percentages of three larval instars of house flies Musca domestica after ( 24 , 48 , 72 ) hours from treatment , and then the accumulation mortality percentages in treated larvae was recorded after 72 hours.
The results of present study showed that the hot and cold aqueous extracts caused high effects on mortality of all larval instars of house flies . Highest mortality percentages was recorded in first larval instars when treated with both
aqueous extracts compared with lower mortality percentage was recorded in
other larval instars . In all larval instars the highest mortality percentages was recorded after 24 hours of treatment by both aqueous extracts .
The highest accumulation mortality percentage 93.6 % was recorded when first larval instar was treated with 5 % of cold aqueous extract while the accumulation mortality percentage 83.6 % was recorded in first larval instar treated with hot aqueous extract . The accumulation mortality percentages in all larval instars were higher when treated with cold aqueous extract than others when treated with hot aqueous extract in all extracts concentrations which using in present study .

Study the effects of some growth factors on the production of Xanthan by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris using alkali hydolysate of date extract

journal of kerbala university, Volume 1, Issue 0, Pages 69-77

This study was designed to produce microbial polysaccharide xanthan by using Xanthomonas campestris, which is used widely in food and pharmaceutical industries as well as in oil extraction using alkali hyrdolysate of date extract as a carbon source for the growth of bacteria and production of the polysaccharide. In addition, the objective of this study was to enhance the production of xanthan by the bacteria by finding the most favorable conditions of agriculture. It was revealed that the most optimal incubational period was the fifth day where 3.7 g/l was produced (75.57%). Upon addition of different concentrations of extract of fermentation to the medium, the production was increased up to 4.71 g/l (80.47%). It was further increased on addition of 0.4% of magnesium phosphate 0.4% to the nutritional medium. It was shown that ammonium phosphate was the best tested nitrogen source, where 11.19 g/l of xanthan was produced. It was also found that the revolution speed of centrifuge has a stimulating effect on the production of xanthan, in which 200 revolutions/min increased the production up to 13.03 g/l (154%).

The Effect of the Electric Current Frequency on some Growth Features and products for two Variaties of Solanum melongena L.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 1, Issue 0, Pages 78-48

The experiment was conducted at the plant garden at the Teachers Training Institute for Girls-Ministry of Education on the growth season 2012.The experiment was designed by Completely Randomized Block Design(CRBD). The seeds of two varieties of eggplant were taken, they were: 1- Lot(Number)Melaneana was of American origin. 2-Aydin siyah was of Turkish origin. Seeds were exposured for three Frequencies of electric current (1,2,2.5)Am for 5 each frequency by using a machine that gives electric and current by means of circled wires in addition to the control, to study the effect of these frequencies on plant growth.Then the treated seeds were planted on 15/4/2012 in the field,the experiment was observed daily. Some growth features were studied they were (highet of the plant,main radius stem,number of branches of main stem, number of flowers ,total number of fruits, fruits weight of plant).The results were analysed at propapility level 0.05,and the results showed significant increase for the American vairty at the frequency 2.5 Am in all frequencies by given the best value For the studied features

Trophic pyramids and feeding habits of fish assemblage in East Hammar marsh

journal of kerbala university, Volume 1, Issue 0, Pages 92-97

Feeding habits and trophic pyramids had been studied in East Hammar marsh during the period November 2006 to November 2007 .The results indicate the dominance of omnivores species which formed 44.9% and second detrivores species 29.5% of the total fish captured. The results of trophic pyramids in the east hammer reflect environmental degradation which may due to the dominance of omnivores and detrivores species and reduce of herbivores species.

Expression of death receptor (Fas) , and it's specific ligand (FasL)in transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 1, Issue 0, Pages 98-105

This study was designed by using 36 paraffin embedded tumor tissues obtained from TCC patients, and 10 normal bladder tissues obtained from forensic medicine institute.
All specimens undergone to in situ hybridization technique for in situ mRNA expression detection of Fas and Fas L ; results of this study reveled that a high significant expression in malignant tissues compaired with normal tissues (p< 0.05 ), (P > 0.05) respectively .Moreover ,FasL expression on transitional malignant cells has a linear increase with tumor grade and stage progression ; there was a significant difference in FasL expression between grade I and grade III(P < 0.05) and between stage T1 and T2 (P < 0.05) . while we found an inverse relation between Fas expression on these cells and tumor grades and stages progression ; there was a significant difference among grades and among stages (P < 0.05) , (P < 0.05) respectively. while there was no significant differences in Fas /FasL expression on lymphocytes and tumor grade and stage progression (P>0.05), (P>0.05) respectively.
A highly significant liner relation was showed between Fas L expression on transitional malignant cells tumor grade and stage progression (p<0.01) , (p<0.01) respectively .
From this study we conclude that overexpression of FasL are correlated with TCC invasion and progression.

