ISSN: 1813-0410

Volume 13, Issue 2

Volume 13, Issue 2, Spring 2017, Page 1-328

ngival sulcus depth in diabetic and non diabetic patients

Bayan Jaber Hussein

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 1-6

Background: Gingival sulcus; Its an invagination extends between the gingiva and the surface of the tooth, it extends vertically from the free gingival margin to the dentogingival junction, gingival sulcus normally has a depth at about 0.5-3 mm, with an average of 1.8mm. Any depth greater than 3mm generally can be considered a pathological state and a sulcus in this deep is known as periodontal pocket. The floor of gingival sulcus and epithelium cervical to it termed as junctional epithelium, the wall of the gingival sulcus is lined by sulcular epithelium which is non keratinized stratified sequemous epithelium thinner than epithelium of gingiva, it has no epithelial ridges, so it forms a smooth interface with lamina properia, it continuous with gingival epithelium from above and with junctional epithelium from below. Junctional epithelium or attachment epithelium or dentogingival junction normally it extends from the bottom of the gingival sulcus towards the cementoenamel junction. The aim of this study was to determine the relative influence of blood glucose level on the depth of the gingival sulcus in diabetic and non diabetic persons.

Measurement of 222Rn , 226Ra and 238U Concentrations In Some Fish of Karbala Governorate, Iraq

Hayder Jasim Musa

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 7-13

In the present work, thirteen samples for local and imported fish collected from Karbala markets to determined radon (222Rn), radium (226Ra) and uranium (238U) concentrations using Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (SSNTD) type CR-39. The results show that the concentration of these nuclides ranged between (8.163-39.746) Bq⁄m^3 , (0.104-0.510)Bq⁄Kg and (0.082-0.400)ppm with mean values 21.26Bq⁄m^3 , 0.273Bq⁄Kg and 0.214ppm respectively. These results shown that the concentration of above nuclide were below the permissible limits recommended by ICRP and UNSCEARs therefore it is radiologically safe for human food.


Habeeb Kareem Abdullah; Karrar Taher Radhi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 36-43

In this paper , we introduce a new types of filters they are called T-filter , complete T-filter (c-T-filter) of BCK-algebra , and also we stated and prove some theorems which determine the relationship between these notions ,furthermore we investigate many relations and theorems between T-filter , complete T-filter and each of BCK-filter and complete BCK- filter .


Ali Ghanim Abbas Al-Khafaji

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 44-62

This paper involves the numerical study of nonlinear behavior of fully prestressed high strength concrete beams. A three dimensional nonlinear finite element model was developed using a computer program (ANSYS V.12).The material and geometrical nonlinearity were adopted in the current analysis.This study investigates the effects of some factors on the flexural behavior of prestressed concrete beams related to the compressive strength of concrete, prestressing reinforcement ratio, prestressing force level, and ratio of shear span to the effective depth. The obtained results showed that the ultimate load capacity are affected slightly with increase the compressive strength of concrete. Increasing of the prestressing reinforcement ratio leads to improvement the overall performance of the prestressed concrete beam , moreover increasing this ratio makes prestressed concrete beam more ductile and has the ability to pass high deflections before reaching failure load. Also increase the level of force of prestressing led to increase the load which causes emergence of the first crack ,but the beam stiffness after cracking and the ultimate load was not remarkably sensitive to the effect of the level of force of prestressing. Finally, it is revealed that the ultimate load capacity of those beams increased greatly with decreasing ratio of shear span to the effective depth .

Clustering Approach to Minimize the Consumed Energy in WSNs

Mohammed Saad Talib

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 70-78

Saving energy or energy consumption represents the essential problem in the process of designing, deploying and operating any "wireless sensor networks" (WSN). Most of the available produced sensors depend on a "limited power supply" battery in all their operations. Most of the sensors can perform the process of sensing, "data processing" and "wireless communication". Sensors can achieve various duties in WSNs according to their wanted applications.
In most applications sensors are ordered into sets called clusters according to the network objective and its requirements. Clustering achieved many advantages, so it represents the first preferable approach in designing or improving any WSN. Each cluster includes one leader sensor node known as a "cluster head" (CH) and the other sensors known as member nodes. In most applications the sensor node with higher energy is preferred to be a CH to perform the process of data transmission and data processing while those with low energy are preferred to achieve the sensing task as cluster members. Simulation being the unique tool in evaluating and estimating the performance metrics of any new designed WSN.
In this study, a main effort is made to study the effect of clustering approaches on the WSNs consumed energy. Many clustering approaches is simulated and evaluated with a developed suggested clustering approach. Three approaches were suggested, built and simulated to estimate the WSNs lifetime with their important behaviors parameters. Net Logo (5.2.1) as "multi-agent programming language" is suggested to be the simulation tool in this study.

Calculation of the Form Factors for 7Li Nucleus with nħω Excitation

Noor T. Tilab; Adie D. Salman

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 79-86

Longitudinal and transverse an electron scattering form factors of 7Li nucleus are calculated with large-basis shell model. This space included the four shells 1s, 1p, 2s-1d, 2p-1f with (0+2)ħω truncation. The large-basis calculation compared with calculations performed with one particle-one hole excitation up to 12ħω. One particle-one hole excitation up to 12ħω calculation seem to be essential for giving best description to experimental data in a transverse and longitudinal form factors and obtained the second maximum. The large-basis calculation, especially the transverse form factors are improving a good agreement to description the experimental data at momentum transfers up to q= 4 fm-1.

Study the Effect of Copper (Cu) Doping on the Structure Properties of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Prepared by Using Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD)

Ghaleb Ali Al-Dahash; Qussay Mohammed Salman; Majid F. Haddawi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 87-95

In this research the structural properties for pure zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films and ZnO doped with (6 and 9) % weight percentage of copper have been investigated. The thin films have prepared by using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique, they synthesized by using the following parameters; Nd:YAG laser (λ=1064 nm), repetition rate of (6 Hz), pulse duration of (10 ns), energy (100 mJ) and vacuum pressure (10-5 mbar). The thin films have deposited on glass substrate at (2500C). The XRD shown the films were polycrystalline in hexagonal phase with peaks belong to cubic phase. The calculations from XRD data shown the crystallite size decreasing from (46.98-56.57) nm for pure zinc oxide to (34.70 and 44.49 nm) for copper doped ZnO with (6 and 9) % respectively, other structure parameters (bond length, dislocation density, lattice constants, strain) have been calculated. Investigated by AFM and SEM confirm that thin films have high homogeneity and the grains have rod-like structure. The EDX diagram didn’t show any other phase which indicate that the doping substitution type because closeness between Zn and Cu atoms.

Intra-Oral Bone Harvesting for Oral and Maxillofacial Reconstruction

Venus H. Mohmmood; Header Dakhel AL- Muala; Safe N.Jawad

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 99-103

Background : bone grafts represent one of the earliest devised to reconstruct bony defects in oral and maxillofacial surgery .
Aim of study :the present study was focused on developing better bone harvesting technique which is simple, safe with less post- operative morbidity.
Patients and methods : this study was conducted on 15 patients with facial bone defects , due to physiological resorption of alveolar ridge (60% of patients ), missile and road traffic accident (26% ).
Bone was harvested from intra-oral donor sites , he symphyseal region (66.6 % ) and retro-molar area (33.3 %). 53.3 % of patients were operated under local anesthesia and require no hospital admission, with little time consumption, while (46.6 %) patients were operated under general anesthesia. Both cortical and cancellous bone was harvested from intra- oral donor sites and fixed by mono- cortical screws.
Result : in this study , the complications of this technique for bone harvesting being minimal , donor site complications were occurred in three cases only (19.9 %) , which include hematoma formation and paraesthesia of the mental nerve , but there is no signs of teeth vitality loss in all patients , the degree of pain and swelling related to the donor sites being mild..
Conclusions: intra-oral bone graft harvesting simple, safe, less morbidity, little resorption , can be harvested under local anaesthesia with no or less time hospitalization period. Complication associated with this technique being minor, included paraesthesia, hematoma, teeth invitality.
Keywords: Oral Bone Harvesting, Oral and Maxillofacial Reconstruction.

