ISSN: 1813-0410

Volume 13, Issue 4

Volume 13, Issue 4, Autumn 2017, Page 1-345

Water Consumption of Agricultural Crops In Locality Of Al-Husseiniya Land its Effect In Agricultural Production

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 1-16

The research aims to assess the water needs of crops gardening in Husseiniya land within the province of Karbala, as the province from provices of agricultural economy and horticulture in it make up a large proportion of agricultural investments as an area of cultivated land of gardening agricultural season in 2014 about (54 229) and comprising (46 %) of the total cultivated land of the season with the (117,476) acres.
And the importance of water economy (irrigation water) for planting the largest area of arable land, the authors taking the irrigation water for the crop gardening as a target for the research, and analysis of the factors that explain variation of these needs in the study area and then to know the water needs in order to get the evaporation / possible transpiration and find out climatic water balance of the study area in order to know the size of the deficit and surplus water in the region.
In order to estimate the irrigation water intake for the crop climate, it has depend the formula (Pliny - Krydl) to calculate the amount of evaporation - transpiration because it is the most accurate equation in estimation water consumption as well as the suitability for climatic characteristics prevailing in Iraq and not dependon by multiple and overlapping climatic elements, as it took from the monthly temperatures average and the percentage of the number of daylight hours basically for estimating the amount of water consumption of agricultural crops

The grammatical and semantic functions of the letters of traction and tying at al-Mouradi in his book The Genocide in the Meanings

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 17-30

The grammatical study has symbolic functions, because the understanding of significance is linked to the laws of grammar. It is the main focus of linguistic analysis, which has turned the attention of linguists from focusing on the structure of language to the translation of the semantic concept emanating from these structures. Within the framework of the language system. Functional significance is to interpret the relationships of the main components of the sentence as functions performed by each component according to the contextual structure.
The study confirmed that the Arabic language is an integrated language, in terms of its meanings, words and structures. It is a language whose elements are intertwined and united in a multi-faceted organic unit. It is possible only through a process of linking, and the dimensions of confusion in the reader. This function is achieved by letters between two or two sentences, and these characters fall within the structures and gain more accurate meanings through the context.
Al-Muradi said that these letters have a fundamental role in the linking process, whether that is between a name and a name or a noun and an act.

Musa bin Buga Al – Kabir ( 264 A . H / 877 A . D ) , His biography and his military & political role in The Second Abbasian Era ( Historical Study )

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 31-58

This research is an attempt to indicate the role of a Turkish commanders in political and military events and development in the second Abbasid era , is prince Musa bin Bugha AL – kabir which is one of the brightest of Turkish military leaders who emerged in the 3rd A.H / 9th A.D century .
It was clear from this study that Musa bin Bugha AL – kabir was a historical phenomenon is the product of shed princes turks and control on the matters of Abbasid Caliphate and its institutions after taking control of the leadership army , and the positions managerial job in the Arab Islamic state during the second abbasid era inherited prestige and influence that was his father Bugha AL – Kabir in the army and the Abbasid court after his death in 248 AH / 862 AD , and he has an active and significant role in the events of military and political developments which takes place in that era side by side with military service of the Abbasid state until he became the right hand of caliph AL – Mutamed and his brother AL – Muwaffak they depend on him in quell dissensions and unrest and fight outlaws state .

The civil and foregin education in the karbala brigade 1958-1963

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 59-76

most of the Studies and researchs which carried out by historians researchers and writers about the history of karbala specially in social part of it ,did not covered the history of national and foreign education in this district during the period between the years 1958-1963 this lack stood behind writing this research

Female voice in wartime The novel (Zeinab, Mary and Yasmin) by Michelle Hadi Analytical narrative study

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 77-86

The voice of the female in the novel (Zainab, Mary and Yasmin) of the Iraqi novelist (Maysaloun Hadi) (*) is the voice of Iraqi women in times of war and destruction, a high voice embodied by the characters of the female novel, especially her heroine (Yasmin) in an attempt to awaken society and alert him in the direction The great injustice suffered by women, specifically - Iraqi women - in light of the contradictions and disadvantages of this society.
And the female voice in the novel reveals - remarkably - the world of women in all its dimensions, which describes the world of women outside, and all that surrounds them, and their relationship with the opposite sex (man), and the nature of that relationship, at the same time do not forget to stand At the borders of its internal world and the pain and suffering it entails because of external reality, which imposes restrictions that go beyond the framework of this reality to touch the very essence of itself.

Features of existential thought In the poetical works (MA WARAA HANJARA ALMOGHANI) For the poet Jassim Al-Sahiih

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 107-124

The fragmentation and absence of identity and extremism that appears to be part of the fabric of the contemporary world, and especially its composition, especially in Saudi Arabia, as a present - of human existence - is torn apart by the stark contrasts that destroy its rhythm and destroy its image as a clear reflection of the meanings of tampering, To cast a shadow over the spirit of the poet and his text, so as to distort the relationship of Anna herself, as well as to distort the relationship with the other around, ie make them an expression of the tendency of absence not Power of attendance.
This was the title of the poet's poem (beyond the throat of the singer), in which he expressed the extent of his confusion and concerns. The research came in the introduction and the preparation of several axes and ended with a conclusion that outlined what was said.

Thinking and strategic thinking (Theoretical study)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 125-135

The introduction of the concepts of thinking and Strategic thinking as a conceptual aspect - has become an urgent necessity for any pyramid of leadership in a Country, especially in the political and strategic, because the introduction of these concepts and knowledge and study make the decision maker in the leadership pyramid to generate a base and a clear vision and a mature and effective industry And to take its decisions accurately and thus address any problem faced by present and future.Therefore, knowledge of thinking, which is the high-level organized mental output towards a Specific subject through a series of mental processes that includes analysis, synthesis, formulation, discovery of solutions and formulation of assumptions to reflect their final outputs in concepts, judgments and theories that serve the leadership pyramid. Strategic thinking is a process of Conclusion. Required depends on the ability possessed by the decision-maker in the recruitment of intellectual elements in the course of operations to absorb the reality and the facts and deliberately to trial with Conscious facts represent the essence of knowledge of the desired goal, and this should be the pyramid leader, especially in The political side and the strategic knowledge and Study, So we discussed this thinking about the concept and characteristics and methods and patterns, as well as strategic thinking in terms of Concept and characteristics, importance and requirements, may cover even a fraction of these Concepts the subject of attention.

Food insecurity:the causes and Possible Responses [The African Continent Model.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 136-151

The aim of this study is to shed some light on the food security concept and the main reasons for its lack in the various country in the worldand, particularly developing countries. The issue of food insecurity has led to be nearly 795 million people whose suffer from malnutrition at a global level based to the estimates of "the state of food insecurity in the world 2015" according to the Food and Agriculture Organization [FAO] of the United Nations, Even though this large figure is at the same time refer to a decline near to 216 million people fewer than the percentage in which was at 1990-1992.
The rise of food prices globally, natural disasters, and severe climatic events and global economic issues are all reinforced the old dilemma of how to ensure access to food for all individuals all over the world, to enable everyone in the world to live an active and healthy life.
While improvements in global food production, and health are allowed human communities to flourish through the twentieth century by a significant increase in the size of the world's population and the average age of individuals and also reduce infant and child mortality, However, malnutrition remained as a result of food insecurity which have a daily affects on the lives of hundreds of millions of people.
A significant number of experts and specialists also believe that the food security problem is also associated with the number of the world's population which is expected to rise to be 9 billion people by 2050, and the provision of adequate food is a global concern, this concern is exacerbated by factors such as climate change and pressure in order to expand the agricultural production in the forest.

The Effect of applying Quality Standards in Assessing the Performance of Iraqi Universities (An Applied Study)

Fouad Abd Ul-Mohsen; Nofal Mahmoud Mousa

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 1-21

Performance evaluation process aimed at achieving the basic elements (efficiency, effectiveness and economy) in the work environment, expressed in the inevitable result of the control procedures that the Federal Office of Financial Supervision sought to achieve. Therefore, the results of a Research conducted in the University of Karbala showed that the application of quality standards of education is weak. The total application proportion is 32. 6% and the mean are 6. 44; less than half of the average standards; that is 20 degrees with 0.892 correlations. This shows an impact relation between the performance evaluation and the application of comprehensive quality standards.
Several recommendations were drawn, the most important of which is the need to focus on improvement and development in the areas of the quality of education and scientific research via evaluating the performance of Iraqi universities in general and the University of Karbala in particular, according to the accredited quality standards in the QS ranking of the performance of the universities.

The Effect of ultraviolet rays on the charging of the dust grain in multi-ions plasma

Zainab A. Mankhi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 1-7

In this work, A computer simulation was implemented to study ultraviolet radiation effect on charging process for a dust grain was immersed in to plasma (K^+and electron) with negative ion〖 (SF〗_6^-). The simulation based on discrete model and Orbital Motion Limited theory (OML). The numerical results were illustrated charge fluctuation of dust with time for different values of ultraviolet rays intensities and appeared increase of positive charge of dust when rays intensity increased.

Simulation of Sediment Transport in Al- Hilla River in Iraq Using the HEC-RAS Software

Zainab Ali Omran; Wisam Shamkhi Jaber

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 8-18

Sedimentation of canals is a big problem where the feeding rivers contain a large amount of sediments. Hec-Ras 5.0, 2016 program is an applied software package for simulation of river network in steady and unsteady flow regime. The aim of this paper is to verify the model simulation with field survey for Al-Hilla river, depending on the bed material and other characteristics. For transport function, Meyer Peter Muller method was used, and Ruby method is used for calculating the fall velocity, with the active layer as a sorting method. In this paper different types of outputs resulted in both tabular and graphical of Al-Hilla river were showed using different effective elements like discharge, velocity, elevation (bed level changes). The results showed that the change in river's bed differed according to the river sections and sediment material type and the concentration of sediment increased in the part of river when pass the center of Al-Hilla city, this concentration reach to 125 mg/L.

Association between gene polymorphism in programmed cell death 1 (PD1.1) and susceptibility for rheumatoid arthritis in an Iraqi patients? Case control study.