Isolation and Identification The Actinomycetes From Soil and Its Effect on Human Fungi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 1, Issue 0, Pages 106-113

One hundred and nine isolates of actinomycetes were obtained from 104 soil sample, collected over three months during 10-01-2010 from different regions of the province of Nineveh,Duhok,Irbil,Kirkuk,Tikrit, Baghdad, Najaf and Karbala.
Results of diagnosis by Slide Culture Technique and by biochemical and enzymatic test have showed the existence of the following isolates and races (69 isolates belong to the genus of Streptomyces, 27 isolates belong to the genus of Streptoverticillum, 7 isolates belong to the genus of Nocardia and one belong to the genus of Rhodococcus, and 5 isolates have not been diagnosed because of the difficulty of growth on the diagnostic and biochemical media). The productive isolate which have inhibited the largest number of fungi have been diagnosed to the level of species was S.purpureus.
Six isolates of which have showed their ability to produce antifungi used in the test. These isolates are: MUAc.1, MUAc.2, MUAc.3, MUAc.4, MUAc.5 and MUAc.6 which belong to the genus of Streptomyces.
The isolate MUAc.3 had the capacity to inhibit the greatest number of tested fungi where it effect of the growth of 14 human pathogenic fungi , that's to say 27 fungi out of 28 ,The isolate MUAc.3 affected all tested fungi except Aspergillus flavus fungi. Following by isolates MUAc.1 , MUAc.2 , MUAc.5 which inhibited the growth of 9 human pathogenic fungi , isolate MUAc..4 inhibited the growth of 7 human pathogenic fungi, and finally isolate MUAc.6 inhibited the growth of 6 human pathogenic .
The highest inhabitation to the extracted antibiotic from isolate MUAc.3 was on the fungi of A.amstelodami where it reached 36mm for Nystatin which was used for the comparison. the lowest inhabitation for the antibiotic extracted from isolate MUAc.3was on A.candidus. (21 mm) and with Nystatin 24 mm .
The effectiveness of the antibiotic extracted from isolate MUAc.3 was (10455) IU/mg, it was measured by using the given effectiveness of Nystatin amounting 8500 IU/mg by using constitutional pharmaceutical method. This was done by using A.amstelodami fungi. Isolate MUAc.3 diagnosed to the level of species S.purpureus.

Preparation, Study and Theortical Treatment of Co(II) Ni(II) Cu(II) and Zn(II) Schiff Base Coplexes with Sodium [N-(salicylidine) L-alanine imino]

journal of kerbala university, Volume 1, Issue 0, Pages 128-136

Anew Schiff base (NaHL) has been prepared from the reaction between the salt of amino acid Alanine with Salicylaldehyde. By tridentate Schiff base of (ONO), donors were characterized by using U.V and spectrophotometer techniques.
Complexes of Co(II) Ni(II) Cu(II) and Zn(II) ion with the ligand have been prepared, these complexes were identified by infrared, electronic spectral data, elemental analysis, magnetic moments, and molar conductivity measurements. It is concluded from the elemental analysis that all the complexes have (1:2) [metal:ligand] molar ratios, octahedral, with the exception to Zn(II) complex which have (1:1)[metal:ligand] molar ratio

Induction of indirect somatic embryogenesis for two hybridsof Lycopersicon esculemtum Mill.

Faisal A. Mustafa

journal of kerbala university, Volume 1, Issue 0, Pages 1-12

The heavily aluminum and arsenic doped germanium films were prepared using thermal co-evaporation process to deposit abrupt p+n and n+p junction films with (4 and 0.5wt%) concentration. The prepared films were exposed to circumstance and natural radionuclide (Ra226) emitted alpha and (Sr90) emitted beta particles after heat treatment with various dosages .The J-V characteristics refer to shifting in both forward and reverse bias and lead to change in bulk resistivity, threshold voltages, damage coefficient, saturation current density, breakdown voltage, resistivity variation and damage percentages. It was observed that the damage coefficient and saturation current density decrease, but increasing in bulk resistivity and breakdown voltage after every stage of exposed radiation.

Using gold nanoparticles with high energy gamma photons (6MeV)to treat ovary cancer

Talib Abedulridha Abdulwahid

journal of kerbala university, Volume 1, Issue 0, Pages 13-21

Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are good choice in medical application because it characterized by ability of synthesis as colloidal solution, did not interact with healthy tissue , less toxicity, ease of detection and thermal stability. The present project focuses on treatment of the ovary cancer by high energy photons of gamma ray (6MeV) and gold nanoparticles while preserving the ovary and prevents the risk of recurrence of ovary cancer. This occur in a minimum dose given for patient i.e. enhancing the radiotherapy that is used in ovary cancer treatment by depending on pair production phenomena . The obtained results showed that gold nano-particles (GNPs) with high energy of gamma photons (6MeV) significantly enhancing the radiotherapy for ovary cancer treatment .

Comparison levels of natural radioactivity for some of agriculture and virgin soil in the Najaf governorate

Ali Kadhim Ekal; Allawi Hamead Farhan; Hayder Hamza Hussein

journal of kerbala university, Volume 1, Issue 0, Pages 22-29

Specific activities of the natural radionuclides 238U,232Th and 40K have been measured by gamma –ray spectrometry NaI(Tl) in twenty virgin and agriculture soil samples from Najaf governorate. The range of specific activity of 238U, 232Th and 40K in the virgin soil samples varies from 16.08±4.71 to 37.79±4.16 Bqkg-1, 8.83±3.52 to 42.36±2.33Bqkg-1 and 127.91±11.21 to 756.09±11.14 Bqkg-1 with average values of 27.39±4.46 Bqkg-1, 31.16±3.00 Bqkg-1 and 602.77±10.76 Bqkg-1 respectively, whereas for agriculture soil samples varies from 29.90±5.99 to 78.58±5.50 Bqkg-1 , 26.87±2.98 to 59.31±3.41 Bqkg-1 and 543.64±10.98 to 1104.61±12.23 Bqkg-1 with average values of 51.96±5.04 Bqkg-1, 42.48±3.47 Bqkg-1 and 847±11.26 Bqkg-1 respectively. The radium equivalent activity (Raeq), the absorbed dose rate (D) and the activity concentration index (Iγ) resulted from the natural radionuclides in soil, were also calculated. All values of Raeq were lower than the worldwide average. The average values of (D) and (Iγ) in all soil sample were higher than the permissible limit.