Performance Analysis Study of the Modulation Schemes using Diversity Reception Technique over FSO Atmospheric Turbulence Channel

Wafaa Mohammed Ridha Shakir

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 104-113

Free space optical (FSO) communication is a cost effective, high bandwidth access systems. The fading of the transmitted signal that induced by the channel atmospheric turbulence is the significant impairment in the FSO communication link, which caused severe performance degradation for different optical modulation schemes. Spatial diversity is one of the atmospheric turbulence mitigation techniques that used for improving the FSO system performance. In this paper, the BER expressions of the PPM, PAM and OOK modulation schemes over FSO atmospheric turbulence channel with log-normal distribution are derived. An important performances improvement of the system with a proposed receiver spatial diversity technique is observed with increasing the number of receiver photodetectors for various channel turbulence level. The performances comparison analysis of the PPM and PAM schemes is showed that for the same signal intensity power, PPM offered better BER performances, although PAM is showed better bandwidth performances.

Preparation, Identification and screening biological activity of ligand and Metal Complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Pd(II) and Pt(IV)

Jehan Hameed Abd Almeer

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 114-126

A new chain of conversion metal complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Pd(II),and Pt(IV), with mercaptoacetamide (H2L) N,N'-(3,3'-dimethyl[1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-dil)bis(2-mercaptoacetamide) ligand, type (N2O2S2) were prepared by condensation of (o-Tolidine) with(mercaptoacetic acid), by (2:1) metal to ligand molar ratio. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, molar conductance , IR , 1H NMR and UV-Vis spectral means.
From the spectroscopic studies, Melting points, magnetic moments, physical properties and mole ratio, we suggested the octahedral Cobalt(II) , Nickel (II) , Copper(II) and Platinum(IV) Complexes with ligand and the square planar geometry suggested for Palladium (II) complex. The results submit that the metal is connective with the ligand during the carbonyl oxygen of amide (C=O), the amine group (N-H) and the (S-H) group

Q(QS)-algebras Defined by Fuzzy Points

Areej Tawfeeq Hameed; Ahllam A. Aalfatlawi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 127-139

In this paper, recall the definitions of F-ideal and fuzzy F-ideal of QS-algebras, Q-ideal and fuzzy Q-ideal of Q-algebras. We discussed some of the relationships and characteristics associated and it is hiring some examples to illustrate unlike some theorems,
Also, we introduce a new ideas of fuzzy F-ideal of fuzzy point on QS-algebras and fuzzy Q-ideal of fuzzy point on Q-algebras and we give some properties and theorem of its.
The introduction of the concept of the normal fuzzy F-ideal of fuzzy point on QS-algebra and normal fuzzy Q-ideal of fuzzy point on Q-algebra and we study some of the properties related thereto,

Cytotoxicity Effect of Ethanolic Olive Leaves Extract against Prostate Cancer Cell Line

Yasameen Ali Hadi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 140-147

This work aimed to study the cytotoxic effect of Ethanolic Olive Leaf extract isolated from local oleo eurepea plant on affected living prostate cancer cells towards apoptosis by using high content screening assay (HCS). To achieve this goal, we examine and in vitro evaluate the cytotoxic effect of the Ethanolic Olive leaves extract (OLE) at different concentrations (100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 µg/ml) in a triplicate dilutions in one culture models (prostate cancer cells PC3) and exposure time of treatment (24 hrs) by high content screening. The study found that olive leaves extract at (50 and100 µg/ml) when incubated with these cells, olive leaves extract mediated lead to significant changes(171%,126%) respectively in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and significant increasing (43.61%,70.15%) of releasing cytochrome C into cystol, also olive leaves extract at 100 µg/ml were found effective and appeared to cause the significant induction(74.77%) of nucleus size and morphology and also significant result (81.71%) in cell membrane permeability and viable cell count (significant value P<0.05) suggesting that olive leaves extract appeared as a potential PC3 inhibitor when compared to doxorubicin(20µM) as positive control while other doses marked not any significant effect.

Molecular identification of some causes of ringworm isolated from cattle in Al-Diwaniya region

Ghassan khudhair ismaeel

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 148-158

The ringworm is fungal disease results in high economic losses particularly in the fields that used for leather production due to the down grading of healthy skin; a decrease in meat and milk production. this disease caused by several fungi genera like microsporium, epidermophytone, and trichophyton.
Trichophyton spp is one of fungi most common zoophilic and dermatophyte fungi that parasitizes and keratinized tissues in human and animal.
Our study results showed that percentage of total isolated fungi from infected cattle are (34.2%) by using classical media culture, while it was (100%) using molecular methods (PCR ). in this study isolated two type of fungi are Trichophyton verrucosum and Trichophyton rubrum.
Percentage of Trichophyton rubrum that diagnosed in cattle in our study are (33.3%); while was (66.6%) in Trichophyton verrucusum.
phylogenetic analysis tree of Trichophyton spp was done by using a primer designed for specific rRNA gene for detection of Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton verrucusum.
whenever ,Trichophyton rubrum showed high likely similarity with Trichophyton raubitschekii (99%), Trichophyton kanei (99%) and Trichophyton megninii (98%).
while Trichophyton verrucusum show similarity with Trichophyton megninii (93%), Trichophyton circonvolutum (92%) and finally similarity with Trichophyton interdigital (93%).
Percentage of similarity of the isolates of this study with phylogenic tree analysis is (100%) by using rRNA gene.


Zainab A. Mankhi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 159-168

This research presents a computer study to simulate of charging process for a nanoparticle (radius =50 nm) immersed into plasma contain electrons, positive ions (〖Ar〗^+), and negative ions (〖SF〗_6^-) (The mass of negative ion approximately heavier than the mass of the positive ion), and studies statistical fluctuations of a nanoparticle charge with time. The research also appears effect of negative ion density on charge of nanoparticle.

Using Feature and Orthogonal Variability Models to Design E-Commerce Model With (Software Product Line Engineering) technique

Ahmed Khudhair Abbas; Haydar Hassan Safi; Saad Qasim AlBawi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 169-178

Software designers are looking for easy and special methods and designing tools to be easy to use, especially in large productivities designs and here launched the idea of using (Orthogonal variability model (OVM) and Feature Model(FM)) to analysis and design (e-commerce system) and building of a standard model using (FM) to facilitate the process of primary analysis and identifying the basic requirements to build (e-commerce) site and then use (OVM) to product the relations and identified with each other And find its connections that lead to the construction of the final designs for the e-commerce site. In this research we were able to determine the requirements analysis phase and design the first new and easy way in how to employ the analysis and design tools and find a semi-final models in e-commerce site design


Habeeb Kareem Abdulah; Amal Khalaf Haydar; Yaqoob Ali Hussean

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 179-185

In this paper we propose and explore a general notion of chaos in the abstract context of continuous actions of topological monoids and we introduce the notions of chaotic action and study these notions on a new types of actions. Also We stated and prove some theorems which determine the relationship between these notions and some types of actions . As we define new type of action be not chaotic always on any finite topological monoid

Effects of hepatitis B and C infections on lipid profile and complement 3 , 4 in patients in AL- Najaf governorate.

kais k.A .AL.Hadrawei; Maysoon k.A. Al-Hadrawi; Jasim Mohemmed Hasan

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 186-191

The study was conducted 30 out patients infected by viral hepatitis type C , 30 infected with viral hepatitis type B and 20 control people to determine the effect of infection with viral hepatitis C and B on levels of complement 3 and complement 4, TG, HDL, LDL and VLDL in patients infected with viral hepatitis C and B compared with healthy group. Who have visited Al-Sadder medical city and Al-Hakeem Hospital in Al- Najaf governorate during the period from March 2014 till January 2015. The results showed significant decrease (P< 0.01) in levels of C3 and C4. also decrease in levels of HDL , VLDL and triglyceride in patients in both HBV& HCV in compared to control group ,but increased LDL concentration in patients compared to control group and the increase in patients with type B more than type C.

Effect some parametric on optimum design of highway embankment with stone columns

Abdul-Hassan K. Al-Shukur; Huda Nihad Al-Khafajy

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 192-205

in this paper will discussed the effect of some parametric on optimum design of stone column by using ANSYS program to define the model of highway embankment with stone column and find the optimum shape, these parametric are (height of highway embankment, surcharge load (traffic load), friction angle), from first parametric it can be noted with increase the height of highway embankment the diameter of stone column increase until reach (103%)between (H=3m and H=10m), from second parametric it can be noted with increase surcharge load the diameter of stone column increase, the percentage of increase in diameter of stone column with increase surcharge load from (0 KN/m2 to 10 KN/m2) for height of highway embankment (H=3m) about (2%) but for height of highway embankment (H=10m) equal to zero, and from last parametric it can be noted with increase friction angle of stone column the diameter of stone column decrease for same height of highway embankment. The percentage of decreasing in diameter of stone column reach to (31%) if increase fraction angle of stone column from (φ=38º to φ=50º) for height of highway embankment (H=10m).