Anfal Abdulhussain Jawad; Salman Azeez Addoos; Hashim Raheem Tarish

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 19-25

Programmed cell death-1 (PDCD1) gene is a negative regulator of T-cell to maintain peripheral tolerance and is a key molecule in the development of autoimmune diseases. Although gene polymorphism in PDCD1 was reported to be associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), replication studies later on showed conflicting results. This study aimed to determine whether SNP PD1.1 in PDCD1 gene is associated with susceptibility for RA. Methods: Clinical diagnosis of the RA patients was confirmed by the Rheumatology Center of Al Sadder Medical Teaching Hospital in Al-Najaf Al-Ashraf city. Genomic DNA was extracted from the whole blood samples using commercial kit (FavorPrep™ Blood Genomic DNA Extraction Mini Kit). Programmed cell death-1 (PD1.1 G/A SNP) genotyping was done using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method to 60 RA patients and 70 non-autoimmune control group. The genotype and allele frequencies of these SNP were analyzed by statistical tests. Results: There were no significant differences in alleles and genotypes of PD1.1 SNP in PDCD-1 gene between RA cases and control group. Conclusions: PD-1.1 polymorphism in the PDCD1 gene was not associated neither with susceptibility for RA nor with clinical course in rheumatoid arthritis patients (at least in an Iraqi population particularly in AL-Najaf city).

An Experimental Study of Parabolic Solar Water Heater Performance located in Basra city

Maher Kadhim Taher

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 26-31

In this paper the effect of focus and tilted angle of parabola solar water heart are studied, the result show that, the optimum focus is 25 cm, where the tilted angle of parabola cannot be adopted because it has different value from time to time, also the study focus on heating pipe glassing with different tube diameter, and show the glassing heating pipe with 1-inch tube diameter give good performance from other size and that without glassing.

A Secured Dynamic Source Routing protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Mazin Kadhum Hameed; Fryal Jassim Abd-Razak

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 32-41

In the twentieth century at different times and in different places Communication technologies expanded. In the first the telephone invented as a wired technology and then as a wireless technology. In the later of the century computer communication has development. we can define the routing protocols as set of rules by which routers dynamically share their routing information.
Secured ad hoc routing protocols present a challenge, due to inherent characteristics of distributed cooperation, constrained capabilities of the nodes, open medium and dynamic topology. Due to such characteristics, these networks are highly susceptible to malicious attacks that may arise from several causes; non-deliberately when a node is damaged or deliberately when a node may need to save its resources, consume other node's resources, or isolate legitimate nodes from using the network. Most of the current ad hoc routing protocols are disrupted by malicious attacks. The most popular ad hoc routing protocol is the Dynamic Source Routing protocol(DSR) which is protocol finds the route when required dynamically and is on-demand source routing protocol. The DSR protocol contains two phases in its routing structure: route detection and route maintenance. To ensure the correct operations of DSR, provide security against malicious attacks is very important. This paper proposes a secured DSR; SecDSR which is protocol point -to- point certification of routing packets shared key between the two parties and using a Message Authentication Code (MAC) based on Ariadne protocol which relies on symmetric cryptography that is able to authenticate the source who initiated route discovery process to provide authentication. The tools and method that which used is it can used in conjunction with different mechanisms, one of which is TESLA (Timed Efficient Stream Loss tolerant Authentication) that setups shared secret keys beforehand. In this case time stamps are used to validate keysThe impact on performance caused by the use of such secured protocol is evaluated through simulation on NS-2. The DSR without security is first simulated. Then the secured version of the protocol; SecDSR is simulated. The analysis of simulation results revealed that secured ad hoc routing is achievable at the expense of increased

Toxic effects of digoxin on heart and troponin level in laboratory rat

Abbas A. Khadhair; Saleh K. Majeed; Muhsin S.G. Almoziel

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 42-47

The current study was conducted at the college of veterinary medicine, university of basrah in the periods extended from 22/10/2016 to 22/1/2017. Digoxin is an important cause of poisoning. It is prescribed and widely used to patients with heart failure. Digoxin toxicity can emerge during long-term therapy as well as after an overdose. Therefore, the study is designed to report the toxic effects of digoxin on heart histologically and biochemically by measuring troponin enzyme level in the serum. Maximum toxic dose (MTD) determined by using 2 rats dosed orally until clinical signs of toxicity became prominent at 30mg for each rat and considered as MTD. The chronic toxicity study was carried out on 48 adult rats divided into 4 groups, each group includes 12 rats. Control (G1) receive distilled water, Low dose (G2) dosed with (1.5mg/kg) digoxin, Intermediate dose (G3) dosed with (3mg/kg) digoxin and High dose (G4) dosed with (6mg/kg) digoxin by oral gavage for 90 days. At the end of experiments all animals were sacrificed and blood sample were collected for estimation of biochemical parameter of rat. Result reveal histopathological change of heart ranges from massive areas of degeneration of myocyte with homogenous cytoplasm to vacuolation of myocytes. Also show that a significant (P≤0.05) increase in serum troponin level in High dose (G4) group when compared with other study groups. We conclude that high dose digoxin has toxic effects on heart.

Machine Learning in Bioinformatics – Gene Regulation Network

Sameerah Faris Khlebus

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 48-57

A biological cell is a complex and complicated environment, where thousands the entities 'interact surprisingly between each other. This the integrated device the continuously receives external and internal signals to carry out the most 'vital processes to sustain life. Although thousands the interactions are stimulated in very small areas, biologists assert that, there are 'no the collisions or the incidental events. On other the hand, rapid discoveries in biology and the rapid evolution of data collection make it difficult to build a concrete perspective that scientifically explains all observations. Cooperation has therefore become necessary among physicists, mathematicians, biologists and the computer engineers. The aim of this virtual company is to pursue what is known as biological network modelling.

Influence of Different Irrigation Levels on Varieties of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)Under Plastic House Conditions

Ali Hassen Ali AL-Zubaidi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 58-66

Tomatoes are one of the more important horticultural crops in the world. The obtained results proved that the shortage irrigation has a negative effect on tomato development. More irrigation showed a decrease of morphological and production. The non-significant increase in irrigation of water will be increase of the efficiency and reduction. The study also, indicated that it is sensitive to tolerance for drought stress through greenhouse. At 80 % of water holding capacity led to save 36.30 % of the irrigation water and reduction in yield by 30.76% in variety Kexin12. However, at 60% of water holding capacity resulted in 51.18 % of irrigation water saving but 56.13 % of the in yield were lost. Supplying 40% will be save about 62.54 % of irrigation in produce by 68.19 %. Therefore, the suggested results that supplying this variety Kexin 12 by 80% of WHC reduction in produce by 30.76% will be save 36.30 % of water.

Optimization Performance of Solar Collector Based on the Fractional Factorial Design

Qusay A. Jawad; Dheya N. Abdulamer; Auday A. Mehatlaf

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 67-79

The research focuses on investigation of multi factors which influenced on the Performance of flat plate solar collector and selects the optimum conditions. The model of solar collector is treated with number of glass covers, Cover- Plate air spacing and flow rate of water. The stagnet temperature of absorber plate was calculated. The calculations were carried out by using EES program in connection with Taguchi method and regression model. The outcome of fractional factorial design of experiments by Taguchi method was accomplished by Minitab 17 software

Prevalence Rate and Risk Factor of Spina Bifida at Maternity and Obstetrics Hospital in Karbala City

Mohammed Abdulridha Merzah

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 77-82

Objective: Reduction of folic acid (a type of vitamin-B) during pregnancy may cause a neural tube defect (NTD) called spina bifida. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence rate of spina bifida and its relation to folic acid, intake during pregnancy, and other factors like parents’ relative degree and radiation.
Methodology: Cases of spina bifida (n=18) and control subjects (n=16) from Maternity and obstetrics hospital at Karbala city were included. Mothers of newborns with spina bifida were interviewed by the researcher to collect some information on consuming folic acid and some demographic variables.
Results: Relative degree of parents was a significant factor to spina bifida (X2 (34,2) = 6.013, P= 0.04). No significant correlation was found between spina bifida and exposing to radiation during pregnancy. A significant correlation was found between having neonate with spina bifida and consuming folic acid during pregnancy (X2 (34,2) = 11.900, P= 0.003).
Conclusions: Women who had not taken folic acid during the first trimester of their pregnancy were more likely to have a neonate with spina bifida.
Recommendations: Health centers efforts should be focused on educating pregnant women on hazardous of some factors (such as radiation and misuse of drugs) on their babies’ health.

Evaluation of the inhibitory effect of some citrus juices in bacteria Klebsiellae pneumonia in vitro

Alaa Adnan Al.Janabi; Shahad Yusri Abdul Jabbar

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 83-88

The aim of this research is study the effect of some citrus juices such as lemon Citrus limon , bitter orange Citrus Aurantium and orange Citrus sinensis in bacteria Klebsiellae pneumonia in vitro, four concentrations usage (25%, 50%, 75%, 100%) compared to some industrial antibiotics (Bacitracin, Erythromycin, Novobiocin ), as the results show the juices have important impact in inhibiting the growth of bacteria and the lemon greatest influence in the growth with concentration 100%, where the inhibition rate after 24 hours was 30 mm and decreasing with low concentration reaching 15 mm at 25%, while the bitter orange had the second-level after lemon , where the inhibition rate was 23 mm with concentration of 100% and 5 mm with 25%concentration . and at increasing the incubation period to 48 hours , lemon inhibition with concentrations (75% and 100%) was 19 mm and decrease to 16 mm with a concentration of 100% after 72 hours , while the bitter orange has not had any significant inhibition when increasing incubation period , while the orange did not have any mention Influence of all concentrations and for three incubation period ,and the same results obtained with industrial antibiotics .

Impacts of Climate Change on Water Resources ) A Case Study of Matapedia River, Quebec, Canada )

Oday Tamween Al-Heetimi; Isam Issa Omran; Wisam Abidalabbas Abidalla; Ali Tamween Ajeel

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 89-101

Changing in universal climate will cause a major effect on hydrological systems which will has a direct impact on ecological, economic and social systems. Climate change will be varied from location to another in the globe, therefore a specific site models are important to determine the impact on the aimed region. In this study the impacts of climate change been analyzed on the Matapedia River watershed located in Quebec, Canada; by developing a hydrological process based model to simulate the current and future river flows and the region precipitation. Matapedia hydrological model used Canadian Regional Circulation Model (CRCM) climate data to simulate future scenario of the watershed. Delta method been used for downscaling and Quantile-Quantile method used to correct the model results distributions. Then used corrected data for the hydrological model for the stream flow records between (1982-2001) to forecast stream flow, precipitations and other climate parameters such as temperature (max, min), wind and humidity. Results shows flow increased in future flow simulation even though extreme flood discharges by some means decreased in study area during winter and spring months due to an increased in maximum and minimum temperature about (2.65oC to 3.02oC) respectively during (2011-2100) period. Also an increase in precipitation in the future about (1.038) in study area headed to make the flood event of 100 and 1000 year return period more extreme.