Characterization and Optical properties of Lead doped Poly Vinyl Alcohol Films

Muna M. Abbas; Tariq J. Alwan; Inaam M. Abdulmajeed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 1, Issue 0, Pages 30-36

Pure and Lead-doped poly vinyl alcohol (Pb-PVA) films were prepared by volume mixture using casting technique by different concentrations (2% and 6%). The characteristics of composites was investigated by FTIR spectroscopy. The optical properties, absorption and transmission of films were investigated through the transmission measurements at room temperature in wavelength range of (200-1100 nm). Overall we observe that the values of Eg decreases by the increasing of concentration Values of Eg determined to be 6.2, 4.745 and 4.75 eV for pure PVC, 2% and 6% Pb respectively.

The effect of temperature and chemical solutions on the electrical properties of hybrid composites

Ali Hassan.R.H Al-Azzawi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 1, Issue 0, Pages 37-43

In this work a hybrid composite materials were prepared containing matrix of polymer (Epoxy) reinforced by different reinforcing materials (Alumina powder + Carbon black powder + asbestos fiber) with two values of volume fraction (30, 40) %.
The hybrid composite materials prepared are:
• H1 = EP + Al2O3 + As (30) %
• H2 = EP + CB + As (30) %
• H3 = EP + Al2O3 + CB + As (30) %
• H4 = EP + Al2O3 + As (40) %
• H5 = EP + CB + As (40) %
• H6 = EP + Al2O3 + CB + As (40) %
All samples related to electrical tests were prepared by hand lay up process.
Electrical tests were carried out in order to determine the dielectric constant at different temperatures and different chemical solutions at different immersion times.
Dielectric constant values decrease with an increase of temperature and the immersion times for all the samples.

Radial expectation values and electron density at the nucleus of four electron systems

Rukia Jaber Dosh; Qassim Shamkhi AL-Khafaji

journal of kerbala university, Volume 1, Issue 0, Pages 44-54

In this paper it is formulated the Hartree-Fock equations for multi-electron systems in terms of two electron density function Γ (r1,r2) in order to solve Hartree-Fock equations in the algebraic approximation which called Hartree-Fock-Roothaan (H-F-R) method using slater type atomic orbitals published by ref. [31] for Be atom and ref. [32] for B+1ion . The radial expectation values of one particle , two particles and inter particles where (n=-1,-2, 1,2) of Be atom and B+1 ion in its ground state are calculated using Hartree-Fock wave function with analysis the one electron radial density function D(r1) and inter electron density function f(r12) for each shell. Electron density at the nucleus ρ(o) also evaluated for each shell and for total systems , using partitioning technique ,were in these systems there are six shells : KαKβ(K(1S)),αLα (KL (3S)), βLα (KL (1S)), KαLβ (KL (3S)), KβLβ(KL(3S)), LαLβ (L(1S))

Simulation of Aluminum nanoparticles formation by femtosecond laser ablation in water Ambient

Ahmed Obaid Soary; Munther B. Hassan

journal of kerbala university, Volume 1, Issue 0, Pages 55-66

Formation of Aluminum (Al) Nanoparticles in water by femtosecond laser ablation is studied numerically by considering the effect of femtosecond laser parameters, target and liquid properties. The absorption of laser energy by Aluminum is simulated using Single-Temperature Model (STM) and results obtained from this model are compared with experimental studies. Classical Nucleation Theory is used to calculate free-energy of critical clusters production and size distribution of nanoparticles (NPs) as function of laser energy and pulse duration in femtosecond range by considering concentration and delay time during the laser generated plume expansion in liquid. Finally, we deduce and point the optimum condition for the growth of Aluminum NPs of desired size and dispersion using STM.

The Electronic transitions of polyaniline doped with p- toluene Sulfonic acid

Kareema M. Ziadan

journal of kerbala university, Volume 1, Issue 0, Pages 67-47

Polyaniline doped with p-toluene Sulphonic acid PAni-PTSAwas synthesized by using a new oxidative chemical polymerization method. The polymer solution deposited on, glass and Aluminum substrate by spin coating technique.Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra, and ultraviolet visibility (uv- vis. absorption) spectra, were used to characterize the molecular structures of PAni-PTSA and electronic translation of polymer . The optical analyses indicated that the transition was direct transition with energy gape about 2.5eV. The electrical properties were measured by two probe method. The conductivity values of this polymer is about(8*10-4 S/cm ).

