ISSN: 1813-0410

Keywords : Karbala


Determination of Arsenic in Human Scalp Hair and Fingernails of Healthy Individuals Resident in Karbala, Iraq by Using ICP-OES

Joda A. Baker; Fadhil K. Ayad; Sultan A. Maitham

journal of kerbala university, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 176-182

The use of unconventional biological materials as biomarkers in trace element studies has increased in terms of published research studies. In this study, human scalp hair and fingernails were used to be a possible biomarker for arsenic in the human body as no study has been published in Karbala yet. Samples were obtained from 56 healthy individuals resident in Karbala, Iraq. The level of arsenic was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The validity, precision and accuracy of the methodology were evaluated using a “pooled” sample for each media and certified reference materials. The validation methods provided acceptable levels of precision and accuracy with lower range of RSD (1.1%) and acceptable range of elemental recoveries (98.09 %), respectively. The results show that the arsenic levels of study sample are in general agreement with the literature ranges for scalp hair with exception reported for fingernails. It was found that there was no significant difference for arsenic between the two tissues (at P < 0.05). In addition, the value of correlation coefficient (r = 0.804, P = 0.05) was indicated that there is a significant positive correlations for arsenic level between scalp hair and fingernails.

Contour Maps and Evaluation of Groundwater Quality in Karbala Region

Riyadh Jasim Mohammed Al-Saadi

journal of kerbala university, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 204-222

In the current study, the contour maps of contaminants parameters distribution and the analysis of the chemical quality of groundwater in the Karbala region have been carried out to evaluate the suitability of water for drinking and irrigation purposes. The study based on the observed groundwater data of 155 unconfined wells represented the area. These data have been analyzed and contoured for the hydrogen ion concentration (PH), the concentrations of the major cations Na+, Ca+2, Mg+2,K+and the anions SO4-2, Cl-, HCO3-, NO3-, the electrical conductivity (EC), the total dissolved solids (TDS) and the total hardness (TH), and they are compared with WHO and Iraqi standards. Only 140 wells were used for contour maps calibration and the remainder 15 wells were used for verification. The results showed good correlation between the observed and estimated data. The water quality index (WQI) was used to evaluate the groundwater for drinking uses. Based on WQI, it is found that 58.7% of the Karbala groundwater is unsuitable for drinking uses. The assessments were also achieved for the important constituents’ parameters affecting the water quality for irrigation such as the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), the sodium percent (% Na), the permeability index (PI) and the magnesium hazard (MH). A correlation matrix was built to evaluate the degree of correlation between any two chemical parameters. Two methods were applied to evaluate the suitability of Karbala groundwater data for irrigation purposes. The first one is the US salinity diagram (1954) and the second one is the Wilcox classification diagram (1955). Based on USSD, 58.7% of the Karbala groundwater data are classified as (very high salinity hazard – medium sodium (alkali) hazard) (C4-S2). Depending on the WCD, 73.5% of the Karbala groundwater data are found unsuitable for irrigation. According to the mean value of PI and MH, the Karbala groundwater data are found permissible for irrigation purposes.

Epidemiological study of hydatid disease in patients underwent Surgical treatment in Al – Hussain – General Hospital / Karbala

journal of kerbala university, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 87-93

Hydatide disease or hydatidosis is a zoonotic infection of humans , which is widely spreed in world . The disease recorded to be importans public health and epidemic problem that play a serious role on human and animal health . The present study was conducted to determine the incidence of this infection in Karbala governent during the period 2004-2007 . 157 patients who underwent hydatid cyst surgeries in Al – Hussain hospital were enrolled in this study . Demographic information included ( age , sex , occupation , residence ,and anatomical site of infection ) . The results showed that 68.78 % of cases were female while 31.21 % were male . Liver was the most commonly infected organ with prevalance of 68.15 % .The percentage of urban residents 72.38 % in compare with 27.38 % for rural residents . According to occupation , howsewives , were the hieghst prevalance 52.68 % .

Explosive Injuries in Karbala; Abdominal Organs involvement In relation to other body parts

ALI AZEEZ ALI FRCS; ADNAN HELLI CABS AL

journal of kerbala university, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 212-222

Terroristic offences kill or disable people and destroy the infrastructures. Triage and management of the victims are challenge for the health personals and exhaust resources.
Ten percent of the injuries involve the abdominal and thoracic regions. Many of the clinical findings may present lately. Surgical teams should be initiative in dealing with such misshapen. The health personals should have continuous training and concerns, to do the best.
Objectives:
To determine abdominal organ injuries in relation to other body parts involvement, with evaluation of our triage and management system.
Methods:
A dual terrorist explosion violated people in Karbala city on fifth of Jan. 2006. Victims were evacuated and treated in Al Hossain General Hospital, triage was carried out by the clinical teams and marked as four severity scores.
Results:
Victims were 186.Survivors 74%, mortals 26%, arrived Emergency Department (ED) but not admitted cases 57%, admitted cases 43%; simple cases 56%, moderate 18%, severe 22%, and extensive 3.5%. Fifty one percent of the admitted survivors were treated conservatively, 26 (44%) cases needed major operative procedures; 20 laparotomies; 3 of them with no findings. Most common abdominal organ injuries were the small bowel, liver, spleen and colon. There were 24.5% extra bed occupation in the1st week.
Conclusion:
The high Mortality Rate) MR) at the scene was correlating the explosion tactic. The intra hospital MR, in part, depends on the triage, preparedness and facilities. The severity depends on the target organ involvement, and its severity rather than the regional multiplicity. Most traumas were penetrating, without a real barotraumas. Laparotomies highlighted other surgeries; some abdominal trauma entities were unappreciated.
Recommendations include initiation of trauma scoring system; the discharged victims need follow-up, introducing more ED investigations, beds, resources, and transport tools.
Consecutive scenario drills can be invaluable in our health service preparedness

Influence of Gender and Smoking Habit on the Trace Elements Levels of Washed Scalp Hair of a Control Population from Karbala, Iraq

Joda A. Baker; Neil I. Ward

journal of kerbala university, Volume 1, Issue 0, Pages 271-282

Hair samples (n=236) (control or healthy) individuals were collected from Karbala, a city in south-western Iraq. The study population consisted of males (n=196) and females (n=40). All cases were subdivided according to smoking habits (non and active) so as to compare the levels of trace elements in scalp hair in relation to smoking habits. V, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Sr and Cd levels in washed scalp hair were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The validity and accuracy of the methodology were evaluated by using a certified reference material GBW 09101 Human Scalp Hair with an acceptable range for elemental recoveries ranging from 90 to 107 %. The results obtained showed significantly higher mean level (µg/g dry. weight) of Sr (11.58) in the scalp hair when compared with the reference range values for control or healthy individuals reported in different countries (0.06 – 6.31 µg/g). It was found that the mean values of Sr and Co were significantly higher in females than males, whilst the levels of V, Mn, Cu, Zn and Cd were similar (at a probability level p = 0.05). Hair of smokers contained significantly more V, Sr and Cd than the hair of non-smokers (at P = 0.05). The levels of Mn, Co, Cu and Zn were similar in both sub-groups of smoking activity (at P = 0.05).