Effect of the lambs sex in some growth traits of three different Awassi sheep flocks

Ahmed Ali Adhab; Bashar A. Ahmed

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 206-211

In this study, 93 Awassi lamb used to find the effect of the sex of lamb in weight from birth to weaning and the weight gain from birth to weaning for three flocks of Awassi sheep (improved flock, not improved flock, breeder flock). It observed the presence outweigh the significant male weight in the fourth month in not improved flock (28.94, 23.61 kg) as well as male superiority over females in weight gain for the third month (6.42, 4.00 kg) and the fourth month (4.79, 3.26 kg).
While non significant effect on the sex of the lambs in the weight and weight gain of the flock is not improved and the breeder flock. The correlations between the weights and weight gain were significant with the exception of a relationship lamb birth weight with the first weight gain, third and fourth. As well as negative for the lamb weight for the first month with fourth weight gain insignificant between weight gain-fourth and the second and third lamb weight and third weight gain and negative with an first weight gain.
In this study, 93 Awassi lamb used to find the effect of the sex of lamb in weight from birth to weaning and the weight gain from birth to weaning for three flocks of Awassi sheep (improved flock, not improved flock, breeder flock). It observed the presence outweigh the significant male weight in the fourth month in not improved flock (28.94, 23.61 kg) as well as male superiority over females in weight gain for the third month (6.42, 4.00 kg) and the fourth month (4.79, 3.26 kg).
While non significant effect on the sex of the lambs in the weight and weight gain of the flock is not improved and the breeder flock. The correlations between the weights and weight gain were significant with the exception of a relationship lamb birth weight with the first weight gain, third and fourth. As well as negative for the lamb weight for the first month with fourth weight gain insignificant between weight gain-fourth and the second and third lamb weight and third weight gain and negative with an first weight gain.

Optimum Design of Gravity Wall Founded on Specially Random Soil Subjected to Earthquake Load

Abdul-Hassan K. Al-Shukur; Ayaat Majid Abbas Al-Rammahi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 212-224

A 2D( Plain strain) wall ‒ backfill ‒ foundation interaction is modeled using finite element method by ANSYS to find the optimum design based on the principle of soil-structure interactions analyses. A concrete gravity retaining wall founded on random soil subjected to earthquake loads has been considered in this research. Earthquake records which are obtained from the records of Iraq for the period 1900-1988 are transformed as time‒history force. The optimization process is simulated by ANSYS /APDL language programming depending on the available optimization commands. The components of the optimization process are the objective function OBJ is to minimize the area of the gravity retaining wall, the state variables SVs are the stress, strain, and displacement of retaining wall, also the factors of safety and stability considered as a SVs, and the design variables DVs are the dimensions of the retaining wall. In order to specify random soil parameters in the built model, the random field theory is adopted to generate random C-∅ soil. The results show that the initial section of gravity Retaining wall that is provided according to initial variables is not representing the optimum section, which it is needed to present in sectional area equal to 37.41% in order to achieved all safety requirements . In other hand, it has been taking various heights of gravity retaining wall as 3, 4, and 5m, the results showed that when the height of gravity retaining wall is increased by 66.6% from (3 to 5m), the optimum cross-sectional area increases in a percent of (177.27%). Further, the comparison between the sub-problem (zero-order) optimization method and the first-order optimization method is demonstrated that the first-order optimization method is more economical and sensible. Also, from studying the effect of some parameters which angle of internal friction of back fill soil, angle of internal friction of foundation soil, foundation soil cohesion, and unit weight of backfill soil (∅_1, ∅_2,C,and γ_sb;respectively) is proved that the foundation soil cohesion (C ) is more important than the other parameters, while unit weights of backfill soil have little effect on optimum section. It is concluded that the finite element method simulated by ANSYS is efficient with the optimization process.

Using Lead as a Filler Material to Produce Porous Aluminum

Salah Noori Alnomani; Essam Zuheir Fadhel

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 225-234

Porous materials are unique materials which can be used in light weight and strong structures. Few methods can be used to produce porous metals depending on the required degree of porosity, produced part size, nature of material and configuration. In this study, sintering technique was selected to produce porous aluminum using lead as a filler material. The whole process was conducted under vacuum environment at 500oC and different soaking time to investigate and select the proper environment parameters. Results show that soaking time impacts significantly the resulting porous aluminum. Two hours of sintering at 500oC and under vacuum environment was concluded as convenient parameters to produce controlled porous aluminum. The compacting process which used in producing green compacts was also investigated and it was found that 60MPa is the best selection of compacting pressure.

Protons Range in some superconductor mediums(Ti, Mo, Sn and W) with Energy (2-10MeV)

Wafaa.N.Jassim; Rashid. A. Kadhum

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 235-240

In this research, a theoretical study for calculation of the range of protons with energy (2-10MeV) when passing in the superconductor media (Ti, Mo, Sn and W). The range of proton were calculated by using A. K. CHAUBEY and H. V. GUPTA equation, SRIM 2012 program ,PASTR programs, and then by using a semi empirical equation we got for calculating least square method . We get a good agreement among these results. As well as that we calculate the maximum difference between the semi empirical calculation and with all results by using the statistical test ( kstest2) in Matlab program

The effect of Incorporation Salt and graphite on the relative permittivity,refractive index and capacitance for porous silicon

Ahmed Kheralla Shaheed Al-kadumi; Rassol Ramadan Attab

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 241-249

In the present research some properties of porous silicon prepared by photo electro chemical etching process with different etching time (5,10,15)min, were studying dependence of these properties on the etching rate too. The relative permittivity, refractive index and capacitance for porous silicon were calculated were calculated for porous silicon exposure to ambient air, embedding with graphite, salt, respectively , and in the anther hand the search study theoretically, porous silicon and graphite, porous silicon and salt which made comparison for the results with matlab program assisted for mixing porous silicon and graphite and porous silicon and salt.

Effect of Myrtus Communis Solution as Denture Cleaning on the Some Properties of Heat Cured Acrylic Denture Base Material

Hawraa Khalid Aziz

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 250-258

This study was oriented to assess and compare the use of 2% Myrtus communis solution on the dimensional stability, surface roughness and surface hardness of the heat cured resin with 0.12% Chlorhexidine.
Ninety samples were fabricated from acrylic resin that cured by water bath, for each test there were three groups according to the type of the immersion. Control group (distilled water); experimental group (0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate solution and 2% Myrtus Communis solution, each group consist from (10) specimens. The surface hardness, roughness and dimensional stability were evaluated for each specimen.
The results showed there were no significant differences in the surface hardness, roughness after immersion in all groups, but there was difference in dimensional stability of acrylic resin.
As a conclusion the use of 2% Myrtus commnuis solution had no change on the roughness and hardness of resin compared to the chlorhexidine and distilled water, but can cause alterations on the stability of the dimensions of the resin material.

Intensification and Colour Enhancing for chest X-ray Medical Images by Matlab Program

Kawther H. Al-khafaji

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 259-273

chest X-ray images considered an important test to diagnosis a several of chest diseases, it's the most commonly requested examination in any radiology department in spite of various technological advances in the field of radiology, however explanation of chest X-ray image is a complex task is because this images is tending to noise , low contrast , blurring and unwanted information hindering the analysis of the real problems in chest human being structures, this complexities associated with X-ray images make it difficult to analyze them in an effective way. In this paper, we apply anew algorithm to enhance chest X-ray digital images and thus enhance the diagnosis of specific diseases through the application of a several operations including intensification of the basic features of the images, as well as color enhancement based on applying a number of experiment equations and change the values of the main coefficient for this equations , the medical image that has been conducting all operations onto belong to Hydatid Cysts Parasite diseases in lung . when we observed the resulting images we manifestly noting the Hydatid Cyst inside the right lobe of the lung patient in the upper part of which more clearly than is the case in the original image, and this is a good indicator of the success of the proposed algorithm to enhancing the diagnosis.