Tuning of Control Motion for a three link robot manipulator using Particle Swarm Optimization Technique

Haider Galil Kamil; Ahmed Abdulhadi Ahmed; Ahmed Kamil Abbas

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 102-110

In this paper, the control motion of a three link robot manipulator with un-powerd first joint is discussed. The subjected system is a highly nonlinear, underactuated system. It mimics the acrobat which is trying to move from the down position to upside position through pumping energy to the two DC motors which are located on powered joints (active joints). The main challenge of this study is to show how to tune the control input signals applied to the two DC motors in order to move all robot links near neighborhood of the upright balance point. The optimum values of the control actions were obtained by using the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. The objective function of this optimization method was determining the reasonable time to move the system to the desired upright position. The swing-up of the system was successfully achieved and the simulation outcomes showed the efficiency of the suggested control method.

Use of Recycled Coarse Aggregate from Construction Waste Compared with Iraqi Natural Aggregate to Production of New Concrete

Salim Hrez Jessam

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 111-118

The reuse of construction waste in the production of concrete achieves two goals; the first is the removal of large amounts of sources of environmental pollution resulting from these wastes and, the second objective is to provide cheap sources of concrete aggregate. This study included test properties for two types of concrete mixes: concrete made with natural aggregate (NAC) and, the other mixes was made with fine natural aggregate and recycled coarse aggregate (local waste). These wastes were used in the second mix after removing the large pieces of gravel and well washing and grading. The results showed that recycled aggregate has a lower specific gravity and higher water absorption compared to the natural aggregate. The results also revealed that the concrete produced using the recycled aggregate has acceptable compressive strength and water absorption ratio and it has a higher flexural strength and less density comparing with concrete made with natural aggregate. So it is appropriate to use the concrete made using recycled aggregate in the work of paving concrete roads, casting of cars carriages, casting sidewalks and road paths.

The standard method of analyzing variables and explaining the reasons for low areas and production through standard analysis

Hussein K. Eulewi; Said S . Eassa; Ali M. Abbas

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 119-126

This study was conducted in three provinces of Middle Euphrates ( Babylon, Karbala and Qadisiyah), Where the research methodology was based on a questionnaire in which stated the reasons for the decline of agricultural areas in those province during the period between (1991- 2010), Depending on the classified data through forms that have been given to the departments of agriculture and then to the peasants and farmers at the studing areas.
The main objective of the study is to find out the defect and the reasons for the lack of agricultural production points in Iraq receding agricultural areas and the reasons of this decline in the production of many crops.
Results showed that of more in the production, the lack of production is influenced by the scarcity of water for irrigation and inefficient irrigation and drainage networks, with the increase in costs incurred on the crop so that production could not read these costs, thus the financial benefits included in the negative accounts which increases the reluctance of the farmer and the farm for production, as well as the provinces show that more influential in the decline of the cultivated area is the province of Babylon, as recorded nearly half of the area this is due to the lack of the reclaimed area of the (10%) of the total agricultural land of the province

Sustainability in Industrial Development Requires Knowledge, the Size of the Spatial Development Indicators, the Number of Factories and the Number of Industrial Workers - Baghdad as a Case Study.

Hassan J.Hamem; Sadia K.Hasan

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 127-144

Driving forces for the agglomeration growth are represented by the factors which affect the industrial agglomeration growth especially in major cities. Major cities are urban centers and densely populated radiate vitality and their economic activity are interlaced internally and externally. Metropolitan cities are extensive labor market with diverse skills, and this is one of the features that encourage industrial agglomeration in the urban environment. The industries which more agglomerated, often they are choosing to locate new plants near to the same industries which are agglomerated in the same place. The main aim of this paper is to investigate the spatial impact of sustainable development in the industrial sector, in Bagdad for the period from 2005 to 2014. This paper focused on the main factors that are driving and affecting of the industrial agglomeration growth. Therefore, it focuses on two main factors, employment, the number of factories, because of their importance and availability. To achieve broader analysis of industrial agglomeration growth under the impact of the main factors; so, this paper has used reliable methodical manner, actual growth evidence. The findings, Baghdad constitutes 0.1% out of Iraq area, and is considered the smallest province in terms of area in Iraq. Nevertheless, more than half of industrial activity in Iraq has been agglomerated and concentrated in Baghdad.

التحويلات الضبابية والضرب الضبابي الى حبر-QS

Areej Tawfeeq Hameed; Akhlas Kadom Alkurdi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 145-155

Fuzzy translations, (normalized, maximal) fuzzy extensions and fuzzy multiplications of fuzzy QS-subalgebras of QS-algebras are discussed relations among fuzzy translations, fuzzy extensions and fuzzy multiplications of fuzzy QS-ideals are investigated.
2010 Mathematics Subject Classification: 06F35, 03G25, 08A72


Layla Ali M. Saleh; Maad Farouk Hussian

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 156-167

The assessment process of drinking water quality are considered the most important issue that must be studied and consideration because of its significant effect on human health. In this study, two drinking projects within Al-Hindiya province in Karbala city were evaluated based on weighted arithmetic and CCME water quality indexes during years 2014 to 2016. The physicochemical parameters which were used in developed these indexes involve: Turbidity (Turb.), pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Alkalinity (Alk.), Calcium (Ca+2), Magnesium (Mg+2), Chloride (Cl-), Total Hardness (TH), Sulfate (SO4-2), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and Sodium (Na+). The Iraqi standard for drinking water (IQS- 417, 2001 ) was adopted. The results of the weighted arithmetic WQI showed that the raw water was unsuitable for drinking while the treated water had a good quality and the improvement ratio in water quality were between (75-90)%, while the CCME-WQI results indicate that the raw water quality was fair and the treated water good for drinking except in dry period of year 2015 where the quality of treated water was fair for drinking, knowledge that the raw water index was also the lowest in this time, the improvement ratio in water quality index based on this index were between (11-20)%. Also, it can be concluded that the improvement in water quality for both index were greater in dry season than wet season.

High Impedance Fault Detection on Power Distribution Feeder Using Subtractive Clustering Fuzzy System

Adnan Hasan Tawafan; Marizan bin Sulaiman; Zulkifilie Bin Ibrahim

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 168-181

A novel algorithm based on discrete wavelet transform DWT and subtractive clustering fuzzy inference system is presented to detect high impedance fault. As HIFs detection is usually very difficult using the common over current devices, both frequency and time data are needed to get the exact information to classify and detect no fault from HIF. Discrete wavelet transform is utilized for decomposing typical current, voltage and power of high impedance fault current signals. A specific comparison is made among many types of features of the voltage signal, current signal and power signal. The effect of switching of capacitor bank, switching of no-load line, linear and non-linear load current, and harmonics of other normal event on distribution system is presented. Simulation of a 13.8 kV distribution system using PSCAD were done to obtain the HIF signals and other operation event signals. The proposed method shows that it is more convenient for HIF detection in distribution systems with ample varying in operating cases

patterns of congenital heart diseases in children under five years in Karbala city,Iraq

Abdulkareem A. Jasim; Ashwaq Ali Hussein; Emad Khudair Abbas

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 182-195

Background: Congenital heart diseases (CHD) are one of the most common congenital problems in children. Presentation can be vary from asymptomatic discovered accidentally to severe complain and death. Early diagnosis and treatment has great effects on prognosis.
Aim of study: To assess the frequency of various forms of CHD, patterns of distribution according to age and gender, pattern of presentation and to estimate the effects on growth among affected children under 5 years age in Karbala city, Iraq.
Methods: This is a prospective descriptive study on sample of patients with a confirmed diagnosis of CHD referred for echocardiography over a period of one year from October 2011 to October 2012. Patients from day one of life till five years were included. Study was conducted in the Pediatric echo-cardiac clinic in Karbala Pediatric Teaching Hospital.Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 10.
Results: A total of (110) children were included. There were (42) males (38.2%) and 68 females (61.8%) with a ratio of 1:1.6. Most of the patients in the study have acyanotic CHD and least common with cyanotic CHD; 86(78.2%) and 24 (21.8%) respectively.
Ventricular septal defect (VSD) followed by atrial septal defect(ASD), patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), and pulmonary valve stenosis(PS) were the most common acyanotic congenital heart lesions. While Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) followed by transposition of the great arteries(TGA) were the commonest cyanotic congenital heart lesions. There was a female gender dominance in VSD, ASD, PDA & PS(58.5, 70.3, 62.5 and 69.2 percent respectively. While more male gender had complex CHD.
Majority of patients have non-cyanotic CHD. The commonest non cyanotic CHD is VSD & the commonest cyanotic lesion is TOF , Predominance of female gender in VSD,ASD&PS,while the male gender more dominant in complex CHD.,

Risk of maternal and fetal complications in pregnant teenagers in comparison to adults, a cohort study.

Aseel MK Al-Akaishi; Shaymaa A Alfadhul; Huda Ghazi hameed; Liwaa HM Al-Kilabi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 196-203

Background: Teenage pregnancy has been considered to have a higher risk than pregnancy in an adult, because of biological immaturity of the teenager, so it is a contributing factor to high maternal and prenatal complications.
Aims of the study: To identify sociodemographic characteristics of teenage pregnant mothers, and to compare obstetrical and medical complications, types of delivery, and fetal outcomes of teenage mothers with that of adult mothers.
Patients and Methods: A hospital based retro- prospective cohort study was conducted at Al-Zahraa Teaching Hospital for Maternity and Children in Al-Najaf Governorate /Iraq from June 1st to September 30th 2015.The study group included 150 pregnant teenagers aged 13-19 years, and the comparable group included 150 pregnant women aged between 20 and 35 years.Data included socio-demographic characteristics, antenatal care (ANC), medical and obstetrical complications, mode of delivery, and fetal outcome.
Results: There is a statistically significant difference (p<0.05) between the two groups in terms of severe anemia, hypertension, postpartum haemorrhage, preterm labor, post term labor, low birth weight, fetal distress, meconium aspiration syndrome and admission to neonatal care unit.
Conclusions: The study shows that medical problems complicating pregnancy and bad fetal outcomes are higher in teenager mothers.

طاقات التهيج في النوى 72,74Se , 72,74Ge 72,74 As , باستخدام جهد دلتا السطحي

Fatema .H. Obeed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 204-214

By using a surface delta interaction, we obtain energy levels of the 72,74Ge , 72,74Se and 72,74As isotopes .Different model spaces are adopted to generate the eigen values and final energies.
A computer code were written by Matlab 2013 to achieve the configuration mixing shell model calculations by employing the surface delta interaction (SDI) as residual interaction. In this study , predicted, the low-lying levels (energies, spins and parities) were quite successful in describing of above nuclei when its comparison with the available experimental data which showing the ability of our effective interaction to provide an acceptable description of nuclear structure properties in the fp-shell region.