Theoretical study for the Electronic Properties of Tri-fluorine benzene Molecules Group and Adding CH3 radical: by B3LYP-DFT Method

Abbas Ibrahim Obayes

journal of kerbala university, Volume 1, Issue 0, Pages 75-85

In this work, five molecules are optimized at B3LYP/6-31G** density functional theory. Benzene molecule was a reference. Electronic properties of tri-fluorine benzene molecules were investigated depending on the three parameters (B3LYP) by density functional theory method. The best geometry for all molecules were investigated at (6-31G**) basis sets. The total energies, energy gaps, ionization potentials, electron affinities and softness were calculated for the studied molecules. Adding the (CH3) cluster to the tri-fluorine benzene leads to decrease the energy gap and the hardness of the studied molecules in comparison with the benzene molecule. The IR-spectra shows the effect of fluorine atoms in the ring on the vibrations of the reference molecule, the electronic properties and IR spectrum for all molecules were investigated by Gaussian 03 program

Studying the Effect of Laser Field on the Chemisorption Process for the System H / W (111 )

J. M. Al- Mukh and S.K.Radhi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 1, Issue 0, Pages 86-96

In this paper , a study is presented for the effect of laser field on the chemisorption process for atom adsorbed on solid surface . The mathematical model is based on the Anderson model by using the mean field approximation (MFA) . The laser field characteristics ( the frequency and the field strength ) are incorporated in the treatment , since the frequency is added to the energy levels of the adsorbed atom and the effect of field strength is incorporated throughout the chemisorption functions. The model is applied to the system H / W (111), since the laser field characteristics effects are studied. The role of the AFM-parameter in the determination of weak and strong coupling types is investigated.

Study of The Electronic Distribution for Di-Chloride Di-Oxide Manganese : B3LYP Density Functional Calculation

journal of kerbala university, Volume 1, Issue 0, Pages 97-102

The electronic distribution of di-chloride di-oxide manganese MnO2Cl2 was calculated by employing B3LYP/6-31G** density functional theory.
The linear combination of atomic orbitals-molecular orbital calculation and the energy level diagram showed that the unpaired electron lies in the manganese ion orbital mixed with a small amount of the orbital and it is strongly delocalized on the ligands.
The results showed that the spread of unpaired electron population on ligand atomic orbitals besides the metal and orbitals makes from this metal complex studied in this work is very useful as a catalyst . All calculations are carried out by employing Gaussian 09 package of program

Density Functional Theory Calculation of the Electronic Structure for C20 Cage Fullerene

journal of kerbala university, Volume 1, Issue 0, Pages 103-108

In this work, the electronic structure of C20 cage fullerene is studied theoretically under the effect of electric field using B3LYP density functional theory with 6-31G** basis sets. Varying strength of electric field (week and strong) was applied to the structure. Valence band, conduction band and energy gap were calculated and analyzed. The electronic transition spectra of C20 are calculated under strong electric field.

Study of The Effects of Some Organic Monomers on The Electronic Structure For C20 Cage Fullerene

journal of kerbala university, Volume 1, Issue 0, Pages 109-114

Three parameters Lee-Yang-Parr B3LYP density functional theory calculations are applied for C20 cage fullerene some organic monomers included thiophene, furan, vinyle and pyrrole are used to interact on C20 cage. The computations are carried out the large 6-31G(d,p) basis sets.
The results declare that the used monomers all have large band gap, and the monomers – fullerene composites have narrow band gap of these composites can lead to materials that can absorb solar radiation.

Study of the Effect of Electric Field on the Electronic Structure of C60

journal of kerbala university, Volume 1, Issue 0, Pages 115-120

Tow strength of electric field were used to study their effects on the electronic structure for C60 cage fullerene, weak and strong The results of B3LYP/6-31G** density functional calculations used in this work show that the strong electric field applied to C60 cage changes the conduction and valence band energies.
In addition, electronic transition spectra of stable C60 were calculated under electric field intensities.

Radiation scanning of radon gas 222Rn on Imam Ali holly shrine

Hussain. A. algasaly; Muntathar.A.Al-aarajy

journal of kerbala university, Volume 1, Issue 0, Pages 121-125

In this study radon gas concentration222Rn was measured in air inside building of Imam Ali shrine, the researchers chose 15 locations inside holly shrine which is represent the radiation scanning in the whole regions by using a new technique called durridge rad7. The results shows that radon gas222Rn is in normal level and allowed by international measurements according to Environmental Production Agency (EPA), It is found that there is an inverse relation between relative humidity and concentration

Evaluation the level of Natural Radio nuclides in Al- Kufa River Sediments

R. O. Hussain; A. Y. Salman

journal of kerbala university, Volume 1, Issue 0, Pages 126-134

في هذه الدراسة تم تقدير مستوى النشاط الإشعاعي الطبيعي في رسوبيات نهر الكوفة، حيث جمع عشرون نموذج في مواقع مختلفة على امتداد نهر الفرات داخل مدينة الكوفة . تم تحديد النشاط الاشعاعي للمواد المشعة في النماذج والمتكونة من انحلال سلاسل الاشعاع الطبيعي, يورانيوم-238 و ثوريوم-232 بالاضافة الى النظير المشع البوتاسيوم-40 باستخدام مطياف كامي يتكون من كاشفNaI(Tl) (3"x3") . لقد وجد ان قيم النشاط الاشعاعي الطبيعي لليورانيوم-238, الثوريوم-232 والبوتاسيوم-40 تتراوح من19.22 إلى101.13 , ومن 15.93 الى69.89 ومن424.93 الى1429.00 (بيكرل /كغم), على التوالي. تم مقارنة نتائج هذه الدراسة مع المعدل العالمي والحدود المسموح بها من قبل منظمة [UNSCEAR] . تم حساب كل من النشاط الاشعاعي المكافئ للراديوم Raeq)), معدل الجرعة الممتصة (AD), الجرعة الفعالة السنوية الخارجية (AEDE) ومعامل الخطورة الخارجي (Hex) لتقييم مخاطر الاشعاع . اظهرت النتائج ان النشاط الاشعاعي المكافئ للراديوم (Raeq) لجميع النماذج هو ادنى من الحد المسموح 370 (بيكرل /كغم), اما بالنسبة لمعدل الجرعة الممتصة (AD) والجرعة الفعالة السنوية (AEDE) فقد كانت لاغلب النماذج هي اعلى من الحد المسموح , اما معامل الخطورة الخارجي (Hex ) لجميع النماذج هو اقل من الواحد