Heat transfer Augmentation in Double Pipe Heat Exchanger by Using (Al2O3) Nano-fluid

Mohammed W. Al-Jibory; Ahmad Sabah Al-hilaly

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 274-293

In this study, the turbulent flow and heat transfer characteristics of Al2O3/Distilled water Nano-fluid with a range of the Reynolds number (Re = 6196.92–38669.54) and the range of volume concentrations (φ =0.5%, 1%, and 2%) are concentrated tentatively and numerically. The test rig includes cold liquid circle, hot liquid circle and the test portion, which is counter stream dual pipe heat exchanger with (2000) mm length. The chilly fluid (Distilled water) flowing through the external tube and the hot fluid (or Nano-liquid) move through the inner tube. The limit conditions of numerical (CFD) study is the same conditions as in experimental work additionally, thermally protected of the external wall. The hot Nano-liquid loop side with uniform speed at (0.176, 0.352, 0.529, 0.705, 0.881 and 1.058) m/s, and the cold distilled water circle with constant speed of (0.529) m/s. The outcomes were demonstrated that, the warmth transfer coefficient, (Nusselt numbers) expanded by expanding, Reynolds number, and the molecular concentration. The experimental and Numerical results indicate that the maximum enhancement in heat transfer coefficient (Nusselt number) were (48.93) % and (46.63) % separately, and the increasing in the friction factor was about (7.69) % as compared to the distilled water at the maximum discharging of (18) Liter/min and volume concentration of )2( %. Theoretical study included numerical analysis to solve governing differential equations in three dimensions through use of ready-program workbench ANSYS FLUENT bundle-(16) to study the effect of both Reynold number and focus on the amount of improvement in heat transfer and friction variable. The test results were demonstrated a decent concurrence with numerical results with the minimum and maximum difference were (5.75 and 11.41) percentage and the normal difference was (10.074) percentage was happening with Distilled-water.

Offence of money laundry in Iraqi legislation

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 1-13

Money laundering is a set of financial transactions aimed at legitimizing obtained from a non- legitimate source of funds so that these processes involve hiding the source obtained money from criminal activities and make it appear that the legitimacy of the image which can be offenders from benefiting from the proceeds of their crimes publicly .ogana of money laundering performs overlapping financial operations aimed at the introduction of these funds Giralparwah to trading capital project the movement which leads to the integration of the money in the financial system of the state towards which these funds becomes tracing, stand on the illegal origin .

the dynamic depiction features in the Ten Hung Literary works ( Al -Moalaqat)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 29-50

- kinesthetic photography is one of the faces of the talent of the functional within the framework of the literary method, imagery showing up-to-date with words demilitarized zone amends or exceeds the photography colorful brush stroke, diagnosed the lens, influence the recipient of emotional;because of high capacity on the revitalization of the imagination .
- that the first step in the output of these scenes mobility is the word, which recall the scene, broadcasts on the life and the movement, and may lead the scene more than the word in the size of the shooting.
- kinesthetic photography is part of the picture of the synergistic in language, meaning, rhythm, all are engaged to provide kinesthetic scene dress it up and the strongest impact .
- could be considered in the dryer 10 collectibles dominant feature, this is reflected clearly through the proliferation of acts in the verses, without a number of verses, which is on the fingers were void of acts, we would say that every house of the verses of hair dryer 10 collectibles already included or more. These acts its presence indicates the movement .
- the scene the nom de guerre exceed the house of the place where the movement, as the poet may need in filmed the nom de guerre to reveal the place and personalities and subject these elements may disclose the poet in Beit earlier or later white which depicts the movement

Civilian responsibility of programmer in the contracts of making electronic programs

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 51-71

Contract of making electronic programs is the deal between the customer and the programmer , in it the programmer programming a program with customer’s specification wish as the deal required in one condition that the deal will not conflict with general principles of programs fundamental.
This contract is consider from formal contracts the congruity of offer and accept is not enough and it may be writing else is be false , because the dealing of buying or sold technology is hard when it’s parties from a different nationality or states , it must be a writing deal, the programmer responsibility have a double faces , first one the programmer sometimes is comply with persons by contract to make a program satisfying their needs, in the other hand the programmer is comply with persons but without contracts , as the damage he may be made in the negotiation stage that outrun the contract .

Lexicon old Arabized words

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 72-113

This thesis collects words Arabized from the ancient Arabic Almagamat, The importance of this research in being the subject of a virgin; the foregoing study it and collect his words but not, as it did in this research modest, with words Arabized scattered gathered in the ancient Arab Almagamat, it is difficult for the reader be mastered Stadtha, but I thank God Almighty, then the efforts made by you can extrapolate all Magamat words and ancient meanings, and BI words Arabized them, with a total of three hundred and ninety-three of the word, has been limited to words without structures coherent with the title of our research, and was confined to the old Almagamat; many modern universe and it can not be counted, and in this regard should refer to the glossary bride crown Shaykh Murtada al-Zubaidi (d. 1206 AH) Connie did not touch him even though it is one of the ancient Almagamat; because it is deliberate in an integrated search - within the limits of Alalm- to one of the researchers.
In conclusion, I say that this research is only a modest contribution to the collection is comprised of the old Magamatna words expressing, and Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds.

The ability to exploit Iraq's territorial sea and beyond

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 114-131

After that in accordance with the principles and rules of international law have been identified territorial sea of Iraq, overlooking the Persian Gulf within the Geneva Convention of the territorial sea of 1958 and the Convention on the Law of the Sea in 1983 and found that Iraq deserves sea regional rate of 12 nautical miles from the southernmost point of the situation of the islands, but we noticed determine that sea with regional neighboring countries (Iran and Kuwait) has been Curbed or reduced so the territorial sea of Iraq owed by law but we found from the affected countries in accordance with the Convention on the Law of the Sea because Iraq enjoyed overlooking sea port on the Gulf is with a capacity of 36 miles only compared to the nearest state , which is Kuwait, which has a view port by 126 miles, Kuwait is Iraq almost ten space, it must be reconsidered fee maritime territorial borders of Iraq and neighboring countries and adjacent to him and that's what required by the rules of justice and fairness established in international law and the rule good neighborly agreed upon between the neighboring countries

The Orientalists suspicions about the language of the Quranic text

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 132-148

The Main idea of the research is centred about four doubts that have been displayed a group of Orientalists which through they tried to impeach the language of Holey Qurans texts . They claimed that the Holy Qurans language contains foreign terms (not Arabic) or that the origin of its connotation was taken from other languages or that the linguistic style of Holey Quran is the same as the style that dominated the style of the old priests at that time. or that its words (terms)were not Arabicized when it was first reveaied then they were Arabicized.The two researchers rejected these doubts and proved scientifically that all these doubts were unreal and fake

The other image / Women in poetry ( Baat - Alqtama - Ktarazh - of thelroma )

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 149-160

The woman was _ since ancient _mahor interesting writers, especially poets, of whom the poets of the second layer of Islamists, has formed a very important and distinct in their hair big for their ability dominating the imagination of the poet and overlapped in his conscience, creating a fundamental shift in the poem .fshaarna Baat found in women's gentle and as the source of life.
The Peregrine women have occupied the ample space in his poetry, which relied heavily on the analogy in their description, he has the inspiration to say hair. The Kuthayyir has been linked to her name came a source of beauty and by diving in and described how it poet of sensations and feelings and love in his heart Asht in the reinforcement of his words. Either of generosity has mastered in the description of women by the magnitude of love, has filled his mind and his heart,
his hair came out fruitful and expressed through what Iatljh feelings towards it.
Women Bateftha been a source influential in raising the other emotion, and during which the poet his thoughts and emotions.

The strategic role of an approach of moderation to fight an approach of terrorism in the Islamic world

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 161-184

The research importance lies in the moderation from falling into the dangerous slider, and embarrassment that Muslim communities had suffered in their contemporary life, due to the increasing phenomenon of intolerance, extremism and terrorism in all their intellectual and behavioral manifestations, which has become threaten the safety of their political presence and territorial integrity. What is happening in Iraq, Syria, Somalia, Afghanistan, Egypt, Yemen and other Islamic countries are clear evidences of this risk and its destroyed effects. However, the remaining silent on the continuation of the phenomenon of terrorism is the wrong choice and shortsighted. The destructive project of terrorism is threatening everyone in the Muslims and non-Muslims world and its target is to spread horror, fear and destruction of all humanitarian and civilized value. This situation has requires a unified action from everyone in order to overcome this imminent danger before it will be too late. So, in order to counter-terrorism we have to return to the humanitarian approaches that build rather than destroy, extend bridges of trust among the people without cut it, Spreading love, cooperation, tolerance and noble values instead of hatred, fear and pain, and establish a regime which rely on scales of justice, equality and public satisfaction instead of injustice and tyranny. To these ends, the humankind will not find better than the approach of moderation to be the Savior of all from this evil; and pave the way to humanistic future that bring prosperity and happiness for all.

