The Extent of Creative Thinking Skills Availability in the Palestinian First Three Classes Arabic Language Textbooks and Their Acquisition by Students
journal of kerbala university,
2009, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 103-114
AbstractThis research aimed at knowing the extent to which creative thinking skills (fluency, flexibility, and originality) are available in the first three classes' Arabic Language textbooks of the Palestinian basic education and their acquisition by students. The textbook were firstly analyzed using two analysis cards: one for the reading text, and the other for the questions, exercises, and activities of the three textbooks. Both validity and reliability of the cards were measured following the usual research methods. In addition, a test was prepared to measure these skills acquisition by the students. It was applied on the third basic education class students after assuring its validity and reliability. It was implemented on a stratified random sample of: (males and females), (town, camp, and village); and include (267) students distributed over (8) schools: (4) of which were males', and (4) were females'. These schools also comprised the three population categories: (2) town schools, (1) camp and (1) village schools. Some classroom instructional situations of the (Human and Light) unit were taped-recorded in (8) schools include the pre-mentioned categories in order to observe the extent to which teachers implement the creative thinking skills during their explanations and discussions. The results showed a very low level of these skills in both the analyzed textbooks and in the field test. The sentences that include: direct creative thought in the three textbooks were at (1.3%); those with indirect creative thought were at (6.7%); and with a (4%) ration for both types of sentences. In regard to the availability of skills (fluency, flexibility, originality) in the three textbooks questions, the common ration was (4.1%): (3.7%) for fluency, (0.4%) for originality, and zero for flexibility. For their availability in the three textbooks exercises, the common ration was (1.6%): (0.2%) for fluency, and (1.4%) for flexibility. For their availability in the three textbooks activities, the common ration was (15.5%): (7.5%) for fluency and (8%) for flexibility. In regard to the acquisition of the skills, the test results showed that all of them are not acquired by the students. The least skills to observe was originality with a calculated mean of (0.47) and a theoretical mean of (4.5); followed by flexibility with a calculated mean of (3.69) and a theoretical mean of (6); then fluency with a calculated mean of (6.99) and a theoretical mean of (7.5). Results also showed a statistical significant difference in fluency between male and female students in favor of males. It also showed a statistical significant difference in terms of population categories in favor of camps students. The previously-mentioned results were interpreted in light of posed hypotheses, previous studies, and the literature; conclusion and recommendation were then drawn.
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