First-Principle Investigation of The Alkali Metal Interactions With MgO Armchair -Nanotubes

Aqeel Mohsin Ali

journal of kerbala university, Volume 1, Issue 0, Pages 135-145

Encapsulation inside and adsorption of Lithium alkali metals (Li) on the surface of magnesium oxide armchair - nanotubes (MgONTs) with different diameters (3×3, 4×3, 5×3, 6×3, 7×3 and 8×3) was investigated by using density functional theory. According to the obtained results, the adsorption on the oxygen site of tube surfaces with adsorption energies with energies in the range of −0.93 to −1.11 eV are most stable than the encapsulation complexes in the range of −0.51 to −0.99 eV. Energy gap (Eg) of the nanotubes dramatically decreases upon the encapsulation / adsorption of the alkali metal, resulting in enhancement of their electrical conductivity. The order of energy gap decrement caused by the metal encapsulation / adsorption is as follows: adsorption > encapsulation. Li - MgONTs are photoactives and they have high values of oscillator strengths. The results suggest that the MgONTs were transformed from semi – insulator to semiconductor upon the alkali metal encapsulation / adsorption. Increasing the tube diameter, the adsorption energies of the MgONT-Li complexes are stable and the encapsulation energies of the alkali metal are decreased.

Synthesis, characterization and biological activity of some sulfadrugs derivatives

Bushra k. Al-Salami; Nahid H. Alhydri; Afrodet A. Salih

journal of kerbala university, Volume 1, Issue 0, Pages 146-153

Sulfamethoxypyridiazine and sulfapyridine have been condensed with selected acyl chloride, namely benzoyl chloride, sebacoyl chloride and terephthayl chloride. The compounds were characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR and elemental analysis. The antibacterial activity of the studied compounds was determined againset several clinical microbial isolates which are; Staphylococcus aureus and E.Coli by using different concentrations of each compound. The results shown the prepared compounds have varying degrees of inhibiting the test microorganisms

Description of a new species of water Boatman, genus Sigara Fab. 1775 (Hemiptera: Corixidae) in Baghdad and Mesan / Iraq.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 1, Issue 0, Pages 154-160

The present study introduces detailed description of a new species of water Bootman, genus Sigara Fab.1775 (Hemiptero: Corixidae) from Iraq. The external morphological characters of the three body regions and their appendages were studied supported by illustrations especially male genitalia.

Effect of attenuated protoscolices of hydatid cyst worm ( Echinococcus granulosus) on lymphocytes viability in vivo

Israa kasem Al-Ubaidi; Saddam Hussien Al-Haidari

journal of kerbala university, Volume 1, Issue 0, Pages 161-165

Hydatiosis is a widespread chronic zoonotic parasitic disease caused by helminthic larval stage of tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus.. In last year's many methods are used to activate and modulate the response of immune system of the host in order to evade the invasion of the parasite. The present investigation was aimed to find out the effect of attenuated protoscolices on the viability of lymphocytes which play very important role in the immune response against many parasites and the reflect of this attenuation on hydatid cyst protoscolices infectivity in vivo. Four groups of white male BALB/c mice were experimentally infected with helium-neon laser attenuated protoscolices that exposed to helium –neon laser for (10,30,50,100) minutes respectively. The results showed increase in lymphocyte viability (p<0.01), especially among mice that exposed to laser for 50 minutes (77.00±1.42) in comparison to control group(50.66±3.23),this increase in lymphocyte viability causes statistically (p<0.01) decrease in protoscolices infectivity (both cyst numbers and diameters)in comparison with positive control group which cause decrease in lymphocyte viability.

Production of Levan from Paenibacillus polymyxa in Date Syrup and analyzing of levan composition by TLC

Shamim Naser Radhi; Shatha S. Hasan; Sanaa Burhan alden

journal of kerbala university, Volume 1, Issue 0, Pages 166-172

Levan, an exopolysaccharide, was produced by Paenibacillus polymyxa and its yield was characterized as a function of concentrations of date syrup and sucrose. The optimum condition for levan production from sucrose was in a concentration of 20% at 37°C, pH 7for 48 hrs and the same conditions for date syrup. Under these conditions in sucrose medium levan production reached to 48 g/L and total carbohydrates were 95.8% while for date syrup was reached to 24g/L and total carbohydrates were 69%. Levan was composed mainly of fructose residues when analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Date syrup is a cheap substrate widely available in Iraq and has potential for levan production.


Dawood.Sallem.Hussian; Meeras Salman Juwad

journal of kerbala university, Volume 1, Issue 0, Pages 173-187

The aim of this study is to construct and utilize a requirement model as basis to develope People Profile Management System (PPMS) for Karbala University,so as to overcome all profile issues in a proper and effective way.The observation, interview, and requirement model analysis were selected as a fact-finding techniques to define the requirements, Unified modeling language (UML) have been used to construct this requirement model that consists of certain model diagrammatical such as use case diagrams, class diagrams, activity diagrams and supported by certain textual information like use case specification and requirements list.The sample system (prototype) used to validate this model.This study help to understand concept, flow and procedures in managing people profile activities and provide a better solution to develope PPMS that can be implement at any organization.