Trademark rights and means of protection

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 185-199

The trademark issue and the rights arising from it are of particular importance as they are an element of intellectual property and thus show the protection of the trademark and the rights arising from it by considering the importance of intellectual property in general. The protection of the trademark encourages individuals to disclose creative works and enables the consumer to discriminate Specific products or services for specific projects on other projects Add to that the trademark is given by the merchant or the manufacturer and the service provider to enable them to highlight the characteristics and qualities of their products or services to distinguish them from others. The transfer of property shall be returned to a registered mark, and if the transfer of ownership is registered, the right of the owner of the new mark to protect the mark against third parties shall be entitled to claim the rights of the mark before registration If the third party is required to take precedence over the registration of the mark, it shall also refer to the owner or decide the invalidity of the mark after its registration in accordance with the rules of guarantee of exposure and entitlement. The licensee may not use the mark itself, unless the owner of the mark does not want to give up the ownership of the mark. The third party has the right to put the mark on his products or services for commercial purposes. Unless expressly agreed otherwise, the owner shall guarantee the exposure and the entitlement. The most important obligation of the licensee shall be to exploit the mark, since the failure to obtain the mark may expose the owner to the deletion of the mark because Use in If the licensee fails to use it, the owner may demand that the contract be rescinded. The licensee must comply with the terms of the license. If it is exceeded, it may be the responsibility of the imitation. If it is used in goods and services not specified exclusively in the agreement, its work is a tradition and breach of contract. And there are many agreements that have worked to protect the trademark and the rights arising therefrom, including the TRIPS Agreement at the international level in addition to the domestic legislation for the protection of intellectual property rights, and provided protection from the tradition, whether you are The owner of the mark may request the provisional arrest and temporary prevention of the production or marketing of the goods or service. He may also institute criminal proceedings to punish the offender and a civil suit to claim compensation for the act of imitation.

The effect of interactive whiteboard in the achievement of knowledge of educational psychology and the motivation towards Learning

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 200-217

The study aims finding the effect of interactive whiteboard in the achievement of knowledge of educational psychology and the motivation towards Learning University of Baghdad at college of education /Ibn rushed for human sciences/
The researcher choose two groups of pupils each one contain (30) pupils from the department of geography / evening studies / first stage ,and she make the equalization between the control and experimental group
post test is used to scale, the improvement on the sample of the study, in addition ,preparing a scale of motivation to determine the range of student motivation towards the interactive whiteboard.
The study finds out that there are statistic differences in the performance of the students, in favour of the experimental group - as it is the average scores of the experimental group(6.9) and average scores of control group(5.30) at the level of significance(0.05)
The study reveals that there are statistically significant differences and willing for the students to use the whiteboard as an interactive tools it is the average scores of the experimental group (371,26) and the average scores of control group (324,20) at the level of the significance(0,05).The researcher have some recommendation and suggestions for further studies

Political Economical Reasons For Terrorism: Iraq As A Model

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 218-225

Nowadays Iraq face a kind of terrorism that has never been seen before. this can be related to a group of reasons like political and economical reasons beasties sons other reasons that are out of the frame of the study such as culture doctrine mass media and other.
The present day tries to encounter the political reasons that one affiliated to dictatorial policy of extent regime on the one hand and the behaviors of the regime's followers or the other hand.
In the economic fact the study aims at concentrates on the effect of the extinct regime on the economical policy and its sociological effect that made terrorism.
It is hypothesized that dictatorial policy of the extinct regime and its economical effect had a great role in creating terrorism in Iraq.

The role of carbon, nitrogen and for cuddling on the production of aflatoxin in isolates LAN'sAspergillusparasiticus, Aspergillusflavus

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 1-8

I took the amount of yellow maize from local markets (paint), isolate and someone two fungi Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus, and conducted a study on two fungi to see the effect of some carbon sources, nitrogen, and two different cuddling, which has the effect of an increase or decrease production of aflatoxin in the isolates Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus flavus , and it appeared that fungus Aspergillus flavus that more source of carbon cause an increase in the production of aflatoxin presence of lactose, and less production of the presence of starch and sucrose, glucose and there was no production in the control treatment for the loss of carbon source needed by fungi in the growth Alaotaiada.oukd appeared that more a source of nitrogen for the production of poison yeast extract followed by ammonium sulfate and less presence of peptone and potassium nitrate and a lack of production in the control treatment for the loss of nitrogen source necessary for the growth of Alaftriaat.ccant for cuddling 7 days more production of aflatoxin, followed by 5, 9 and 11 days, and on day 3 less production.

Effect of concentrations , periods of soaking in Gibberellic acid solution and shading percentage on germination and growth Aleppo pine seedlings (Pinus halepensis Mill.) in Kerbala governorate

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 16-26

The experiment had been carried out in mid of Feb. 2015 to the end of May 2016 at University of Kerbala / Collage of Agriculture , to study the effect of concentration of Gibberellic acid (0, 150 ,300 mg.L-1) , periods of soaking (24 , 48 , 72 hours) and shading percentage (0 and 50%) on germination and seedling growth of Allipo Pine . Completely Random Block Design (CRBD) was used to analysis the experiment results. The levels of the Gibberellic concentration used were (0,150, 300 mg.L-1) while the periods of soaking of Gibberellic solution were (24, 48, 72 hours). The third factor was used in two ways without shadow and with 50 percentage shadow. The results obtained that the treatment of Gibberellic solution at 300 mg.L-1 gave significant effect on germination, high sapling and the relative moisture content of the leaves. In addition, the treatment of Gibberellic solution at 150 mg.L-1 caused a significant effect on leaves chlorophyll content compared to the control treatment. Furthermore, the treatment at 72 hours soaking effected energy germination speed of seeds. Moreover, the interaction between the Gibberellic solution at 150 mg.L-1 and the treatment at 72 hours of soaking affected on percent of germination speed compared to the control treatment. While , the interaction between 150 mg.L-1 of Gibberellic solution and 50% shading percentage caused a significant effect on leaves chlorophyll content . Finally, the interaction between 300 mg.L-1 Gibberellic for 72 hours of soaking and 50% shading caused high relative moisture content of the leaves compared to control treatment

The effect of Culture media and potassium sulphate K2SO4 in growth of Olive seedlings Olea europaea L. Cv. Manzanilla

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 27-32

The experiment was carried out in the lath house of AL-Musaib tech. College during growth season 2015 on Olive seedlings Cv.Manzanilla, one year age . This study investigated two Factor : First was studied the effect of four levels of culture media 1- rever silt 2- ¼ peatmoss : ¾ rever silt 3- ½ peatmoss: ½ rever silt 4- ¾ peatmoss : ¼ rever silt . The second factor was studied the influence spraying with fertilizer potassium sulphate K2SO4 three levels (0 , 150 , 300) mg.L-1 and their interaction on vegetative and root traits and leaves content of chlorophyll , Nitrogen , Phosphor and Potassium . The experiment was designed in complete of randomize (CRD) which was done with three replicates and five Sapling for each treatment, the results were as following:-
1- culture media at 75% peatmoss + 25% rever silt gave the highest means of all characters studied and the content of chlorophyll and (N , P , K) the leaf.
2-Spraying solutiont potassium sulphate K2SO4 at 300 mg.L.-1 caused highest mean of traits studied .
3- Interaction between the treatment 75% peatmoss + 25% rever silt with potassium sulphate K2SO4 at 300 mg.L.-1 was the highest values of all studied characters.

Protective Role Of Curcumin On some of enzymatic parameters Of Nervous Tissue In Male Rabbits subjected to Monosodium Glutamate

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 33-42

This study aimed to know the preventive role of a substance Curcumin against damage happening in the nervous system and induced textured monosodium glutamate (MSG) in male rabbits., sixty of adult male rabbits were randomly divided into four equal groups (15 animals / group), the first group (G1) intubated with 1 ml / kg ml / kg of corn oil and served as a control group (G1). Rabbits in the second group were intubated orally and daily with 3mg /kg of MSG for three months, while the third group (G3) has intubated orally and daily with 60 mg / kg curcumin,the fourth group intubated orally and daily with 3mg /kg of MSG and 60 mg / kg of curcumin for three months .


journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 43-54

This study was carried out to evaluate different concentrations of carnosic acidc(CA) concentration and Rosemary plant on the chemical , physical, and microbial characteristics of fresh ground beef meat, stored at 2 ° C for 21 days compared with Butelated hydroxyl anisole (BHA) and control treatment . Four different concentrations of CA powder (0.05 , 0.10 , 0.15 , 0.20 g CA kg meat) ,were used the concentration of rosemary was (1 g kg meat) and BHA at 0.10 gm kg meat compared with the control treatment (without addition). The following results were obtained:
Carnosic acid powder significantly (P < 0.01) increased the percentages of moisture and protein , of fresh ground beef refrigerated storage . the addition of CA significantly (P <0.01) decrease oxidative indicators showing a decline in Thiobarbutric acid(TBA) value and peroxide values of fresh ground beef as compared with the control treatment.The addition of CA recorded the lowest percentages of drip loss and cooking loss of fresh ground beef compared with the control treatment , The addition of CA gave the lowest value of the Total Plate Count (TPC) logarithm compared with the control treatment in the fresh meat refrigerated storage .