Impact Stress Analysis of Carbon/Epoxy Composite Plate

Abdukareem Abdulrazzaq Al-Humdany; Jawad Talib Abodi; Salah Mahdi Ali

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 215-233

The composite materials are widely used in the manufacturing of the military protection equipments such as body armors, helmets, vehicles body and other engineering applications because of the light weight and the high performance as compared to the metals. With the progress made in the manufacture of arms and ammunition it has become important to develop armors to become lighter and more effective in resisting fire arms and this represents a great challenge to the researchers.
In this work finite element ANSYS program is used to analyze the impact stresses of 9mm bullet impact on composite plate using explicit dynamic and autodyne code. The material used in this work is unidirectional carbon fibers and epoxy. The experimental work including manufacturing composite plates made from Carbon/Epoxy with different thicknesses and subjects these plates to impact by 9mm bullets at speed of 371m/s from 5m distance. The numerical results were validated by comparing the bullets residual velocity and the ballistic limit with the results from the experiment work. The results show that the shear and strain are maximum in the front layers while the tensile stress is maximum at the rear layers and the ballistic limit for the Carbon/Epoxy plate with 5mm thickness is 371m/s.


Sameerah Faris Khlebus

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 234-246

The verification of handwritten signatures is one of the oldest and the most popular biometric authentication methods in our society. In addition, the evolution of technology, the different ways of comparing and analyzing signatures became more and more sophisticated. Based on the acquisition process, the field is divided into on-line and off-line parts. In on-line signature verification, the whole process of signing is captured using some kind of an acquisition device, while the off line approach relies merely on the scanned images of signatures. This research, deals some of the many open questions in the off-line field. It provides off-line signature recognition and verification system which is based on image processing, new improved method for features extraction proposed and artificial neural network are both used to attend the objective designed for this research , Two separate sequential neural networks are designed; one for signature recognition, and another for verification (i.e. for detecting forgery). A recognition network controls verification network parameters, which are produced individually for every signature. The System overall performs is enough to signature recognition and verification sing standard and popular dataset, In order to demonstrate the practical applications of the results, a complete signature verification framework has been developed, which incorporates all the previously introduced algorithms. The results provided in this it aim to present a deeper analytical insight into the behavior of the verification system than the traditional artificial intelligence-based"approaches.

Study of Some benzylidene aniline Derivatives Using Density Function theory ( DFT, B3LYP/6-32G)

Nedaa . A . Jassim

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 247-254

The research involves the application of the Gaussian program ( Gaussinan 09 ) utilizing density function theory (DFT) with B3LYP/6-32G of quantum mechanical calculations on a several of N-benzylidene aniline derivatives that containing substitutes (CH3, NO2). The calculations leads to find out electronic densities, ionization energies , geometries optimization, dipole moment , energies of HOMO , LUMO orbital , and also the vibrational modes were investigated using Chemchraft program .Spectra of Ultraviolet and standard thermodynamic functions ( U0 , H0 , S0 ,G0 ,A0 )for each substituted benzlidene aniline was additionally explored .The impact of substituted groups on stabilition of each examined molecule is explored. Data obtained of benzylidene aniline derivatives are compared with the benzylidene aniline.


Hithab jawad muhsen

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 255-260

Background: jaundice is the commonest medical condition affecting infants in first week of life. the cause is bilirubin deposition in the skin. jaundice in newborn is a result of increased RBC destruction and decreased bilirubin elimination.
Aim of study: The aim of this study is prescribe the frequency and severity of Rh and ABO incompatibility in neonates admitted to Pediatrics & Neonatology unit, al-Zahraa teaching Hospital, Najaf, Iraq.
Patients and methods: This descriptive study done in neonatal intensive care unit, in al- Zahraa teaching hospital ,Najaf ,Iraq. 300 neonate admitted to neonatal unit from period of first of May 2014 to august 2014 with jaundice were included in the study.
Results: from 300 neonate with jaundice , 144( 48%) were female and 156( 52% ) male , the frequency of ABO , combined ABO and RH and RH incompatibility in neonates with jaundice was 99(33%), 36(12%), 51 ( 17%) respectively .
15(22.7%) of neonate with ABO and 21( 31.8%) with RH incompatibility treated with exchange transfusion. While 4 (1.3 %) and 10 (3.3 %) of patient with ABO and RH incompatibility respectively developed sign of kernicterus on discharge.
Conclusion: out of 300 neonate presented with jaundice , most common hemolytic cause was ABO-incompatibility 99( 33%), followed by Rh –incompatibility 51(17%),
Rh –incompatibility is more severe than ABO , 21(31.8%) of patients with RH incompatibility treated with exchange transfusion and 10(3.3%) of them discharge with sign of kernicterus


Haider Nadhom Azziz

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 261-279

This paper describes the fluid flow simulation results in the working space of fixed flow capillary viscometers of different configurations that are obtained on the basis of numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for laminar flow using the experimental method. The influence of the capillary tube length and shape of the cylinder at the bottom the metrological characteristics of the viscometer. Given received during mathematical experiment conducted, the results developed functional diagram of the device measuring the viscosity.
The aim of this paper is to model a few script using Fluent. The purpose of doing so was to see how exact the program at modeling fluid flow viscometers in liquids in order to see if computational fluid dynamics has preceding enough to do away with the classical methods.

Using Firefly Optimization Method to Extract the Parameters of Photovoltaic Model System

Issa Ahmed Abed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 280-293

Metaheuristic methods are global optimization techniques that attempt to reproduce natural phenomena or social behavior. The flashing characteristic of firefly behavior has been depended to build up the firefly algorithm (FA). The present paper proposed a method for parameter extraction of photovoltaic (PV) module. Fine tune the parameters of the algorithm is quite important to get better results. Therefore, the concern in this paper also studies the test of the control parameters. Eleven case studies have been introduced to examine the results and to select the best case with powerful precision and speed of convergence with respect to other cases.
Keywords: Firefly algorithm, photovoltaic, flashing light, bioluminescence, Attractiveness, brightness.

-Fuzzy Ideal Of A Smarandache Near Ring

Showq Mohammed; Dhuha Abdulameer Kadhim

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 294-301

In this paper ,we introduce the notions of -Fuzzy ideal of a Smarandache near ring related to the near filed M denoted by (S- FI) of a Smarandache near ring and discuss the problem concerning the intersection of a family of (S- FI )and we give some properties about it .

Programing and Implementation of Wireless Monitoring Automatic Control System for Irrigation Greenhouse using ATMEGA328P-PU-AVR Microcontroller

Salam Khalaf Abdullah; Raad Farhood Chisab

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 302-311

At present there are the speed and diversity in scientific innovations so that they intervene in the way of life of individuals and make life easier. There are a lot of researchers who invented irrigation systems, which rely on the control system that facilitates the path towards robust system for irrigation. In this paper a new system for monitoring and operation of irrigation system for smart gardenwas designed, which depends on the microcontroller ATMEGA328P-PU, which are programmed using the Arduino Uno board. The new idea is that the board Arduino Uno works as a programmer for the purpose of controlling the programming software and then the microcontrolleroperates independently without need Arduino Unoboard. System works with two factorswhich are the plant soil moisture and temperature with humidity surrounding the plant through two types of sensors so that the process of perfusion in the case of a lack of water into the soil or run the cooling fan in the case of high temperature and humidity around the plant. The control temperature and humidity are read by mobile device using the Bluetooth device connected with the controlleralso the results are displayed by the liquid crystal associated with the system. The results showed that the system is strong and sensitive against changing humidity and temperature and has the ability to restore the balance of these changes accurately and efficiently under all weather conditions, so this kind of control devices can be used for the cultivation of some rare plants that need specified temperature and humidity, which utilized in medical fields for the production of medicines.

Analysis of the properties of CuO:Sn prepared by pulsed laser deposition

Majed H. Dwech; Kadhim A. Aadim; Mushtaq T. Mohsen

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 312-317

In this work, tin doped copper oxide films have been manufactured by PLD. The films were examined by UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction and their thickness by utilizing optical interferometer technique. Pulsed Nd:YAG laser was used for arranging CuO0.9:Sn0.1 on a glass substrate with varying number of laser pulses at a substrate temperature (673K). The optical properties of as-grown film, for example, optical transmittance, absorption coefficient, refractive index, extinction coefficient and energy gap have been measured tentatively and the influences of a number of laser pulses on it were studied. An inverse relationship between energy gap and the number of laser pulses was observed.

Estimation of some trace element and antioxidant activity in people exposed to heavy metals from different sources of exposure

Alaa Abd-Alhasan Hamdan; Israa Abd-Alhasan Hamdan; Muntdhur Mohammad Cani

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 318-326

The human is exposed to a large amount of chemicals during his live, either by applied chemical in agricultural soils likes fertilizers and pesticides, or in industrial field, these applications will cause increasing in the heavy metals level. This study estimated blood concentration of essential elements and heavy metals Se, Zn, Cu, Al, Cu, Cd, Co, MO, Mn, Mg, Pb, Se, Ni, Cr, Hg and (GPx), (TBARS) as antioxidant activities markers, in four groups of workers exposed to different sources of heavy metals. The highest ratios for Hg, Cr, Cu, Mg, Fe and Zn were found in group C (workers in pesticides), the highest ratio for Al and Mo were in group A (workers in fuel station), while the highest ratio of Pb were in group B (workers in liquid battery workshops), the highest ratio for Co, Mn, As and Se were in group D (farmers using chemical fertilizers) . The heavy metals Zn, Pb, Co, Cd and Ni have significant differences for all groups as compare with control. GPx level have lower significant differences in group B. The highest ratio for TBARS were found in group A. as attempt to found correlation between disease and heavy metals in these groups of workers ,we found few number of workers have different type of cancer for each group, workers which have cancer aged over 45 year and practice their work since over 10 years. Cancers distribution among all four groups were varied, and correlated with type of exposed heavy metals, mainly with the type of their works

The effect of omega-3 in reducing the toxicity of lambda cyhalothrin on hepatorenal parameters of male rats

Shatha Hussein Kadhim

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 327-334

this research was aimed to asses the effect of omega-3 against lambda cyhalothrin (LCT) on some biochemical parameters of rats. The experiment was done on 18 male albino rats in Kerbala University /animal house of Pharmacy College for two months ,and the research was done with the agreement of the animal ethical committe in the college. The rats were divided into three groups, control group represented healthy animals, Lambda cyhalothrin group was drenched orally with 10mg/kg/day of this pesticide and the last one was drenched orally with 20mg/kg/ day of omega-3+ 10 mg/Kg/day of LCT. The samples of blood were collected for laboratory analysis and the liver and kidney tissues were excised for histopathological examination.The results showed a significant elevation in (AST , ALT ,Bilirubin and ALP)levels ,as well as parameters such as (urea, and creatinen) in both second and third group in comparing with healthy group. histopathological examination of liver and kidney in animals drenched with LCT showed significant hepatocyte necrosis while in rats intoxicated with( LCT+omega-3) showed significant healing. so this research showed the protective effect of omega-3 in reducing the toxic effects of cyhalothrin pesticide.