Create A New Digital Signature Scheme Using Double Hush Function Algorithms

Hameed Abdul-Kareem Younis; Israa Mahmood Hayder; Hussain A. Younis

journal of kerbala university, Volume 1, Issue 0, Pages 188-201

The rapid development of information and network technologies, networks already become an important part of peoples’ live. People not only can get more information by net, but also can find new ways to live and new business work. For example, network bank, online chat, net-shopping, … etc. Along with the new things' appearance, the problem of information security becomes more important. Something more than authentication is needed. The most attractive solution to this problem is the digital signature which is analogous to the handwritten signature.
Digital signature technology more and more shows its important position in information security. The signature is formed by taking the hash of the message and encrypting the message. Digital signatures are used to detect unauthorized modifications to data and to authenticate the identity of the signatory. In addition, the recipient of signed data can use a digital signature as evidence in demonstrating to a third party that the signature was, in fact, generated by the claimed signatory. In this paper, an algorithm for signing text file has been presented. The famous RSA public key algorithm and the most popular hash function algorithms (SHA-1 & MD5) are used to generate the digital signature of a text file. The algorithm consist of two parts: signature generation and signature verification. Many experiments tested to examine the security of the presented work.

Simulation Approach to Estimate the Activity’s Most Likely Time

Mohsin H. Hussein; Saad Talib AL; Jeboory

journal of kerbala university, Volume 1, Issue 0, Pages 202-207

Activity time is the elapsed time required for an activity. Estimating is an inexact art, so we expect that our initial duration estimates have some error in them. What we would really like to know is how much this error is going to affect our estimate of the total project duration. Fortunately, with a few assumptions and very little extra work we can make some judgments about the likely amount of variation in the total project time. Estimating activity times is probably one of the project Evaluation and Review Technique's (PERT) most critical features. The concept of three times estimating are used (Optimistic Time, Most Likely Time, and Pessimistic Time). However, the best estimate of the time period (Most Likely Time) in which the activity can be accomplished was provided by experience. In this paper we attempt to optimize the most accurate estimates (Activity’s Most Likely Time) of the activity performance time using simulation . New method was proposed for this purpose and some details was explained about this method. The result show that the simulation is necessary to optimize estimating Activity’s Most Likely time as well as it's flexibility.

Security Management in E-Government using Zero-Knowledge Authentication

Noor Dhia Kadhm Al-Shakarchy

journal of kerbala university, Volume 1, Issue 0, Pages 208-217

E-Government refers to the use of new information and communication technologies (ICTs) by governments as applied to the full range of government functions. In particular, the networking potential offered by the Internet and related technologies has the potential to transform the structures and operation of government. The real benefit of e-government lies not in the use of technology, but in its application to processes of transformation. The sensitivity level of all E-Government systems will be determined based on the sensitivity of the data processed or the importance of the system to mission accomplishment. Security is one of the most important issues in E-government. All systems must include security controls that reflect the true importance of the information processed on the system and/or the government investment embodied in the components of the E-Government system.
Zero-knowledge are proofs that show a statement to be true without revealing anything other than the veracity of the statement to be proven. In the other word, The Zero-Knowledge is a concept used in many cryptography systems to allow a party to prove that he/she knows something, without having to send over the value of this knowledge. In this implementation, it will be used to prove the identification of the user without sending over the some pseudo- random numbers. These numbers changing with any sending.
In this research we illustrates the zero-knowledge proofs (ZKPs) in e-government security with the fact that there is no additional hardware required. This research managed the security of transmission during e-government process depending on zero-knowledge proofs to Indentify and verify the transmission. The data transmitted over this system are not usable by the hacker to help fake an identity .

Document of improving an E-commerce strategy for Foodloversbritain website

Elham Mohammed Thabit AbdAlameer

journal of kerbala university, Volume 1, Issue 0, Pages 218-232

With the massive success of commerce with the internet which refers to buying and selling of products or services through the net and other computer networks are all described as Electronic Commerce. In our research we choose the website foodloversbritain Company which has a strong website and excellent reputation in UK. This website introduces anything and everything relating to food experience through other websites which connect with it. But in spite of having a website, it doesn’t have any on-line selling service just limited on Business to Consumer(B2C). This document proposes a strategy to improve and develop existing website to provide the new service Business to Business (B2B) through using theories and cost estimates for changing the current technology. All these techniques should be based on deliberated plan according to strategy of ecommerce.
That requires to re-management of this site through re-design the web and using new techniques like: creative, technical integration, graphical design, budgeting, testing and promoting. However we can apply this document on any website in Iraq which has no online retail selling through re-management of its strategy to make it treats with this service. This will ensure a good revenues to the company.

Performance Evaluation of RED and REM Algorithms in TCP/IP Networks

Haydar Abdulameer Marhoon

journal of kerbala university, Volume 1, Issue 0, Pages 233-239

The new of internet applications and the traffic coming with it are rapidly growth, the developer of the internet infrastructure needs a high level of quality of services. The high quality of service (QoS) makes main problem with uncontrollable amount of traffic (Congestions) on the internet.
Usually, the internet routers are content two types of queue management mechanisms reactive and proactive mechanism, this paper focus on two important proactive mechanisms these are Random Early Detection (RED) and Random Early Marking (REM), and how to improve the performance of the internet routers by chose the suitable proactive queue management algorithm, these selections are helping the TCP protocol to given guarantee to delivered the packets to the destination.
This paper going to design performance evaluation modelfor examining the RED,REM technique to mitigate the effectiveness of the congestion in the internet routers,and to identify the key parameters to decrease the packet drop in the way to destination by exam many factors such as throughput, packet loss, link utilization, and windowsize by using Network Simulation 2 (NS2). The result shows a good performance for the REM algorithm when compared with RED algorithm in the same scenario.