The effectiveness of ultrasonic irradiation on some properties of morphology and root of the Buckthorn plant seedlings Ziziphus spina-Christi L.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 55-62

The experiment had been conducted in the collage of Agriculture and Forestry of Mosel University. Completely Random Block Design (CRBD) was used included four intensive of ultrasonic (0, 20, 40, 60 kilohertz). and four different periods (0, 10, 20, and 30 minutes). The purpose of this experiment was to study the effect of these treatments on some of phenotypic traits and root properties in Buckthorn Ziziphus spina-Christi L. The results obtained indicated that the treatment 20 kilohertz gave significant effect on length of stem, numbers of leaves, length of root and the numbers of secondary root compare with the treatment of control. Furthermore, the treatment of 40 kilohertz gave significant effect on stem diameter, primary root and dry weight of plant root. While, the treatment of 60 kilohertz was significantly influenced on numbers of secondary root compare to the control treatment.

Improve the performance of silicon detector in the UV radiation region using organic scintillation dye

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 63-71

In this research the absorption and fluorescence spectra of Fluorescein dye (C20H10O5Cl) which dissolved in ethanol have been studied. The concentration (10-2 M) has been chosen to detect the violet radiation due to its high absorption and fluorescence spectra among other concentrations. The research shown that Fluorescein dye dissolved in ethanol has good effect on silicon detector performance in violet radiation region. Result confirmed the input power has effect on rise time so it change from (8-16) μs with input power (126-36) mwatt respectively, the spectra response also changed so it reach (0.4 A/W) at wavelength 450 nm.

Comparative Morphological and Histological Study of Kidney in two Vertebrates Species ( Hemiechinus auritus Gmelin,1770) and (Coturnix coturnix Hutt,1960)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 72-83

The comparative anatomical study results show that the kidney of hborderhog is a small rigid structure looks like a bean and it is surrounded by a thin transparent capsule of connective tissue, it has a brown color to ruby red, it located in the front half of the body cavity beneath the diaphragm and beside the vertebral column, the left kidney takes a caudal site with respect to the right kidney, it has been noticed there is an extrusive significant correlation between the kidney weight and the body weight which equals to (0.95), and between the kidney length and the body weight which equals to (0.96) at level (P<0.05). The macroscopic examination showed that the kidney of the quail bird is a large brittle longitudinal structure, takes a symmetrically position On either side of the vertebral column within the low bone is called the renal hole in the fused sacral region of the body cavity, the kidney is lobed of three cloves, contains cranial lobe which is the biggest lobes, the middle lobe which is a narrow elongated, and the alvela lobe which is smaller than the previous lobes, the kidney is surrounded by a thin capsule of connective tissue , and it has dark red to dark brown color, it has been found an extrusive significant correlation between the kidney weight and the body weight which equals to (0.69), and between the kidney length and the body weight which equals to (0.63) at level (P<0.05).

Effect of dried brewers grains in sharabi cows rations on milk yield and compositions

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 84-92

Four sharabi cows were homogeneous in live body weight (369-377 kg) , productive seasonal, and daily milk yield (6.50 kg) were used in latin square design(4×4) to study the effect of different levels of dried brewers grains on milk yield and composition. Four rations consisted mainly of barley,wheat bran and soybean meal and contained either 0,12,24 and 36% of dried brewers grains.The cows were fed on four balanced rations in percentage of crude protein and level of metabolize energy All cows were fed according to daily milk yield through two time daily (5.30 am and 3.00 pm),during milking period.Daily feed intake and milk yield were recording and milk samples were taken for chemical analysis.This experinment was continuous for 120 days.The results indicated that there were significant difference (P≤0.05) in amounts of consumes in total of dry matter and metabolize energy between both first,second treatments (0,12%dried brewers grains) than third,fourth treatments (24,36%dried brewers grains).Also this results showed that there were highly significant difference (P≤0.01) on amounts of concentrate forage consumes ,fiber crude and feed conversion among four treatments with by increasing the proportion of dried brewers grains in feeding diets of sharabi cows.As for quantities of milk produced and its components the results of statistical analysis was shown the existence of significant differences (p≤0.05) in the amount of milk produced , percentage of ash and pH values of liquid milk between four treatments while the results confirmed the existence were highly significant differences (p≤ 0.01) in percentages of crude protein , crude fat , moisture , non solids fat and total solids among four treatments.Moreovere, the results showed slight mathmatical increase in live weight for cows during this experiment but that there were the highest increasing in live weight was in the fourth treatments when compared to other treatments.Concluded from the results of this experiment showed significant improved in feed conversion trait and other hand the results showed an significantly improving in amount of milk produced and its proportions of components with increasing proportion of dried brewers grains in experimental rations when compared to the first treatment which had not contain dried brewers grains in composition of ration.

Antifungal Activity Evalution of Punica granatum L. Extract against Candida albicans

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 93-99

In the current study , it was highlighted to find out the inhibitory effect of the alcoholic extract of pomegranate peels against Candida albicans isolated from mouth area and around teeth through the period from the first of October of 2015 until the first of June of 2016. Different concentration of alcoholic extract of pomegranate peels were tested on the Yeast C.albicans by well diffusion method and microdilution method . The results showed that concentration( 150 , 100 , 50 , 25 , 12.5 ) mg/ ml of the crude extract gave inhibition zone diameter rates( 22 , 19.33 , 15.5 , 13.97 , 9 ) respectively, and the minimum inhibitory concentration ( MIC ) was ( 12.5 ) mg/ml against the yeast cells. From the current study , we concluded that, the high efficiency of alcoholic extract of Pomegranate against the yeast C.albicans, suggesting the possibility of its use as a treatment for patients with Candidiasis

The Influence of Hot Plant of Aqueous of Foeniculum vulgare on The liver and kidney tissue for the white male rat Induced by inflammation of the kidneys

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 114-121

The current study aims to find out the influence of the warm aqueous extract of seeds fennel on liver and kidney tissue to white male rat infected kidney inflammation induced glycol ethylene .
The study was conducted at the Animal house of the College of pharmacy _ University of Karbala for the period from November 2015 to March 2016 . Anumber of 75 white male rats were taken as a sample and randomly divided into five groups (15 rats for each group ) . The first group was the negative control group which was given tap water for a period of 45 days . The second group received glycol ethylene with concentration 0.75 % was given with water and considered as a positive control group ; while the third , fourth , and fifth groups were induced by kidney Inflammation of treating glycol ethylene. The rats were orally given and after days of Inflammation induction of kidney by seeds fennel aqueous extract with doses of 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg of body weight per day for a month successively .

Study of some immunological parameter to vitiligo disease in Al-Hussein hospital in karbalaa province

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 122-129

This study aimed to shed light on vitiligo and conducting genetic immunological examination and knowledge of the change in the levels of certain cytokines (IL-2 and TNF-α) and certain hormones and certain genes different genetic ways in people with vitiligo, as well as knowledge of the relationship between those standards and the extent of vulnerability of those genes under study, and the current study included 50 people from vitiligo patients, as well as 50 people (apparently healthy) as the control group for the study, as were collected those samples from the Husseini Teaching Hospital in the city of Karbala (unit skin counseling) during the time period from 1/5/2015 until 1/12/2015. Were examined sera of all patients to estimate the standard levels of immune IL-2, TNF-α using ELISA enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), the results showed the following:There were influence of gender on the immune parameters under study here statistical analysis dealt with the study of male patients with compared with the male control group as it appeared that TNF-α may be significantly increased in patients compared with a healthy except IL-2, which fell when the male vitiligo patients compared with the control, also conducted a study a comparison between the female vitiligo patients and the female control group as the comparison showed a significant rise in all immunological criteria results at the level of probability (P <0.05) for females vitiligo patients when compared between the same standard rates of female control group.The research study showed the effect of smoking and passive role on the vitiligo patient samples were divided between smokers and non-smokers, as the value of SOD-1 rose and TNF-α are significant in smokers patients compared with the control group, while IL-2 rate saw a significant decrease in the levels compared with a group control. Emerged search results the importance of family history, through the emergence of significant differences between patients who have a family history of the disease and who do not have family history results showed high immunological criteria levels of hormones under study in the sera of people with vitiligo who have the same disease among family members of casualties compared to patients who do not have emergence of this disease. The results also show a decline in immune parameters levels in patients who have a kinship between the parents compared to patients who do not have kinship between parents has been the declining moral at the level of probability (P <0.05), also addressed the impact of social status on immunological parameters in serum as observed high averages of those standards among married than non-married couples has also been a comparison between the patient group and control depending on the social situation was observed that there were differences between those standards among married patients and between couples of control as patients rates rose significantly, as is the case with unmarried of patients compared with non-married couples of the control group. The duration of the disease after divided into categories depending on the months TNF- recorded the highest rate among the group of the month (240-161), and finally dropped the category of (80-1) a month , also recorded increases in results averages IL-2 with the injury categories (300-241) a month, while the rest fell aggregates.