Evaluation of the reality of quality management in the engineering office and projects in Karbala university

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 1-10

This research aims to study the reality of quality management in construction projects and the department of engineering overseeing projects at the University of Karbala and evaluate this reality in according of global trends and scientific basis for quality management, so as to reach a set of proposals and recommendations that aim to raise the profile of quality management in the engineering departments and projects.
To reach the objective of this research was to prepare a survey of systems and specifications for the required departments of engineering and projects, and by preparing a questionnaire where they were 50 forms were distributed to employees of the Department of Engineering Affairs at the University of Karbala, as well as on the university professors who have long experience in this field, and has been receiving 30 forms and that have been adopted in the analysis of data and results through statistical methods in order to reach the search results and then using . The results showed that there are a number of strengths and weaknesses for each element of the quality requirements in the engineering department and project its subsidiaries, and based on these results were put forward a set of recommendations that lead to the development of the existing reality and activating the role of the organization associated with quality management activities

Effect of Salicylic acid and Humic acid on growth of budded Mandarin Citrus reticulate L. Seedlings

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 11-19

A Factorial experiment was conducted in the lath house of the Technical college /Musaib from August 2014 to December 2015 to find out the influence of Salicylic acid and Humic acid on growth and development of domestic mandarin budded on sour orang rootstock . The experiment includes two factors ; salicylic acid (0 , 50 , 100 and 150 mg/l ) and Humic acid (0 , 200 and 400 mg/l ) sprayed 3 times from during the growing season , C. R. D. with 3 replicates and 4 seedlings for each experiment unit was adopted. Results may be summarized as follow :
• Salicylic acid (150 mg/l ) gave higher means of plant height , girth , leaf number , leaf area , shoot number and dry matter of green parts.
• Humic acid at 400 mg/l had an obvious impact on the vegetative traits. This concentration however gave the highest means of plant height , girth , leaf number , leaf area , shoot number , dry matter of vegetative and root parts as well as leaf content of chlorophyll

The role of fines in reducing the tax gap in the Iraqi tourist hotels 'An Analytical Study in al Sadeer Hotel'

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 20-35

Evasion is a growing and dangerous crime in society and the loss of a great treasure in the state is not to enter the tax revenue to the which leads to the inability of the state to cover its expenses at various levels this weakens the ability of the government to transfer its . investment necessary for development and to weaken the effectiveness of taxation as a tool to direct economic activities to serve the purposes of development and curb consumption and fight inflation .
The study sought to address the problem of the presence of indicators in the general organization for taxes related to the establishment of some tourist hotels of Iraq to escape the payment of tax sanctioned by the tax gap that , the researcher noted its presence in the general authority for taxes , which created the need to prove that on the one hand and monitor possible measure this deterred from serving the collection of these taxes on the level of proceeds and timing.
It was based on the hypothesis that the fines imposed on tourist hotels in Iraq do not affect the reduction of tax evasion in the near term ,but the impact of the two years or more . between what should be paid from the sales tax and what has been paid by tourist hotels and compare it in the fines imposed on the hotels ,the research reached a number of results, the most significant of which did not show a clear reflection of the tax fine in reducing the tax evasion of sales tax in the case of taking the fine for a particular year in exchange for tax evasion for the same year reflected a very clear tax penalty in reducing tax evasion of sales tax in the case of taking the fine for a specific year and tax evasion for two consecutive years leads to lower tax evasion whenever the fine increases . the research recommends a number of recommendations , the most important of which is the review of the fine imposed in the sales tax decision and making it a percentage of the taxable tax so that the value is large and very severe or fine or make the penalty fine and imprison the evader of payment , considering that the sales tax is the right of the state and the taxpayer when it is collected , it is entrusted with that money .

Effect of Foliar Application Date of PRO-SOL Fertilizer and Some Plant Growth Promoters on Growth of Naval Orange Saplings

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 36-44

The research was conducted in the lath house of Agriculture College in Al-Qasim Green University under spraying irrigation system from 11-1-2014 to 6-1-2015 to study foliar application date of PRO-SOL fertilizer and some plant growth promoters at Naval Orange saplings growth at age one year and a half budded on Sour Orange root stocks and planting in plastic pots (diameter 23.5 cm). The saplings were bring from Citrus Certification Researches Center in Karbala Government and the research was done in Factorial experiment (2*7) within RCBD in four replications. First factor represented two foliar application date of PRO-SOL fertilizer (1 g/L) every two weeks during Winter –Spring season(2014-2015) and Spring season dates (2015). Second factor was foliar application of Plant growth promoters in mid-march with IBA 40,80 mg/L ; KT-30(cppu) 15,30 mg/L ; IBA+KT-30 (cppu) 40,15 mg/L consecutively and IBA+KT-30(cppu) 80,30 mg/L consecutively .
The results showed surpass of first fertilizing date in Branches number , leaves number and chlorophyll leaves content (SPAD) while no significant effect showed on Plant height , Budding stem diameter and leaf area. For foliar application of Plant Growth Promoters the results showed surpass of KT-30 (30 mg/L) in branches number and IBA+KT-30 (40,15 mg/L consecutively) in leaves number and IBA (40 mg/L) in leaf area while there was no significant increase in plants Height , Budding stem diameter and chlorophyll leaves content .

Estimation and Gradual Saturation for the Housing Need is the Key for the Sustainable Development in the Housing Sector- Iraq is an Evidence (Babylon Case study)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 68-76

Literature, at least in the past ten years has focused on the need for residential housing and need. And neglected the general trend of this need. We cannot deny the importance of the current need for housing. But there are an importance for the diagnosis of the general trend, and also there is more importance to highlight the need for housing in the future in order to control and direct the general trend of housing need or to modify it . Moreover, it will help us to assess and meet the need and reduce the deficit gradually. Sustainability in the Third World or developing countries, especially on the subject of the housing need , so far did not come out from the problem of the amount of need. Therefor we need a long time to talk about the qualitative aspect of the housing need. This research aims to predict the size of the housing need on the basis of the general trend of housing need. The most common tools are the least-squares or simple linear regression and by relying on historical data for time series acceptable and reasonable for the housing need. The general trend is not necessarily in line with what we wish often. And more importantly, to be an action guide for the future in the planning and help us to achieve the objectives which we wish and planned. Because the housing need is not a warehouse commodity can get it immediately. It is a complex process and is preceded it many steps it needs time and planning scientific nicely, and experts in the engineering, economics, sociology, finance. So we need to put in the hands of these experts, the evidence and real results to help them to put policies and plans. Whatever the results were, it will be under the influence of the general trend of the phenomenon.

Diagnosis Of The Relationship Between The Administrative Leadership and Strategies Facing The Crises Exploratory Study Of the Opinions Of A Sample Of Workers in Babylon Electricity Distribution Directorate

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 45-68

The research depended on two variables, Administration Leadership and crises management, It concentrates at making comparison that have attempted to explain the disparity in the role of administrative leadership according to the diversity of adopted strategies in facing crises. This is based on identifying a number of strategies that represents the results of scientific sources on how to confront crises, It is also based on identifying the types and intensity of crises facing organizations. This means that the research centers on what is known as “crisis management” and evaluation of the role of administrative leadership in formulating strategies to face crises from the Employees perspective.
A sample of (50) engineers was intentionally chosen represent high and middle of managerial levels in the executive level in Babylon Electricity Distribution Directorate. A questionnaire was used to know their opinions. The result of the research shed the light on these strategies according to the type and intensity of crises and the features of qualified leadership to overcome the crises. It also identified the nature of the relation between the strategies adopted by administrative leadership in facing crises and the type, intensity, and reasons of their occurrence, in addition to some important recommendations depended on research conclusions.

The effect of activity preservative Chromate copper boron Chloride (CCB) in resistance infect Trichoderma atroviride fungi which is caused wood decay Picea Canadensis Miller. In karbal

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 77-89

In the course of studying the effect of decay fungus Trichoderma atroviride on Picea Canadensis Miller. Wood which imported to Karbala governorate and to study the effect of chemical preservative Chromate copper boron Chloride (CCB) in laboratory condition , The results of the survey studying showed , that all wood have been infected brown rot in different levels on some place of Karbala , The result of isolation showed the presence of T.atroviride on Malt extract Agar ) MA) medium .
The results of deterioration efficiency which was done on the isolated fungus from Picea Canadensis Miller. wood showed high efficiency in decomposing the tested wood caused a significant reduction in weight loss of dry wood with prolonged time of incubation .
The results also showed that the efficiency of the preservative increased with the increase in their concentration. it is noticed that the concentration 3000 mg . L-1 of preservative inhibit completely the growth of hypha to fungus under study.

Effect of spraying with different concentrations of Zinc and Manganese on seedling growth of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) var. Salimi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 335-345

An experiment was conducted in Agriculture college of Kerbala university in lath house at10 days interval from the first of March to the end of June during growing season of 2014 to study the effect of different concentrations of zinc and manganese on seedling growth of pomegranate var. Salimi. Three replicates were used for each treatment. Zinc was used at three levels (0, 100, 200) mg/L. and three levels of Manganese (0, 50,100) mg/L were used.
The seedlings were sprayed three times at10 days interval starting from 1/3/2014,and they were irrigated one day before spraying time. An experiment was conducted according to the Randomized complete Block Design (R.C.B.D.) and analysis of variance ANOVA was based on the least significant difference L.S.D. 0.05. All measurements were taken at the end of June Results showed that:
1- The concentration 200 mg/L of Zinc treatment significantly surpassed all other concentration in all studied characters (height of seedling , stem diameter , branches, number of branches, number of leaves, leaves area , chlorophyll content in leaves , Zinc concentration in leaves , manganese concentration in leaves , root length and dry weight of root system), which gave (124.45 cm/seedling) (7.22 mm, 7.44 branch /seedling, 345.89 leaf/ seedling , 2861.37 cm2/seedling , 43.26 SPAD, 45.17 mg/L, 91.94 mg/L, 41.67 cm/seedling and 18.10 gm/seedling respectively.
2- Manganese treatment at 100 mg/L was significantly higher than all other concentrations in all studied growth characters (height of seedling, stem diameter, number of branches , number of leaves, leaves area , chlorophyll content in leaves, Zinc concentration in leaves , manganese concentration in leaves , root length and dry weight of root system) which gave (119.89 cm/seedling, 6.41 mm, 5.89 branch/ seedling , 341.67 leaf /seedling , 2509.97 cm2/seedling , 40.94 SPAD , 43.66 mg/L, 89.53 mg/L, 36.89 cm/seedling and 15.94 gm/seeding respectively.
3- The interaction between zinc and manganese had significant effect on the Number of branches, Zinc concentration in leaves, Manganese concentration in leaves, root length and dry weight of root system . The interaction of 200 mg/L of zinc and 100 mg/L of manganese gave (9.00 branch/seedling, 48.51 mg/L, 97.40 mg/L, 47.67 cm/seedling and 20.29 gm/seedling) respectively.