Design and implementation of Karbala Real Estate Information System

Zaid H. Nasralla; Hiba Jebbar Aleqabie; Zahraa Thamer

journal of kerbala university, Volume 1, Issue 0, Pages 240-248

Starting from the fact that the Information Technology is a Transformer Technology, this fact applied to one of the most complex Iraqi directorates, which is Karbala Real Estate Registration Directorate, by converting its hardcopy and complicated processes to simple digital one.
A big challenge for most of the countries was to digitize this moderate, firstly because storing precious personal properties on a computer or making property transaction is difficult to be assured. The second reason is that this moderate is connected with other moderates to finalize its processes such as the tax office or municipality. The third reason is that converting legislations to software is a very difficult task. The implemented system performed three main processes which were property transaction, property division and property registration. The first step in implementation was by converting the Act of Iraqi Real Estate Registration to software workflow, as it describes any process related to estates (transaction, division, leasehold,…etc.). The second step was entering the real estate’s information in the database. The current process is reengineered and reduced the complications of the routines by means of software security and facilities that provided by the programming language that have been used. The system can solve a number of the sever problems in this moderates, but required to be fully operational by implementing the other parts of the system and connecting it with other moderates.

Wavelet-Based Video Compression System Using Diamond Search (DS) Matching Algorithm

Marwa Kamel Hussien; Hameed Abdul-Kareem Younis

journal of kerbala university, Volume 1, Issue 0, Pages 249-258

Currently, multimedia technology is widely used. Using the video encoding compression technology can save storage space, and also can improve the transmission efficiency of network communications. In video compression methods, the first frame of video is independently compressed as a still image, this is called intra coded frame. The remaining successive frames are compressed by estimating the disparity between two adjacent frames, which is called inter coded frame. In this paper, intra frame was transformed using Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT).
The disparity between each two frames was estimated by Diamond Search (DS) Algorithm. The result of the Motion Vector (MV) was encoded into a bit stream by Huffman encoding while the remaining part is compressed like the compression was used in intra frame. Experimental results showed good results in terms of Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR), Compression Ratio (CR), and processing time.

Evolutionary Algorithm Implementation for Good Graph Drawing(Graph Aesthetics)Using Fuzzy Fitness Function

Dhamyaa A. AL-Nasrawi; Najah A. Rabee; afar; Qusay A. Ja; Karrar I. Mohammed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 1, Issue 0, Pages 259-270

A graph is a collection of vertices or nodes, pairs of which are joined by lines or edges, can be used not only to represent physical relationships, but also to represent logical, biological, and arithmetic relationships. The attributes that define a good graph are called aesthetics. The problem of good graph drawing is the conflict of some aesthetics with one another. In this paper, Evolutionary Algorithm used with fuzzy fitness function to reduce the conflict and drawing Good Graph that it will convey the most meaning. Two types of crossover and two type of mutation are used, the chromosome represented as graph with N nodes, where N is the chromosome length ,and node is a gene in any chromosome . Good result can be obtained when Fuzzy set is used to compute fitness function .

Influence of Gender and Smoking Habit on the Trace Elements Levels of Washed Scalp Hair of a Control Population from Karbala, Iraq

Joda A. Baker; Neil I. Ward

journal of kerbala university, Volume 1, Issue 0, Pages 271-282

Hair samples (n=236) (control or healthy) individuals were collected from Karbala, a city in south-western Iraq. The study population consisted of males (n=196) and females (n=40). All cases were subdivided according to smoking habits (non and active) so as to compare the levels of trace elements in scalp hair in relation to smoking habits. V, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Sr and Cd levels in washed scalp hair were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The validity and accuracy of the methodology were evaluated by using a certified reference material GBW 09101 Human Scalp Hair with an acceptable range for elemental recoveries ranging from 90 to 107 %. The results obtained showed significantly higher mean level (µg/g dry. weight) of Sr (11.58) in the scalp hair when compared with the reference range values for control or healthy individuals reported in different countries (0.06 – 6.31 µg/g). It was found that the mean values of Sr and Co were significantly higher in females than males, whilst the levels of V, Mn, Cu, Zn and Cd were similar (at a probability level p = 0.05). Hair of smokers contained significantly more V, Sr and Cd than the hair of non-smokers (at P = 0.05). The levels of Mn, Co, Cu and Zn were similar in both sub-groups of smoking activity (at P = 0.05).