Indol acetic acid (IAA) production from dry bakery yeast (Saccharomyces cereviciae ) and its role in improving rooting response of pepper cuttings

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 130-135

The present study included investigation of Saccharomyces cereviciae ability in Indole acetic acid (IAA) production. The study was also carried out to determine some of the optimal conditions for IAA production from it, and to examine the impact of IAA produced by Saccharomyces cereviciae in rooting response of pepper cuttings in terms of adventitious roots formation and root length. The results revealed that, maximum IAA production was obtained from inoculating at 30 Co for 48 hrs in medium pH 6.5. IAA produced by dry bread S.cereviciae was significantly enhanced the average of root number/cutting to its levels in control treatment and , which caused an increase in the percentage of rooting pepper cuttings (135.84%) compared to control and decreased root length in the percentage 56.88 compared to control. The highest root number/cutting was found in synthetic auxin treatment. It can be concluded that S.cereviciae auxin can be used to improve rooting response pepper cuttings easly way and not costly method compared with synthetic hormones.


journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 136-141

The experiment was conducted on the private farm in Al-mussiab Masshroaa regions during Summer seasons 2016 to study the effect of soil fertilization( control, 200 Kg.ha-1 of NPK(18-18-0), poultry compost 4t.ha-1 ) and foliar fertilizer ( control, urea 1 g.l-1 and humus acid 2ml.l-1 ) and their interaction. Randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates was used. Soil fertilizers were added at during planting , and foliar application was added twice ( in 14/5 and 29/5/2016). The results showed that organic fertilizer for poultry compost caused a significant increase in all studies characterizes, while it had no significant effect on the seed 1000 weight. The interaction between poultry compost addition and spraying humus acid had a significant effect in increasing plant dry weight, pods number and seed yield for plant

Anatomical and Taxanomical study to leaves Epidermis of Juncus L. Speceis from Family (Juncaceae) in Iraq.

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 142-158

The Anatomical characters of leaves was studied to seven species belong to the Genus :Juncus L. from the family (Juncaceae)in Iraq and it was usiolated to two groubs the first groub in cylindrical leaves it,s includes four species (J.acutus,J.maritimus,J.articulatus,J.rigidus) and the second with flattened leaves its includes three
species(J.bufonius,J.hybridus,J.sphaerocarpus).many characters of the epiderm and transvers section of the leaves was usful to separate between the species like the type and diameter of stomata and the numbers of the exessery cell ,the diameter of long cell ,diameter and shape of leaf transvers section,and the type and distribution of ther tissius.

Analytical Investigation of the Aberrations For the projector single-gap Magnetic Lens

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 159-176

A theoretical-computational investigation for studying the synthesis for possibility to produce a rotation and distortion free magnetic lenses have been carried out. Where, a new target function put forward to approximating the axial magnetic fields of single-gap magnetic lenses. The influence of the optimation parameters araises from the proposed target function on the projector properties and the reconstructed polepeices of the produced imaging fields have been investigate. This investigation was covered the single -gap imaging magnetic fields.

Heritability Genetic Improvement Expected , Varieties Stability and Path Analysis for six varieties of Al abland Cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L) under influence of irrigation periods

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 177-187

This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of six a new cotton genotypes(Gossypium hirsutum L) ( SP886, S29, S118, GA22, Engli, and Cocker) in addition of local variety (Coker), under two irrigation period (7,14 days) in season 2015 for two locations, ALmusaib and ALsweera using split plot arrangement in randomized complete block design with three replications. The results were summarized as follows:-
1-The expected genetic advance values were ranged between low in both locations for bool weight, wright of 100seeds, ratio of net ginning and fiber coefficient and medium for plant height and the number of nuts and fiber yield/plant for cotton yield
2- path analysis coefficient results demonstrated that a direct effect of a positive for the fiber yaild and pools number in irrigation 7 day period while the highest direct effect on yaild in irrigation 14 day period for pools number and the average weight pool of AL musaib location, either Alsweera location gave highest positive effect of yaild for fiber yaild for irrigation period 7 days, either 14 irrigation period was highest direct effects on pools number, in addition to the previous charchteres.
-3 The genotypic stability revealed that all the genotypes were stable for all the characters studied in both location .


journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 188-195

An experiment was conducted during winter growing season of 2014 - 2015 in unheated plastic house condition at department of horticulture in Agriculture Collage – University of Kerbala . The research was to study the role of foliar spraying of two types
from nutrients in four doses as well and their interaction on growth and yield in egg plant One nutrient was Seaweed 100% simple A litter and two nutrient was Unigreen simple B litter . An experiment included sixteen treatments interaction between two nutrients (4x4), four dose for one liquid dose (0 , 1 , 2 , 3 ml . L-1) and some that for second liquid , Results showed that spraying (3 + 3 ml . L-1)from liquids caused significant increase in all vegetative growth giving higher results in yield per a plant and total yields (7.444 kg . plant-1 , 7.146 tone) respectively , yield and fruits quality , but reduced the percentage compound to the control treatment which gave (2.975 kg . plant-1 , 2.856 tone) respectively

Economic comparisons to choose a school building technique in Iraq

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 196-205

The problem of severe shortage in the number of school buildings of the problems facing the central government and local governments in Iraq so must be providing school buildings at the level commensurate with the increase in the number of pupils.
The research aims the field of school building in the implementation of school by precast concrete technology and the impact of the use of this technique on the total cost of the implementation of the school. As it has been the adoption of the implementation design of school in precast concrete technology, cost calculation and make economic comparisons between conventional and proposed technique and the impact of the initial cost and maintenance cost on the overall cost of school. Where the annual cost of building the school by precast concrete technology 42298378ID and 34343629ID to build a conventional technology so that the cost of implementing the school precast concrete technology more expensive than traditional techniques for economic life of 25 years.

Aitken’s Acceleration Method With Mid-point rule on the dimension z and Simpson’s rule on the two dimensions x and y to Evaluate Triple Integrals Numerically

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 206-212

The main aim of this paper is to find the integrals triple values numerically whose integrands are continuous or continuous but a partial derivatives singular or the integrands their selves are singular at one of two ends of the region of integration and through use the MSS method resulting from ( Mid-point rule on the dimension z and Simpson’s rule on the two dimensions x and y) by symbol MSS method to improve the results we applied Aitken‘s acceleration and so as to accelerate the convergence and get the best results We denoted this method by symbol , where A refers to accelerate Aitken and MMS refers to the rule mentioned

Role Irisin in Induce Metabolic Syndrome

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 213-219

The aim of this study was investigate to know effect of Irisin hormone on metabolic syndrome patients, these included Monograph 124 metabolic syndrome patients . The working criteria developed by the NCEP: ATPIII have been criticized a new set of criteria that included waist circumference, body mass index, blood pressure, and fasting glucose. In addition to measuring the levels of the Irisin, The data collected included age, duration of disease and body mass index (BMI). The results show that significant decrease(p<0.05) in serum levels Irisin hormone in metabolic syndrome with infected diabetic patients compared between metabolic syndrome is not infected diabetic patients in both sexes, Also showed in compared between male in two group and female too.
The results show that significant decrease(p<0.01) in serum levels Irisin hormone in metabolic syndrome with infected diabetic patients compared between metabolic syndrome is not infected diabetic patients in both sexes. No change significantly in hormone level accord duration of disease and body mass index group.

A comparative study estimation of percentage of muscles Acanthopagrus latus (Houttuyn , 1782) and Liza subviridis (Valenciennes , 1836) fishes in Karbala province .