Measuring the reliability of Dar Al - Warith machines for printing and publishing in Holy Karbala

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 324-334

In this study, the reliability function was measured by measuring the mean time between the failures. In addition, an applied study was conducted to prove the efficiency of this method by relying on data obtained from the machines of Dar Al-Warith for printing and publishing in Holy Karbala.
The practical application includes the study of the periods of operation of machines between failures, which are distributed exponentially and then find the value of the parameter estimated and thus estimated the reliability of these machines for a period of (40) months. As well as comparison between them and one of the famous statistical methods is the Maximum Likelihood method.

Use A Bootstrap Method In Parametric Regression Models (Cox Model )

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 315-323

The data used in the research were obtained from al-Husseini hospital in the holy city of Karbala included ( 182) people infected with stroke during the period (2015-2014).
The data was using a specimen decline of traditional Cox and Bootstrap analysis of the results shows that the use of style bootstrap gives a more accurate and

Use a bootstrap method in parametric regression models (Logistic Model)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 90-104

Health is a blessing from God many we have , which enables man to live a normal life and being able to enjoy his life , so since time immemorial has repeatedly rights to develop and search for healing treatment , and among the things that are working on all governments and all workers to health and development, and the international community to improve The development is the health care and patient care.
So according to this research study of the relationship between the care provided to the patient during the period of lying in the hospital and between smoking, sex, age and weight by simple random sample size pull (182) infected with stroke people from the al-Husseini hospital in the holy city of Karbala during the period ( 2014- 2015 ) using a specimen traditional logistic regression and bootstrap , identifying any of those factors ( smoking , sex , age , weight) the most impact on the patient's stay in hospital , and clarify the impact of the use of style Bootstrap on the form Teachers logistical measures and then compared with real data results with non-real ( generated ) in order to determine which one best use real data or non-real (generated).
And research findings that the use of style bootstrap gives more accurate results , and that the specimen logistic regression Bootstrap real data is the best specimen in the representation of the data.

Isolation And Identification Of Candida spp. from Gingivitis and Dental Caries and Study their ability to produce Biofilm

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 105-115

Atotal of 120 mouth swabs were collected from patients infected with gingivitis and dental caries whom attending to specialist center of dental care in Karbala city . this samples were examined laboratory by direct microscope and culture on sabouraud Dextrose Agar fore identified the presence of yeast in study samples .
The laboratory examination of study samples were appeared positive result in 102 samples(%85) and by physiological and biochemical tests were appeared that Candida albicans (%54.9) were the predominant type followed by C.kefyr(% 25.5), C.glabrata (%13.7) and C.krusei (5.9%). The product of biochemical and physiological test appear C.albicans was alone produced of germ tube in serum and chlamydospores on corn meal agar medium and C.krusei were produse surface growth on the surface of sabouraud broth.
Concerning sex and age of patients , ther is no significant differentiated between male 38.2% and female 61.8% in different age group, and there was no significant difference concerning the residence of the patient such as diabetes, uses antibiotic, smoking ,bregnant, and anemia.
Concerning biofilm production , out of 62(60.8%) isolates of Candida spp. Were positivity and the biofilm production was observed more with C . albicans 48.4% (24 isolates were show weak to moderate positive biofilm but 6 isolates only were appear strong positive ) compared to other Candida spp. %30.6for C. kefyr , %14.5for C.glabrata and %6.5 for C.krusei .
Key words : Candida , Biofilm , Germ tube


journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 116-128

The experiment was Carriedout in the field of AL- Musayyib project are a field for the season spring , autumn 2015 and autumn 2016 introduced eight inbred during the seasons of spring and autumn of 2015 and autumn of 2016 using eight inbred lines of maile within the proposed factorial crossing program suggested by Comstock and Robinson for the production F1 , and considered four lines as males and four lines of females and crossing between them in season spring 2015, and in autumn 2015 , 2016 season the seeds divided into two parts the first offered the seeds to the magnetization process and other part without the magnetization has been cultivated for their measurement of heterosis and some genetic parameters of the traits yield and components yield. The results showed that there were high significant differences between the magnetization and between genotypes, gave of parent (6) best averages of the traits studied was reached 89.33 for the yield plant, while the parent has given (1) the lowest averages for two seasons with the magnetization , in without show of parent (5) best averages for number of grain in row and the number of rows ear and weight of 300 grain was above 50.00 for prescription weight of 300 grain and perant (6) for yield plant and total yield for two seasons, while gave perant (8 ) the lowest averages for all traits except weight of 300 grain and total yield gave parent (2) the lowest averages for two seasons , and the hybrids (2 × 6) and (2 × 7) giving them the best averages while giving the hybrids (1 × 5) and (1 × 7) and (1 × 8) the lowest averages with and without the magnetization , and gave hybrid vigor are all positive hybrid reached 188.17 % of a hybrid (2 × 7) for yield the plant with the magnetization , while without gave the hybrids positive hybrid vigor for recipes all except the number of rows ear showed negative values were reached the value of positive 186.97.% of a hybrid (2 × 7) for total yield and reached the highest negative hybrid force -18.08% in hybrid (1 × 5) , and it was genetic variance is greater than the environmental variance to all the traits, which is reflected in the rate of heritability in the broad sense, which was within the upper limits amounted to 99.86% for yield plant, and it was Additive genetic variance is greater than Dominance genetic variance in all traits except weight of 300 grain, which is reflected in the rate of heritability in the narrow sense as she was within the upper limits of all the traits except weight of 300 grain were within the medium-border highest percentage 68.86% for number of grains in row, and that the degree of dominance rate was less than one number of grain in row for two seasons and the number of rows ear and yield plant and total yield for one season and is greater than one for weight of 300 grain for two seasons and other of the traits for one season with the magnetization, while without of heritability in the broad sense, which was within the upper limits amounted 99.51% for yield plant, and it was Additive genetic variance is greater than Dominance genetic variance in the number of rows ear and yield plant and total yield and smaller variation dominance of a number of grain in row and weight of 300 grain, which reflected in the rate of heritability in the narrow sense as she was within the upper limits of all the traits except number grain in row and weight of 300 grain were within the medium-border highest percentage 72.59%% for number of rows ear, and that the degree of dominance rate was less than one number of rows ear for two seasons and greater than one for the other of the traits of the two seasons ,we recommend taking advantage of a hybrids (2 × 6) and (2 × 7) and next breeding programs.

Effect of budding, soil fertilization and spraying solution of humic acid on growth of Apricot seedlings and leaves mineral content of N,P, K

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 129-140

The experiment was carried out in the Experimental Field of Al-Mahawell Station during the period 2015 - 2016 to find out the effect of two cultivars of apricot (Kaisy and Zaghenia) budded on apricot seedlings root stocks , the second factor was studied the influence of , soil fertilization with humic acid ( 0 , 3 , 6) gr . L-1, The third factor was studied spraying seedlings for three levels of humic acid (0 , 2 , 4) ml . L-1, Two hundred and seventy seedlings were studied of one year old rootstocks of apricot for budding on 4 Sept. 2015 . Afactorial experiment within CRD with 3 Replications was adapted,results could be summarized as follow:-

1-The cultivars gave asignificant effect on most vegetative growth parameters . Kaisy cultivar gave higher means of budding success percentage ,Shoot length , Shoot girth ,Shoot number , leaves number, leaf area , vegetative dry weight and leaf content of N , P , K compared with Zaghenia cultivar .
2- Adding humic acid 6 gr . L-1 to soil gave a significant increase of all vegetative growth and the content of leaves for chlorophyll and and N,P,K compare with other treatments .
3-Treating Apricot seedling with high concentration of nutrient solution humic acid at 4 mg . L-1 a gave a significant increase in all vegetative growth parameters and nutrient elements in leaves compared with the other treatments as 2 mg .L-1 of Grow green and control treatment .
4-The interaction between cultivars and humic acid or foliar nutrition with humic acid treatment gave a significant effect for most the vegetative growth parameters studied and the nutrient elements in leaves N , P , K .
5-The interaction between kaisy cultivars , and adding humic acid to soil or spraying gave a the highest values of most studied parameters

The effect of the special cost of some waiting queue models in a government bank

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 141-163

In this paper, we examine the queues, the basic elements and the M / M / C standards. The practical side dealt with the data collection and analysis process and conducting the conformity test to ascertain the statistical distribution of the arrival and service data, The appropriate queueing model is (M / M / 3 ) instead of (M / M / 2), where the distribution of the arrivals is Poisson distribution. The distribution of the service time is an Exponential distribution with three service channels.