Synthesis and Characterization of Some New Pyrazoline Derivatives from Chalcones Bearing Benzofuran Moiety

Ahmed abdul Hassan Al-Kadhimi; Ahmed . K . Al-Khayate; Mohammed .G . AL-Dulyme

journal of kerbala university, Volume 1, Issue 0, Pages 283-292

1-benzofuran-2-yl-3-(substituted phenyl)-prop-2-ene were prepared by the reaction of 2-acetylbenzofuran with different aromatic aldehydes in the presence of alkali . Reaction of the prepared chalcones (1-5) with phenylhydrazine , 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine afforded the corresponding substituted pyrazoline (6-10) , (11-15) respectively . All the prepared compounds have been characterized by FT-IR and UV and some of them by 1H and 13C-NMR spectra and elemental analysis ( C.H.N)

Development of Indirect Spctrophotometric Method for the Determination of Clonazepam in pharmaceutical preparation Using Resorcinol

Suham T. Ameen; Shatha Y. Al-Badry

journal of kerbala university, Volume 1, Issue 0, Pages 293-302

This paper describes the development of a spectrophotometric method for the determination of Clonrazepam after diazotization of its reduced product and coupling with Resorcinol in basic medium , to form an intense yellow – colored , water – soluble and stable azo-dye which shows a maximum absorption at 341 nm. Beer’s law is obeyed over the concentration range 1.2 to 20 ppm with a molar absorptivity 4.5147×104 and Sandell’s sensitivity of 6.993×10-2μ The relative error is ranged from -0.017 to 2.74 % and relative standard deviation from ±0.001 to ±0.2636 % , depending on the concentration level. The method has been applied successfully to the determination of Clonazepam in pharmaceutical preparation .

Synthesis of new Heterocyclic Compounds Containing an Imine Group

Hanan.F . Mehssen; Naji . M . Ali; Hassan.Th.Ghanim

journal of kerbala university, Volume 1, Issue 0, Pages 303-313

This research includes , synthesis of new heterocyclic derivatives,and the first step Involves preparation of chalcone compounds through a reaction between m-amino acetophenone with p-chloro benzaldehyde and p-nitro benzaldehyde which is then used for preparation of new chalcones ,the second step of this study leads for preparation of new shiff bassesThe last step includes preparation of thiazine , oxazine , isoxazole and pyrazole derivatives..Thin layer cromotography was used to follow the reactionsAll the compounds have been characterized by melting points and FT-IR Spectroscopy, some of them characterized by (H1-NMR)-spectra and Elemental Analysis(C.H.N).

Quantity determination of O-nitro phenol compound by coupling reaction with diazotized Of P-amino benzoic acid

journal of kerbala university, Volume 1, Issue 0, Pages 314-321

Development of an analytical method was used to determine O-nitro phenol compound by coupling reaction for diazotized solution of p-amino benzoic acid in the presence of buffer solution Na2HPO4 (PH= 10.8) to give a compound with a single azo dye salt having orange color soluble in water with high absortivity at a wave length 449 nm , an early study to have a perfect optimum condition was made for the determination.
A calibration curve for a range of concentration (5-75)pm was taken and the value of molar absortivity was 1.5*103 with a relative standard divation more than 1.26% and a recovery 98.77% .
As we study the nature of the azo dye by mole fraction method, from the practical value we found that the mole fraction of the dye compound is 1:1(phenol:p-amino benzoic acid) and the stability factor reach to 1.4*106 L.mol-1 .

Nickel and copper complexes of tetrapyrazino- porphyrazine and some of their spectroscopic and electrical properties

Nazar A. Hussein; Dawood S. Abid; Salim T. Al Salami Asawir

journal of kerbala university, Volume 1, Issue 0, Pages 322-331

Some of the Nickel and copper complexes of tetrapyrazinoporphrazine where prepared and their spectroscopic(CHN, Uv-vissible and H-NMR) and dc electrical properties were studied.
The study shows the effect of the solvent on the aggregation properties in such kind of complexes and it shows some interesting electrical properties in compared to their analogous phthalocyanicne compounds.

Polarographic Studies of Praseodymium Europium and Gadolinium Cations and it's Applications in solvent extraction using Some Crown Ethers

Kasim.K. Alasedi; Nabel.S. Nassory; Albertine.E Habboush

journal of kerbala university, Volume 1, Issue 0, Pages 332-339

In this paper a polarographic behavior of rare earth cations (Pr 3+, Eu3+ and Gd3+) complexes with crown ethers was studied. The factors that effect of diffusion current was investigated, it was found that 0.1M KCl is the suitable supporting electrolyte with drop time of 1.4 sec. Direct current polarography revealed half wave potential E ½ of –1.496V, -1.507V and –1.524V for (Pr 3+, Eu3+ and Gd3+) respectively.
A shift in half wave potential of metal ions to negative values by adding the crown compound to the metal ion indicates the complex formation. The extraction of the complexes of Pr (III), Eu (III) and Gd (III) with crown compounds (B15C5, 18C6, B218C6 and B2 24C8) were performed with picric acid in different organic solvents.
The slope analysis methods indicates that Pr 3+, Eu3+ and Gd3+ forms 1:1 complexes with B15C5, 18C6 and B2 18C6. In addition Pr 3+ form 1:1 complex with B2 24C8 while other ions forms 1:2 sandwich complexes with B224C8.
The results of the extraction of Pr 3+, Eu3+ and Gd3+ are a good agreement with the results obtained polarograpically.

Theoretical NMR investigation of pyrazol and substituted pyrazoles, DNMR and 1H spin-lattice relaxation times

Naji Abood; Jassim A .AL-Hilfi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 1, Issue 0, Pages 340-350

NMR spectra of pyrazole and substituted pyrazoles were theoretically investigation by ab initio at MP2 theory level using 6-31G(d,p) basis sets by TNDO method and were experimentally measured in solutions, and related to the structure . DNMR have been studied in the temperature range -40 to 60 ℃, and 1H spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) were determined by inversion method using 180º-τ-90º sequence and discussed in term of the structure and molecular motions .
Keywords : NMR theoretical investigation, ab initio MP2/TNDO,DNMR, spin-lattice relaxation times, pyrazole, substituted pyrazoles