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 220-227

The present study deals with estimation of percentage of red and white muscles fibers of two species of Teleost , which belongs to two different families she Acanthopagrus latus (Houttuyn , 1782) which belongs to family Clupeidae and Liza subviridis (Valenciennes , 1836) which belongs to family Cyprinidae , The collection study sampling from AL-Hindia River in holy Karbala province by use Gill nets and Cost nets , The appear study Results has differ clear in ranges values to the study length groups , The present study shows the percentage of red muscles fibers were fewer than the white muscle fibers on different body regions (R1,R2,R3) among species .
The proportion of red muscle fibers values ranged between (1.15 – 6.34 %) while were the proportions of white muscle fibers ranged between (98.95 – 92.18 %) in studied fish , and showed increase the proportions of red muscle fibers towards (caudal peduncle) posterior region of fish body because important role in fishes swimming and movement .
Therefore, Acanthopagrus latus and Liza subviridis fishes put in Sprinters fishes depend on the proportion of White muscle fibers in muscular system in fish body , Therefore consider this study first locally .

An Ecological study for non-diatom epiphytic algal population on P.australis and C.demersum plants in Bani-Hassan River in holy Kerbala province -Iraq

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 245-261

The current study was carried out in four sites along with Bani-Hassan River the holy Kerbala city. Monthly sampling was taken from the study area for the period of November 2015 to October 2016. The study included measurement of some physiochemical parameters as well as qualitative and quantitative of epiphytic algae that attached on Phragmits australis and Ceratophyllum demersum .
The present study results showed a clear association between air and water temperature which ranged (15-40) °C and (11-34) °C respectively. A narrow range of pH was noticed in the studied stream (6.4-8.0) during the study period . The electric conductivity and salinity were (1050-1980) µs/cm and (1.23-0.10) ‰ respectively. Total dissolved solids was (510-990) mg/l. and the total hardness values ranged (360-1250) mg/l , calcium and magnesium values ranged (81-713.4) mg/l and (9.2-379.3) mg/l, respectively. Sulphate was ranged between 2.5 mg/l and 18.3 mg/l . Water nutrients values were (ND-59.1)µg/l, (ND-13.6)µg/l for phosphate and nitrate respectively , While total taxa 78 of epiphytic algae were identified and comprised of 54 species of Chlorophyceae and 16 species Cyanophyceae and 6 species of Xanthophyceae then 2 species of Dinophyceae . Some species appeared in all stations and in large numbers like Oscillatoria , Oedogonium, Scendesmus and Pediastum. Three new species were identified as a new species for Iraqi algal flora: Oedogonium calvum , Tetradesmus wisconsinse , Tetraedron regulare var.incus Teilin .

The effect of Potassium application on some yield traits of wheat plant (Triticum aestivum L.) exposed to different levels of water stress

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 262-272

In order to study the effect of potassium fertilizer application on the growth of wheat crop Triticum aestivum L. under different levels of water stress , a field trial with factorial experiment had been conducted , according to the randomized complete block design (RCBD) at Al - Husseiniyah district in Karbala governorate for growing of wheat IPAa99 cultivar during the winter growing season 2012 – 2013 , the experiment had included two factors with three replications , the first factor represented three levels of irrigation water, represented by adding (100 , 75 and 50) % of wheat water consumption during growing season which have been coded as (S1 , S2 and S3) respectively . Second factor had been represented by four Potassium fertilizer levels ( 0 , 50 ,100 and 150 ) kg K. he. -1 . Which had been coded as (K0 , K1 , K2 and K3) respectively , They have been randomly distributed on all experimental units , the experiment has included 36 experimental units . Results were statistically analyzed according to the followed design and the means were compared through the usage of the least significant difference and with an endurance level of (0.05) .
The measurements of some in maturity stage , the crop with its contents had been measured , they were including spike length (cm) , number of spikes.m-2 , number of spikelete . spike -1 , number of grains . spike -1 , weight of 1000 grains (g) , biological yield (m.ton. he.-1 ) and grain yield (m.ton. he.-1) .

Response of several cultivars of maize ( Zea mays L. ) for different levels of nitrogen fertilization

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 9-15

Field experiment was carried out at the center of guiding and training agricultural
AL- Muhanawia Babel during the autumn season 2015 to evaluate the studied cultivars(1715 and CADIZ and Alfurat and Almaha) by treatment with three levels of nitrogen fertilization
(zero N and 150 K.gN.h-1 and 320 K.gN .h1-) and it code (N 0 , N 1, N 2) respectively and to study this defect on some traits field comparison experiment was done by using (R.C.B.D) according to split plot with three replications. The result showed that significant differences were noted for all cultivars due to all the nitrogen levels and the introduction between them for all traits, except the number of kernel.ear 1. 7151 cultivar was excellence by giving high values of all study traits :
Leaf area , number of kernels.ear1- , grain yield biological plant yield , percentage of protein (5750 cm2 , 604.55 kernels .year1- , 201.9 g. plant1- , 429.34 g and 10.32 %) respectively
While the N2 was superior on which increasing the percentage of respective traits following (54.18 , 54.31 , 43.52 , 28.71 and 52.83 ) % respectively . The introduction was significant with : leaf area , grain yield , biological plant yield and percentage of protein. Nitrogen level at 320 kg.ha-1 give high values for traits (652 cm2 , 240.76 g.p-1, 480.13 g and 12.75%) respectively.

Organizational commitment and its impact in building the reputation of the organization

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 273-291

This research addressed the role which play organizational commitment in building the organization's reputation , The rapidly development in economical, political ,technological and etc, imposes on business organizations makes several of continuous changes both in organizational structure and business activities, for achieve the high level of the competitive advance through using the greatest resource within organizations is the human resource . The problem's research expressed in questions about range of effect organizational commitment and it's dimensions in organization's reputation within simple from employees in holy kerbala health directorate , The research aims to achieve some of goals according to the main and sub hypothesis , and used questionnaire to collect data and information about this simple , which distrebuted on simple formulate in  30 persons included staff  employee , division manager and department manager who works in this directorate, and for process this data used several statistical methods and represented by a factor of linear correlation of pearson  pearson correlation  as well as linear regression .
The statistical methods shown a number of results from the most prominent is having a significant effect between organizational commitment and organization's reputation . In the light of discussion the results showed the big importance to organizational commitment and organization's reputation concepts, This will need more care from the directorate in organizational commitment because it's effect in organization's reputation .

Summer squash roots growth as influenced by Ethephon and Boron foliar application

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 292-304

Two Pot experiments Were conducted Inside a lath house at the Department of Horticulture and landscape /College of Agriculture / University of Kerbala on March, 10th /2016 and on September 16th ,2016 for spring and fall Seasons respectively . The aim of the study, Was to assess the effect of genotype, ethephon, boron and Their interaction on some morphological characteristics of root system of summer squash plant.
Factorial experiment within Completely Randomized Design was adopted i.e.(2×4×2)for genotypes of Summer squash(local Mullah Ahmed and hybrid),Ethephon at 0,50,100 and 150 mg.l-1 and boron at 0 and 30 mg.l-1 with three replicates. Plants were Sprayed with ethephon at4-5 leaf-stage on 25th, April, 2016 and on 5th , October, 2016 for spring and fall Season respectively.

Architecture as language

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 305-317

Language is a system of signals, express thoughts like other human phenomenas including architecture, that consist of signs and grammer to express concepts. Architecture is a language of iconic images, signified content by expressional relationship, not like words signified unintentionally. Architecture means gathering buildings parts in architectural form, using its components as a matter for its meaning. Architectural form make function possible , clear , and practicle. Architectural language is a language of form, and abstract images related to itself, using its possibilities and producing sensible effects.

The Partial Substitution by Lanthanum (La) and its effect on Dielectric Properties for (BSCCO) Superconductor Compound (Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3-xLaxO10+δ)

journal of kerbala university, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 318-328

The superconductor compound (Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3-xLaxO10+δ) with (x=0,0.05,0.1,0.15,0.2)is prepared by solid state reaction method(SSR). We used the X-ray diffraction technique (XRD) which shows an orthorhombic crystalline system for all the specimens ,also shows that the changing in ( La) concentration leads to decrement in concentration of (Bi-2223), increment in (Bi-2212 ) &(Bi-2201) with appearance of some impurities. Behavior of samples is investigated for electrical resistivity and critical temperature, the samples (x=0.05,0.1) show the semiconductor behavior and other samples (x= 0.15,0.2) show the superconductor transition. The electrical properties( (real Dielectric constant , imaginary Dielectric constant , Loss tangent and Alternating conductivity) are measured as a function of frequency with rang(50Hz-1MHz) at room temperature, The results are demonstrate the evident change in the dielectric properties with increasing ( La) concentration.