The Study of Natural Radioactivity of Samples selected toagricultural fertilizers local and imported in the Governorate of Karbala

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 164-171

لدراسة السلاسل النووية الطبيعية الموجودة في عينات من الاسمدة الزراعية المحلية والمستوردة في محافظة كربلاء المقدسة تم اختبار عشرة عينات مختارة من هذه الاسمدة وباستخدام منظومة كاشف يوديد الصوديوم المنشط بالثاليوم وبخلفية اشعاعية واطئة وبزمن قياسsec (54000).
تم حساب عامل الخطورة الخارجي والجرعة الممتصة في الهواء و الجرعة الفعالة السنوية الخارجية و مكافئ الراديوم. حيث وجد ان قيم الفعالية النوعية لسلسلة اليورانيوم ( (238 U تراوحت من Bq/kg (6.31±0.14) الى 52.82±0.41)Bq/kg) وسلسة الثوريوم (232Th) تراوحت من 0.14±0.08)Bq/kg) الى Bq/ kg 102.02±0.69)) وعنصر البوتاسيوم (40K) تراوحت من 12.21±2.35)Bq/kg) الى 3566.18±13.13)Bq/kg) وبمعدل Bq/kg)0.25±22.410) و Bq/kg)0.3±26.186) وBq/kg549.56±4.408)) للنويات المشعة على التوالي, و قيم معامل الخطورة الخارجي التي تراوحت من (0.053±0.002) الى (1.278±0.007) وبمعدل (0.276±0.0028) وقيم مكافئ الراديوم التي تراوحت من 15.01±0.51)Bq/kg) الى 473.3±2.41)Bq/kg) وبمعدلBq/kg102.17±0.998)) وقيم الجرعة الممتصة في الهواء التي تراوحت منnGy/h7.21±0.25)) الى 234.73±1.15)nGy/h) وبمعدلnGy/h49.1±0.47)) وقيم المعدل السنوي للجرعة الفعالة التي تراوحت من 8.84±0.31)μSv/y) الى 287.87±1.41)μSv/y) وبمعدل μSv/y(60.2±0.577), وبمقارنة نتائج هذا البحث مع النتائج العالمية وجد انها ضمن الحدود المسموح بها ما عدا العينة رقم (5) حيث وجد عامل الخطورة أعلى من الحد المسموح به.

Morphological and physiological effects of fertilizer NPKZn and salicylic acid on growth of coriander plant Coriandrum sativum L.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 172-178

اجريت التجربة في الحديقة النباتية التابعة لقسم علوم الحياة - كلية التربية للعلوم الصرفة- ابن الهيثم/جامعة بغداد لموسم النمو(2013-2014)باستعمال الاصص الفخارية لدراسة تاثير التسميد بسمادNPKZn والرش الورقي بحامض السالسيليك وتداخلهما في نمو وحاصل نبات الكزبرة ، تم تصميم التجربة وفق التصميم العشوائي الكامل completely randomized design (CRD) وبثلاثة مكررات تضمنت التجربة العوامل التالية.
1- اربعة مستويات من سمادNPKZn (0 ، 46 ، 92 ، 184) كغم.هـ-1 .
2- ثلاثة تراكيز من حامض السالسيلك (0، 15، 30) ملغم .لتر-1 .
تمت دراسة صفات النموالخضري والزهري وناتج البذور (الوزن الجاف والكفاءة النسبية للسماد % والقيمة الانتاجية الثانوية وتركيز النتروجين والفسفور والبوتاسيوم وعدد النورات البسيطة.اصيص-1 وعدد النورات المركبة .اصيص-1 ووزن البذور.اصيص-1 .
اظهرت النتائج زيادة معنوية في الصفات المدروسة عند التسميد بسمادNPKZn وخاصة عند المستوى 184 كغم.هـ-1 وعند الرش الورقي بحامض السالسيلك وخاصة عند التركيز 30 ملغم .لتر-1 اما بالنسبة لتاثير تداخل عاملي الدراسة فقد كانت افضل القيم للصفات المدروسة تحت مستوى السماد 184 كغم .هـ-1 وتركيزي حامض السالسيلك 15،30 ملغم. لتر-

The study of the collision energy loss of the electron and positron in two elements silicon and germanium and compounds of sodium iodide, water, dry air near sea level and A-150 Tissue-Equivalent Plastic.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 179-186

In this research study of the electronic stopping power of the light charged particles (electrons and positrons) interact with two elements silicon and germanium and with compounds of sodium iodide, water , dry air near sea level and A-150 Tissue-Equivalent Plastic within the range of energy [0.01-1000] MeV, the results of a study have been compared with the preview work electronic stopping power in these elements and compounds with ester program of the same elements and compounds as well as the results of a study comparing the electronic stopping power of Positron with the results obtained by M.J. Berger and S.M. Seltzer , good agreement with the results of both sources have shown .

Preparation of Nanohybrid antifungal from Clotrimazole and determination its inhibitory efficiency against some Candida spp. Isolates

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 187-197

A nanohybrid antifungal Mg/Al-Clo-LDH was prepared using sol-gel ion exchange method between the antifungal Clotrimazole (Clo) and Bilayers hydroxide (Mg/Al-LDH). The new nanoantifungal was identified. FT-IR spectroscopy revealed the appearance of new groups in the Mg/Al-Clo-LDH spectrum which indicates the formation of new compound. The X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) spectrum revealed the appearance of new diffraction planes in the nanohybrid antifungal spectrum in compare with the spectrum of Bilayers hydroxide. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) showed the presence of some changes in the Mg/Al-Clo-LDH surface. The two and three dimensional image of the above compound in atomic force microscope confirmed the formation of new antifungal with nanodimensions. The antimicrobial activity of the nanohybrid antifungal was studied against 16 isolates of Candida spp. . Results showed that highest inhibition was obtained against isolate Candida albicans 23 with avarege inhibition zone of 20.63mm .


journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 198-203

This study was carried out in the nursery of horticulture and landscape design department - College of Agriculture - University of Kirkuk - Iraq during The period from April to October 2016, to study effect of foliar application by Humic acid with two levels (0 and 2) mg.L-1 and seaweed with three levels (0 , 4 and 8)mg.L-1 on vegetative growth characteristics of sour orange seedlings. A factorial experiment with three replications and five seedlings for each unit was carried out using a Randomized Complete Block Design ( R.C.B.D.) and obtained data were statistically analyzed by using (SAS V. 9.0) system , and Duncan’s Multiple Range Test at P> 0.05used to compared the means of treatments.The results in this experiment could be summarized with the 2mg.L-1 of Humic acid and 4mg.L-1 of seaweed which obtained significant increase on all characteristics (stem height and diameter, leaves and shoots number, leaves area, chlorophyll content and nitrogen ratio),which reached (135.00cm , 1.83cm , 108.00leaf.seedling-1 , 19.00branch.seedling-1 , 22.93cm-2 , 138.80CCI and 3.83%) for interaction treatments

Evaluation of Efficiency the Parasitoid Trichogramma evanescens Westwood and Parasitoid Bracon hebetor Say for Controlling Immature Stages for Potato Tuber Moth .

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 204-208

This study was conducted to evaluated the efficiency of larva parasitoid B. hebetor in second and fourth stage of larva and the efficiency of eggs parasitoid T. evanescens in lab. Condition in immature stage for Potato Tuber Moth (PTM) Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller)، at different periods of treatment ranged (24, 48, 72 , 120) hours . The study results demonstrates high effectiveness for both parasitoids in rates of the mortality and the decrease of moth population with increasing time of treatment in all periods for larval parasitoid and eggs parasitoid causing mortality which increased with progress the period of treatment ، it were the rates mortality of larval that was 80.33% , 92.40 % for second and fourth stage respectively at period of treatment 120 hours ، and also decreasing the rates of emergence hosts to 0.00 % of the same period.
Then the numbers of pupae and adults parasitoid were increased ، which developed on this larva ، and increase the numbers of eggs which non- hatching by effects of parasitoid T. evanescens ، and the number of pupa and the percentage of parasitoids emerging from parasitized eggs were increased. It was the highest rates of eggs mortality 68.52% , 62.30 % at the age (1-2),(3-4) days respectively at the period treatment 120 hours ، and also decreased the emergence host to 18.12% at the same period . The results demonstrates high efficiency for the parasitoid B. hebetor in mortality rates and decreased moth population ، and reached the rate host adults to 0.00% at the period of treatment 120 hours in comparing with the rate 18.33% for T. evanescens at the same period .

Choose the best estimation Methods for the multi – response dependent Variable .

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 209-219

We used in our Study the descriptive regression model, when the dependent variable is multi–response, by studying some models related to these descriptive variables. was estimation the parameters of the model of dependent variable, using "weighted least squares "method, the method of " maximum likelihood ", and "Jackknife estimation" method. we used "The Monte Carlo" method in simulation experiment for three levels of sample (small, medium and large) with different sizes by generate random numbers for the parameters of regression model. ,We found, by using The Monte Carlo method of estimation, that the (MLE) method is the best and efficient in the small samples, whereas the (JAK) method is the best in the medium samples, and the two methods (MLE and (JAK) are equivalent in large sample size. From the empirical side, on the other hand,

Analysis of non linear canonical correlation to study the levels of students in the morning and evening study of the Department of Finance and Banking at the University of Karbala

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 220-227

The research in the substance of the non-linear canonical correlation analysis (OVERALS), which belongs to analytical methods multivariate is called the system - Gifi which facilitates the study of the relationship between two or more sets of variables , and the sample of the study is the degree of the fourth stage students in the department of banking and finance to study the morning and evening at the University of Karbala, the students' knowledge levels evening study by comparing the grades students of the morning to study the same subjects , the study found significant differences between the two groups by extracting statistical indicators using software (SPSS - ver 20) . . and it divided portions of the search on two parts take the first section theoretical side the display the subject which introduced the subject of nonlinear canonical correlation , take Section II practical side which presented the results were analyzed using the above program .

Test G- Power calcium nono fertilizer in the chemical content and enzymatic activities of some maize varieties (Zea mays L.)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 228-238

An experiment was carried out to test the G-Power calcium Nano fertilizer in the chemical content and enzymatic activities of some maize varieties in the agricultural division of Karbala University. which consisted of two factors, The first factor consisted of five varieties of maize bhooth 106, 5018, 5012, Maha and Fajjar and the second factor consisted of six Nutritional treatments: control without addition and G-Power 2 ml L-1 and G-Power 1 ml L-1 and 1 ml L-1 Calcium nitrate + 1 ml L-1 G-Power-calcium, 1 ml L-1 Calcium Nitrate and 2 ml L-1 Calcium nitrate, and with three replicates to be the number of experimental units (90). The results showed the dominantity of the Fajr variety in enzymatic activity of Superoxide dismutase SOD, Catalase CAT, concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in roots, root length, Maha variety was dominantity in activity of enzyme Peroxidase POD, proline concentration, plant height, variety bhooth 106 was dominantity in Ca concentration in roots and leaf area,
The treatment of 2 ml L-1 non- nano- Calcium nitrate (T5) was significantly higher in activity of enzyme Peroxidase POD, and activity of Catalase enzyme (CAT) and concentration of calcium and potassium in the roots. . The treatment of 2 ml L-1 G-power calcium (T2) was dominant in activity of Superoxide dismutase SOD, . The treatment of 1 ml L-1 G-power calcium + 1 mL L-1 calcium nitrate (T3) was dominant proline concentration, root length, leaf area, , Treatment of 1ml L-1calcium nitrate (T4) dominant in The concentration of nitrogen in the root, height plant, and the treatment of 1 ml L-1G power calcium (T1) was dominant in the concentration of phosphorus in the roots

Effect of Some Antibiotics in Quarum Sensing Factors of Locally Isolated Pseudomons aeruginosa

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 239-249

Eleven local isolates of P.aeruginosa from patients suffering from urinary tract infection were used, isolates were identified according to morphological and biochemical tests. The identification was confermed by Api 20 E system. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done for the isolates to determine the most effective against these isolates. Showed that the most effective antibiotic is ciprofloxacin (CIP) and amikacin (AK) and imipenem (IPM) while most of the isolates were resistant to Ampicillin and Tetracycline. The minimum inhibitory concentration for three different antibiotics were study , and showed MIC values of ciprofloxacin (0.25- 64) μg / ml. While MIC values of amikacin (2 -128) μg / ml. While for the imipenem ranging between (2-32) μg / ml.
Some associated virulence factors of isolates were studied, it is found that the production of Hemolysin by Pseudomonas aeruginosa as increased by (100)%, all isolates for two types of bacteria produced for the enzyme protease , also gave (100) %, a positive result for the production of biofilm.
As the selected isolates show the ability to adhesion on epithelial cell surfaces at a rate between (17-51.66) cell / epithelial cell, as well as bacterial cell surface hydrophobicity test.
As for the test swarming movement, the study demonstrated the ability of bacteria to swarm on enriched agar plate (1.5-2.0 ) % agar,as was noted that there is an inverse relationship between the amount of agar and movement swarming fact agar solid hinder the movement of bacteria on the center of nutrient broth . Has also been an effective microbial antibiotics to three in the inhibition of growth and produce virulence factors bacterial isolates . The results indicated that the antibiotics used in the study its effectiveness against isolates studied and graduated effectiveness as follows:
Amikacin,Ciprofloxacin and Imipenem also showed antibiotic good effective in inhibiting virulence factors studied .

Evaluation of using some biological control factors of control seeds rot damping-off disease on Okra plant caused by Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani fungi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 250-260

The study aims to evaluation the efficacy biological fungusTrichoderma harizanum , bacteria Bacillus cereus and Gntanol fungicide in control seeds rot damping-off disease on Okra plant caused by Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani fungi . The results of the laboratory that fungus T. harzianum have high antagonistic activity against the two fungi pathogen which the degree one (1) according to Bell measurement. Whereas the B. cereus bacteria give high inhibition rate with fungal isolates F.s1 and R.s2 which is appeared (80 and 80.55)% respectively .Also Gntanol fungicide give inhibition rate 100% against these two pathogenic fungi on PDA media in comparison with the control factor which have the rate of inhibition 0% .Results also show the efficacy of B. cereus bacteria in increase germination rate in presence of two fungi F. solani and R. solani (80.25 and 80)% respectively. The germination rate increase (80 and 77.5)% respectively with use of T. harzianum fungus too in the presence of these two fungi. From the other side, the results appeared that the presence of the highest rate of germination which is reached (88 and 85)% respectively when we use the full biological treatment .Result revealed under conditional that use B. cereus bacteria decrease the severity of infection with these two fungi F. solani and R. solani (20 and 22.25)% respectively , and infection rate to (32 and 35)% respectively. So biological T. harzianum fungus decrease the severity of infection with two fungi (22.5 and 25)% respectively , and decrease the infection rate to (25 and 30)% respectively. And caused full biological treatment decrease the severity of infection to (16 and 18)% and infection rate to (23 and 24)% respectively. compared with two fungi treatment only which gives severity of infection (80.5 and 85)% respectively and infection rate 100% for both fungi.

Effect of irrigation water salinity and organic waste on growth and yield of Eggplant grown in plastic houses under drip- irrigation system.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 261-269

Field experiment was conducted during 2015-2016 growing season to study influence of irrigation water salinity and organic waste on growth and yield of eggplant in plastic houses under drip-irrigation system under factorial experiment in Randomized complete block design ( RCBD) with three replicates . The experiment included (12 ) treatments which was the interaction between three irrigation water quality(River water,1/2 river water +1/2drainage water and 1/4 river water+3/4 drainage water ) and four types of organic wastes (control(without waste), waste of sheep , waste of poultry and waste of cow).
The irrigation treatment (1/2 river water +1/2drainage water) showed highest value for plant height ,number of branches ,leaf area , number of fruits ,weight of fruit and total yield (17.74 kg.m-2) In addition to increase N and decrease P and K.
The result show that organic waste increase significantly all parameters above and gave highest yield value (20.37 kg.m-2 ) , in addition to increase N , P , and K in plant and soil.
The interaction treatment of (1/2 river water+1/2 drainage water ) and waste of poultry caused significant increase in all parameter above , giving the highest yield 22.93 kg.m-2 .

Molecular Taxonomical Study of the Species Genus Phalaris L. from the Gramineae Family in Iraq.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 270-276

The study was carried out to investigate molecular phylogenetic relationships for five species from the genus "phalaris" in Iraq by using sequencing technique of the Chloroplast gene maturase K (MatK).
The results of genetic dendrogram showed a cluster analysis of species and descend of P.arundinacea alone in a single clade in the base of genetic dendrogram which consider as a sister clade to the p.paradoxa clade .While The three other species P.coerulescens , P.brachysta and P.minor were included in one main clade and distributed in a secondary subclade . The P.coerulescens is descended in a single clade in the base of the secondary main clade and considered as a secondary clade that collecting P.brachysta & P.minor.
The results showed reliability of sequencing Matk gene which used to separate genus species from each other . While, close relationship in some species indicates that this species belong to one genus . Generally this molecular study confirmed the strong relationship among species that share the same genus Phalaris in Iraq in one common ancestor.

Effect of Varicocele tretment on semen and sperms parameters for Oligospermic infertile patients

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 277-281

This study was conducted on 18 were examineal of semen samples, of 9 patients who suffer from Oligoospermia with varicocele were in this study liquid samples seminal examination were examined for patients who suffer from Oligoospermia microscopically and visual contact before treating Varicocele and after the treatment of varicocele on the parameters of semen and sperm for patients with infertility, the study subjects.
The results of the examination of semen samples intended for patients who suffer from oligospermia microscopically and visual contact before treating Varicocele and after shawed significant improvement (P>0.05) in each of the sperm concentration and the percentage of motile sperm and the percentage of sperm normaly and the degree of activity (grade) of sperm and semen volume when compared to their value before the cure . and showed also observed but not significant decreased in the liquefaction time after the treatment of sperm compared to its value prior to treatment as well as the results showed a significant decrease (P>0.05) in concentration of round cells when compared to their value before treatment.
We conclude from this study that the treatment of Varicocele has significant impact improving Semen parameters and sperm Oligospermic infertile patients.

stopping power of proton and Asalafrsan compound in some parts of human body

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 282-288

In this research the electronic stopping power was calculated theoretically by use Bohr, Bethe equations and projectiles (Blood tissue and breast tissue ) By projectiles
Asalafrsan compound which is used for radiation therapy of malignant tumors infected areas , as well as used protons tissue (blood , eye lens, the breast tissue , ovarian , cortical bone ) in energy range (25-250)MeV by using Bragg’s Rule for compounds. Also programming the by use (MATLAB) language..The calculations were compared with the experimental data of the software SRIM 2013 For the protons
This comparison shows that: Bethe formulas are in good agreement with the experimental data

Analysis Risk and it effect on selection bank investment portfolio components - An application study in several listed banks in Iraq stock exchange (ISX)- )- Since from 2004 to 2016

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 289-305

The Currant Study am to determine the effect of Risk as independent variable in investment banking portfolio selection which represent dependent variable, study sample was Bank sector in Iraqi stock exchange (ISX) which represented by (12) bank and for period from 2004 to 2016 , the study variable measured by suitable measures.
The study problem start from Varity of Conceptual and applications which effect the process of risk effect on investment portfolio components selection which still in doubt , add to that it's from important titles which need to be study continuously because of its effect on banks work, for that study aim to achieve several objectives like :
- Showing how studied bank adopting risk management technique in choosing portfolio components .
For achieving study objectives,the hypothesis tested by using advanced statistically methods throughout statistical software package (SPSS) , and the main finding of study showing that a clearly effect of risk on component selection in investment portfolio of those studied banks .
The Study ended by several conclusions , most important from it was that granting loans for increasing return because of high liquidity with studied banks in order to exploit the opportunities in interest price changing and economic events changing which front the bank to Avoid it.

Effect of Adding Date Palm Pollen to diet in some productive traits of Japanese quail birds (Coturnix japonica)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 306-314

This study was conducted at quail's field that belongs to Agriculture Collage/University of Basrah since to from 21/8/2016 until 1/10/2016 in order to examine effect of adding Date Palm Pollen to diet in some productivie traits of Japanese quail birds. The study was included 240 chicks one day old of brown quail strain with initial weight mean 7.45 g / birds. They were at one age randomly to five treatments each treatment which contained 48 chicks with three replicates each one 16 chicks, the treatments as the following, the first groups (T1) were fed on basal diet without feed additive and regarded as control mean, while the second groups (T2), the third groups (T3), the fourth groups (T4) and the fifth groups (T5) In these treatments, were fed on a diet supplemented the Date Palm Pollen amount 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg/kg Respectively. The results showed a significant increase at level (p(0.05> in the average live body weight and weight gain in T5 which compared with other treatments, there were found during the fourth and sixth weeks, as well as cumulative Weight gain, significant improvement at level (p(0.05> in the efficiency feed conversion and a significant decrease in feed intake for birds of the same treatment were found. There was found a significant decrease at level (p (0.05>in the amount of water consumed and the ratio between water consumption and feed in T2 when compared with other treatments. In conclusion, the Date Palm Pollen have a positive effect on increasing the weight of birds as well as improving their productivity.

Health Policy To The Local Government In Kerbala Province

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 87-106

The local government in the governorate of Kerbala has taken a set of applied policies in the health sector since the election of its first cycle in [30-1-2005], which facilitated the decision making locally, and these achievements came in accordance with the powers conferred upon it by the federal government and the law of governorates not organized in Region [No. 21 of 2008] and its amendments, where it initiated the formulation of a set of policies in the development of hospitals in the province and expansion and the addition of suites and treatment units, and its efforts to build new hospitals and health centers in neighborhoods, that lacked access to nearby health services and relied on the only hospital in the province, Al Husain educational hospital In addition to the establishment of a number of specialized health centers such as centers for the treatment of diabetes, orthodontic centers and other health institutions, the steps found by the local government have received popular satisfaction, especially when accompanied by financial assistance to people who have been unable to provide treatment.